Caddo Nation flag
|5,290 alone and in combination|
|Regions with significant populations|
| United States
(currently Oklahoma, formerly Arkansas, Louisiana, Texas)
|dialects of Caddo and English|
|Native American Church, Christianity|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Nabedache, Nabiti, Nacogdoche, Nadaco, Nanatsoho, Nasoni, Natchitoches, Nechaui, Neche, Ouachita, Tula, Yatasi|
The Caddo Nation is a confederacy of several Southeastern Native American tribes, who traditionally inhabited much of what is now East Texas, northern Louisiana and portions of southern Arkansas and Oklahoma. Today the Caddo Nation of Oklahoma is a single federally recognized tribe with its capital at Binger, Oklahoma. The different Caddo languages have converged into a single language.
Government and civic institutions
The Caddo Nation was previously known as the Caddo Tribe of Oklahoma. The tribal constitution provides for an eight-person council, with a chairperson, based in Binger, Oklahoma. The tribal complex, dance grounds, and the Caddo Heritage Museum are located south of Binger. As of 2012, 5,757 people are enrolled in the nation, with 3,044 living within the state of Oklahoma. The tribe operates its own housing authority and issues its own tribal vehicle tags. It maintains administrative centers, dance grounds, several community centers, and an active NAGPRA office.
Several programs exist to invigorate Caddo traditions. The tribe sponsors a summer culture camp for children. The Hasinai Society and Caddo Culture Club both keep Caddo songs and dances alive. The Kiwat Hasinay Foundation is dedicated to preserving and increasing use of the Caddoan language.
- Chairperson: Tammy Francis-Fourkiller
- Vice-Chairperson: Carol Ross
- Secretary: Jennifer Reeder
- Treasurer: Wiladena Moffeler
- Representative, Fort Cobb: Maureen "Mo" Owings
- Representative, Anadarko: Anthony Cotter
- Representative, Binger: Travis Threlkeld
- Representative, Oklahoma City: Tracy Newkumet Burrows
The Caddo are thought to be an extension of Woodland period peoples, the Fourche Maline culture and Mossy Grove cultures who were living in the area of Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas between 200 BCE to 800 CE. The Wichita and Pawnee are related to the Caddo, as shown by their speaking Caddoan languages.
By 800 CE this society had begun to coalesce into the Caddoan Mississippian culture. Some villages began to gain prominence as ritual centers, where major earthworks were built to serve as places of temple mounds and elite residences. The mounds were arranged around open plazas, which were usually kept swept clean and were often used for ceremonial occasions. As complex religious and social ideas developed, some people and family lineages gained prominence over others. By 1000 CE a society that is defined as "Caddoan" