Cadbury

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Cadbury
Type Cadbury Ltd. (Subsidiary)
Industry Confectionery
Founded Birmingham, United Kingdom (1824)
Headquarters Uxbridge, London, United Kingdom
Key people Irene Rosenfeld
(Chairman and CEO)
Products See list of Cadbury products
Revenue £11,346,002,000 (2011)
Operating income £559,432,200 (2011)
Net income £447,545,760 (2011)
Employees 71,657 (2008)[1]
Parent Kraft Foods (2010-2012)
Mondelēz International (2012-present)
Website www.cadbury.co.uk

Cadbury is a British multinational confectionery company owned by Mondelēz International. It is the second largest confectionery brand in the world after Wrigley's.[2] Cadbury is headquartered in Uxbridge, London, and operates in more than fifty countries worldwide.

Cadbury is best known for its confectionery products including the Dairy Milk chocolate, the Creme Egg, and the Roses selection box.

Cadbury was established in Birmingham in 1824, by John Cadbury who sold tea, coffee and drinking chocolate. Cadbury developed the business with his brother Benjamin, followed by his sons Richard and George. George developed the Bournville estate, a model village designed to give the company's workers improved living conditions. Dairy Milk chocolate, introduced in 1905, used a higher proportion of milk within the recipe compared with rival products. By 1914, the chocolate was the company's best-selling product.

Cadbury merged with J. S. Fry & Sons in 1919, and Schweppes in 1969. Cadbury was a constant constituent of the FTSE 100 from the index's 1984 inception until the company was bought by Kraft Foods in 2010.[3][4]

History[edit]

1824–1900: Early history[edit]

An 1885 advertisement for Cadbury's Cocoa

In 1824, John Cadbury began selling tea, coffee, and drinking chocolate in Bull Street in Birmingham, England.[5] From 1831 he moved into the production of a variety of cocoa and drinking chocolates, made in a factory in Bridge Street and sold mainly to the wealthy because of the high cost of production.[6] In 1847 John Cadbury became a partner with his brother Benjamin and the company became known as "Cadbury Brothers".[6]

The brothers opened an office in London, and in 1854 they received the Royal Warrant as manufacturers of chocolate and cocoa to Queen Victoria. The company went into decline in the late 1850s.[6]

John Cadbury's sons Richard and George took over the business in 1861.[5] At the time of the takeover, the business was in rapid decline: the number of employees had reduced from 20 to 11, and the company was losing money.[5] By 1864 Cadbury was profitable again.[5] The brothers had turned around the business by moving the focus from tea and coffee to chocolate, and by increasing the quality of their products.[5]

The firm's first major breakthrough occurred in 1866 when Richard and George introduced an improved cocoa into Britain.[6] A new cocoa press developed in the Netherlands removed some of the unpalatable cocoa butter from the cocoa bean.[6] The firm began exporting its products in the 1870s.[6] In the 1880s the firm began to produce chocolate confectioneries.[5]

In 1878 the brothers decided to build new premises in countryside four miles from Birmingham.[5] The move to the countryside was unprecedented in business.[5] Better transport access for milk that was inward shipped by canal, and cocoa that was brought in by rail from London, Southampton and Liverpool docks was taken into consideration. With the development of the Birmingham West Suburban Railway along the path of the Worcester and Birmingham Canal, they acquired the Bournbrook estate, comprising 14.5 acres (5.9 ha) of countryside 5 miles (8.0 km) south of the outskirts of Birmingham. Located next Stirchley Street railway station, which itself was opposite the canal, they renamed the estate Bournville and opened the Bournville factory the following year.

In 1893, George Cadbury bought 120 acres (49 ha) of land close to the works and planned, at his own expense, a model village which would 'alleviate the evils of modern more cramped living conditions'. By 1900 the estate included 314 cottages and houses set on 330 acres (130 ha) of land. As the Cadbury family were Quakers there were no pubs in the estate.[5]

In 1897, following the lead of Swiss companies, Cadbury introduced its own line of milk chocolate bars.[7]

In 1899 Cadbury became a private limited company.[7]

1900–1969[edit]

The former Fry's factory in Somerdale_Factory (1921-2010)

In 1905, Cadbury launched its Dairy Milk bar, a production of exceptional quality with a higher proportion of milk than previous chocolate bars.[6] Developed by George Cadbury Jr, it was the first time a British company had been able to mass-produce milk chocolate.[7] From the beginning, it had the distinctive purple wrapper.[7] It was a great sales success, and became the company's best selling product by 1914.[6] The stronger Bournville Cocoa line was introduced in 1906.[6] Cadbury Dairy Milk and Bournville Cocoa were to provide the basis for the company's rapid pre-war expansion.[6] In 1910, Cadbury sales overtook those of Fry for the first time.[7]

Fruit and Nut was introduced as part of the Dairy Milk line in 1928, soon followed by Whole Nut in 1933. By this point, Cadbury was the brand leader in the United Kingdom. These were accompanied by several other products: Flake (1920), Cream-filled eggs (1923), Crunchie (1929) (Crunchie was originally launched under the Fry's name but later adopted by Cadbury's) and Roses (1938).[8]

Cadbury's Milk Tray was first produced in 1915 and continued in production throughout the remainder of the First World War. More than 2,000 of Cadbury's male employees joined the Armed Forces and to support the war effort, Cadbury provided clothing, books and chocolate to soldiers. After the war, the Bournville factory was redeveloped and mass production began in earnest. In 1918, Cadbury opened their first overseas factory in Hobart, Tasmania.

In 1919 Cadbury merged with J. S. Fry & Sons, another leading British chocolate manufacturer, resulting in the integration of well-known brands such as Fry's Chocolate Cream and Fry's Turkish Delight.[6] In 1921, the many small Fry's factories around Bristol were closed down, and production was consolidated at a new factory in Somerdale Factory, outside Bristol.[7]

By 1930 Cadbury had become the 24th largest British manufacturing company as measured by estimated market value of capital.[6] Cadbury took direct control of the under-performing Fry in 1935.[7] By 1936, Dairy Milk accounted for 60 percent of the UK milk chocolate market.[7]

Chocolate ceased to be a luxury product and became affordable to the working classes for the first time.[7] By the mid-1930s, Cadbury estimated that 90 percent of the British population could afford to buy chocolate.[9]

During World War II, parts of the Bournville factory were turned over to war work, producing milling machines and seats for fighter aircraft. Workers ploughed football fields to plant crops. As chocolate was regarded as an essential food, it was placed under government supervision for the entire war. The wartime rationing of chocolate ended in 1950, and normal production resumed. Cadbury subsequently invested in new factories and had an increasing demand for their products.[10] In 1952 the Moreton factory was built.[11]

In 1967 Cadbury acquired an Australian confectioner, MacRobertson's, beating a rival bid from Mars.[12] As a result of the takeover, Cadbury built a 60 percent market share in the Australian market.[12]

Schweppes merger (1969)[edit]

The Cadbury Schweppes logo used until the demerger in 2008

Cadbury merged with drinks company Schweppes to form Cadbury Schweppes in 1969.[13] Head of Schweppes, Lord Watkinson, became chairman, and Adrian Cadbury became deputy chairman and managing director.[13] The benefits of the merger were to prove elusive.[14]

The merger put an end to Cadbury's close links to its Quaker founding family and its perceived social ethos by instilling a capitalist venturer philosophy in management.[15]

In 1978 the company acquired Peter Paul, the third largest chocolate manufacturer in the United States for $58 million, which gave it a 10 percent share of the world's largest confectionery market.[16] The highly successful Wispa chocolate bar was launched in the North East of England in 1981, and nationwide in 1984.[17] In 1982, trading profits were greater outside of Britain than in the UK for the first time.[14]

In 1986, Cadbury Schweppes sold its Beverages and Foods division to a management buyout known as Premier Brands for £97 million.[18] This saw the company divest itself of such brands as Typhoo Tea, Kenco, Smash and Hartley Chivers jam.[18] The deal also saw Premier take the license for production of Cadbury brand biscuits and drinking chocolate.[18]

Meanwhile, Schweppes switched its alliance in the UK from Pepsi to Coca-Cola, taking a 51 percent stake in the joint venture Coca-Cola Schweppes.[18] The acquisition of Canada Dry doubled its worldwide drinks market share, and it took a 30 percent stake in Dr Pepper.[18] As a result of these acquisitions, Cadbury Schweppes became the third largest soft drinks manufacturer in the world.[18]

Snapple, Mistic and Stewart's (formerly Cable Car Beverage) were sold by Triarc to Cadbury Schweppes in 2000 for $1.45  billion.[19] In October of that same year, Cadbury Schweppes purchased Royal Crown from Triarc.[20]

Schweppes demerger[edit]

In March 2007, it was revealed that Cadbury Schweppes was planning to split its business into two separate entities: one focusing on its main chocolate and confectionery market; the other on its US drinks business.[21] The demerger took effect on 2 May 2008, with the drinks business becoming Dr Pepper Snapple Group.[22] In December 2008 it was announced that Cadbury was to sell its Australian beverage unit to Asahi Breweries.[23]

2003 Name rebrand[edit]

In 2003, Cadbury dropped the 's' from its name and renamed the brand to Cadbury. The reason behind this change was because the company found that it was a much more suited, rounded name than the previous "Cadbury's". This change was officially announced on the 19th of December, 2002.[citation needed]

2007–2010[edit]

In October 2007, Cadbury announced the closure of the Somerdale Factory, Keynsham, formerly part of Fry's. Between 500 and 700 jobs were affected by this change. Production transferred to other plants in England and Poland.[24]

In 2008 Monkhill Confectionery, the Own Label trading division of Cadbury Trebor Bassett was sold to Tangerine Confectionery for £58 million cash. This sale included factories at Pontefract, Cleckheaton and York and a distribution centre near Chesterfield, and the transfer of around 800 employees.[25]

In mid-2009 Cadbury replaced some of the cocoa butter in their non-UK chocolate products with palm oil. Despite stating this was a response to consumer demand to improve taste and texture, there was no "new improved recipe" claim placed on New Zealand labels. Consumer backlash was significant from environmentalists and chocolate lovers. By August 2009, the company announced that it was reverting to the use of cocoa butter in New Zealand.[26] In addition, they would source cocoa beans through Fair Trade channels.[27] In January 2010 prospective buyer Kraft pledged to honour Cadbury's commitment.[28]

Acquisition by Kraft Foods[edit]

On 7 September 2009 Kraft Foods made a £10.2 billion (US$16.2 billion) indicative takeover bid for Cadbury. The offer was rejected, with Cadbury stating that it undervalued the company.[29] Kraft launched a formal, hostile bid for Cadbury valuing the firm at £9.8 billion on 9 November 2009.[30] Business Secretary Peter Mandelson warned Kraft not to try to "make a quick buck" from the acquisition of Cadbury.[31]

On 19 January 2010, it was announced that Cadbury and Kraft Foods had reached a deal and that Kraft would purchase Cadbury for £8.40 per share, valuing Cadbury at £11.5bn (US$18.9bn). Kraft, which issued a statement stating that the deal will create a "global confectionery leader", had to borrow £7 billion (US$11.5bn) in order to finance the takeover.[32]

The Hershey Company, based in Pennsylvania, manufactures and distributes Cadbury-branded chocolate (but not its other confectionery) in the United States and has been reported to share Cadbury's "ethos".[33] Hershey had expressed an interest in buying Cadbury because it would broaden its access to faster-growing international markets.[34] But on 22 January 2010, Hershey announced that it would not counter Kraft's final offer.[35][36][37]

The acquisition of Cadbury faced widespread disapproval from the British public, as well as groups and organisations including trade union Unite,[38] who fought against the acquisition of the company which, according to Prime Minister Gordon Brown, was very important to the British economy.[39] Unite estimated that a takeover by Kraft could put 30,000 jobs "at risk",[33][40][41] and UK shareholders protested over the mergers and acquisitions advisory fees charged by banks. Cadbury's M&A advisers were UBS, Goldman Sachs and Morgan Stanley.[42][43][44] Controversially, RBS, a bank 84% owned by the United Kingdom Government, funded the Kraft takeover.[45][46]

On 2 February 2010, Kraft secured over 71% of Cadbury's shares thus finalising the deal.[47] Kraft had needed to reach 75% of the shares in order to be able to delist Cadbury from the stock market and fully integrate it as part of Kraft. This was achieved on 5 February 2010, and the company announced that Cadbury shares would be de-listed on 8 March 2010.[48]

On 3 February 2010, the Chairman Roger Carr, chief executive Todd Stitzer and chief financial officer Andrew Bonfield[49] all announced their resignations. Stitzer had worked at the company for 27 years.[50]

On 9 February 2010, Kraft announced that they were planning to close the Somerdale Factory, Keynsham, with the loss of 400 jobs.[51] The management explained that existing plans to move production to Poland were too advanced to be realistically reversed, though assurances had been given regarding sustaining the plant. Staff at Keynsham criticised this move, suggesting that they felt betrayed and as if they have been "sacked twice".[52] On 22 April 2010, Phil Rumbol, the man behind the famous Gorilla advertisement, announced his plans to leave the Cadbury company in July following Kraft's takeover.[53]

In June 2010 the Polish division, Cadbury-Wedel, was sold to Lotte of Korea. The European Commission made the sale a condition of the Kraft takeover. As part of the deal Kraft will keep the Cadbury, Hall's and other brands along with two plants in Skarbimierz. Lotte will take over the plant in Warsaw along with the E Wedel brand.[54]

On 4 August 2011, Kraft Foods announced they would be splitting into two companies beginning on 1 October 2012. The confectionery business of Kraft became Mondelēz International, of which Cadbury is a subsidiary.

Operations[edit]

Head office[edit]

As of 2013 Cadbury operates its head office at the Cadbury House in the Uxbridge Business Park in Uxbridge, London Borough of Hillingdon, England.[55] The building occupies 84,000 square feet (7,800 m2) of space inside Building 3 of the business park.[56] Cadbury, which leases space in the building it occupies, had relocated from central London to its current head office.[57]

Cadbury previously maintained its head office was at 25 Berkeley Square in Mayfair, City of Westminster. In 1992 the company leased the space for £55 per 1 square foot (0.093 m2).[56] In 2002 the company agreed to pay £68.75 per square foot. The Daily Telegraph reported in 2007 that the rent was expected[by whom?] to increase to a "three-figure sum". In 2007 Cadbury Schweppes had announced that it would move to Uxbridge to cut costs. As of that year the head office had 200 employees.[58] After Kraft Foods acquired Cadbury, Kraft announced that the Cadbury head office would remain the "Cadbury House".[59]

Production sites[edit]

Bournville[edit]

Bourneville employs almost 1000 people.[60] In 2014 Mondelez announced a £75 million investment in the site.[61]

Bourneville is home to Mondelez's Global Centre of Excellence for Chocolate research and development, so every new chocolate product created by the company anywhere in the world starts life at the Birmingham plant.[62]

Markets[edit]

United Kingdom[edit]

Cadbury
Founded 1824
Headquarters Bournville, Birmingham, England

The confectionery business in the UK is called Cadbury (formerly Cadbury Trebor Bassett) and, as of August 2004, had eight factories and 3,000 staff in the UK. Biscuits bearing the Cadbury brand, such as Cadbury Fingers, are produced under licence by Burton's Foods. Cadbury also owns Trebor Bassett, Fry's. Maynards

Ice cream based on Cadbury products, like 99 Flake, is made under licence by Frederick's Dairies. Cadbury cakes and chocolate spread are manufactured under licence by Premier Foods, but the cakes were originally part of Cadbury Foods Ltd with factories at Blackpole in Worcester and Moreton on the Wirral, with distribution depots throughout the UK.

Other Kraft subsidiaries in the UK include: Cadbury Two LLP, Cadbury UK Holdings Limited, Cadbury US Holdings Limited, Cadbury Four LLP, Cadbury Holdings Limited, and Cadbury One LLP.

Ireland[edit]

Cadbury
Founded 1932
Headquarters Coolock, Dublin, Ireland

Cadbury Ireland Limited is based in Coolock in Dublin. Cadbury opened their first Irish factory in Ossary RD., Dublin in 1933, when the company manufactured and sold just three products. Today, it exports over 200 of its products to 30 countries worldwide, making a contribution of €110 million of Irish trade. Cadbury Ireland uses local ingredients. More than €250 million worth of Cadbury chocolate is produced in Ireland, is exported every year, bringing Irish valuable earnings from abroad.

Cadbury Ireland operates three factories in Ireland with two in Dublin, in Coolock (where the headquarters of Cadbury Ireland are located) and Tallaght. The third is in Rathmore, County Kerry. Products made by Cadbury in Ireland include Cadbury Dairy Milk, Wispa, Flake, and Crunchie.

United States[edit]

Cadbury
Founded December 2002
Headquarters Parsippany-Troy Hills, New Jersey, United States
Products Trident, Certs, Chiclets, Halls (cough drop)

Cadbury Adams produces candy, gum, breath mints and cough drops. It is headquartered in Parsippany, New Jersey. The company was formed after the then Cadbury Schweppes purchased the Adams brand from Pfizer in December 2002 for US$4.2 billion.

American Chicle was purchased by Warner-Lambert in 1962; Warner-Lambert renamed the unit Adams in 1997 and merged with Pfizer in 2000.

Cadbury merged with Peter Paul in 1978.[63] Ten years later, The Hershey Company acquired the chocolate business from Cadbury.[63] Accordingly, although the Cadbury group's chocolate products have been sold in the US since 1988, the products are manufactured by Hershey. Before the May 2008 demerger, the North American business also contained beverage unit Cadbury Schweppes Americas Beverages. In 1982, Cadbury Schweppes purchased the Duffy-Mott Company.[64]

Cadbury Adams' products include:

Australia and New Zealand[edit]

Cadbury operates three Australian factories as well as one in New Zealand; two in Melbourne, Victoria (Ringwood and Scoresby), one in Hobart, Tasmania (Claremont), and one in Dunedin, New Zealand. The Claremont factory was once a popular tourist attraction and operated daily tours; however, the factory ceased running full tours mid-2008, citing health and safety reasons.[65] Cadbury has been upgrading its manufacturing facility at Claremont, Tasmania, Australia, since 2001 [66]

On 27 February 2009 the confectionery and beverages businesses of Cadbury Schweppes in, Australia were formally separated and the beverages business began operating as Schweppes Australia Pty Ltd. In April 2009, Schweppes Australia was acquired by Asahi Breweries.[67]

In late June 2012, Cadbury introduced Marvellous Creations a new chocolate range with three flavours - Peanut Toffee Cookie, Jelly Crunchie Bits or Jelly Popping Candy Beanies covered in Dairy Milk Chocolate.[68]

Canada[edit]

Cadbury Canada produces and/or imports several products that are sold under the Cadbury and Maynards labels, including the following:

India[edit]

Cadbury
Founded 19 July 1948
Headquarters Mumbai, India
Key people Anand Kripalu, Managing Director[69]
Products Cadbury Dairy Milk, 5-star, Perk, Gems, Eclairs, Oreo and Bournvita
Employees 2000

Cadbury India began its operations in India in 1948 by importing chocolates. It now has manufacturing facilities in Thane, Induri (Pune) and Malanpur (Gwalior), Hyderabad, Bangalore and Baddi (Himachal Pradesh) and sales offices in New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai. The corporate head office is in Mumbai. The head office is presently situated at Pedder Road, Mumbai, under the name of "Cadbury House:. This monumental structure at Pedder Road has been a landmark for the citizens of Mumbai since its creation. Since 1965 Cadbury has also pioneered the development of cocoa cultivation in India. For over two decades, Cadbury has worked with the Kerala Agricultural University to undertake cocoa research.[70][71]

Cadbury was incorporated in India on 19 July 1948. Currently, Cadbury India operates in five categories – Chocolate confectionery, Beverages, Biscuits, Gum and Candy. Some of the key brands are Cadbury Dairy Milk, Bournvita, 5 Star, Perk, Bournville, Celebrations, Gems, Halls, Éclairs, Bubbaloo, Tang and Oreo. Its products include Cadbury Dairy Milk, Dairy Milk Silk, Bournville, 5-Star, Temptations, Perk, Gems (a version of M&M's), Eclairs, Bournvita,[72] Celebrations, Bilkul [73] Cadbury Dairy Milk Shots, Toblerone, Halls, Tang and Oreo.

It is the market leader in the chocolate confectionery business with a market share of over 70%.[74]

Advertising[edit]

The Cadbury signature logo is derived from the signature of William Cadbury.[75] It was adopted as the worldwide logo in the 1970s.[75]

Executive pay[edit]

In 2008 Todd Stitzer, Cadbury's CEO, was paid a £2,665,000 bonus. Combined with his annual salary of £985,000 and other payments of £448,000 this gives a total remuneration of over £4 million.[76]

Accounting[edit]

In July 2007, Cadbury Schweppes announced that it would be outsourcing its transactional accounting and order capture functions to Shared Business Services (SBS) centres run by a company called Genpact, (a businesses services provider) in India, China, and Romania. This was to affect all business units and be associated with U. S. and UK functions being transferred to India by the end of 2007, with all units transferred by mid-2009. Depending on the success of this move, other accounting Human Resources functions may follow. This development is likely to lead to the loss of several hundred jobs worldwide, but also to several hundred jobs being created, at lower salaries commensurate with wages paid in developing countries.[77]

Products[edit]

Major chocolate brands produced by Cadbury include the bars Dairy Milk, Crunchie, Caramel, Wispa, Boost, Picnic, Flake, Curly Wurly, Chomp, and Fudge; chocolate Buttons; the boxed chocolate brand Milk Tray; and the twist-wrapped chocolates Heroes.

As well as Cadbury's chocolate, the company also owns Maynards and Halls, and is associated with several types of confectionery including former Trebor and Bassett's brands or products such as Liquorice Allsorts, Jelly Babies, Flumps, Mints, Black Jack chews, Trident gum, and Softmints.

Notable product introductions include:

Recent health and safety controversies[edit]

2006 Salmonella scare[edit]

On 19 January 2006, Cadbury Schweppes detected a rare strain of the Salmonella bacteria, affecting seven of its products, said to have been caused by a leaking pipe. The leak occurred at its Marlbrook plant, in Herefordshire, which produces chocolate crumb mixture; the mixture is then transported to factories at Bournville and formerly Somerdale to be turned into milk chocolate.[79]

It was not until around six months after the leak was detected that Cadbury Schweppes officially notified the Food Standards Agency, shortly after which it recalled more than a million chocolate bars.[79]

In December 2006, the company announced that the cost of dealing with the contamination would reach £30  million.[80][81]

In April 2007, Birmingham City Council announced that it would be prosecuting Cadbury Schweppes in relation to three alleged offences of breaching food safety legislation. At that time, the Health Protection Agency identified 31 people who had been infected with Salmonella Montevideo. One of the alleged victims had to be kept on a hospital isolation ward for five days after eating a Cadbury's caramel bar.[82] An investigation being carried out at that time by Herefordshire Council led to a further six charges being brought.[80] The company pleaded guilty to all nine charges,[83][84] and was fined one million pounds at Birmingham Crown Court—the sentencing of both cases was brought together.[85] Analysts have said the fine is not material to the group, with mitigating factors limiting the fine being that the company quickly admitted its guilt and said it had been mistaken that the infection did not pose a threat to health.[85]

2007 recalls[edit]

On 10 February 2007, Cadbury announced they would be recalling a range of products due to a labelling error. The products were produced in a factory handling nuts, potential allergens, but this was not made clear on the packaging. As a precaution, all items were recalled.[86]

On 14 September 2007, Cadbury Schweppes investigated a manufacturing error over allergy warning, recalling for the second time in two years thousands of chocolate bars. A printing mistake at Somerdale Factory resulted in the omission of tree nut allergy labels from 250  g Dairy Milk Double Chocolate bars.[87]

2008[edit]

On 29 September 2008 Cadbury withdrew all of its 11 chocolate products made in its three Beijing factories, on suspicion of contamination with melamine. The recall affected the mainland China markets, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Australia.[88] Products recalled included Dark Chocolate, a number of products in the 'Dairy Milk' range and Chocolate Éclairs.[89]

2009 Hydrogenation[edit]

Cadbury continues to use hydrogenated oils in many of its signature products. Although trans fats are present, the nutrition labels round the values down to zero.[90]

See also[edit]

General:

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Further reading[edit]

  • Bradley, John (2008). Cadbury's Purple Reign: The Story Behind Chocolate's Best-Loved Brand. John Wiley and Sons Ltd. ISBN 978-0-470-72524-5. 
  • Cadbury, Deborah (2010). Chocolate Wars: The 150-Year Rivalry Between the World's Greatest Chocolate Makers. PublicAffairs. ISBN 978-1-58648-820-8. 

External links[edit]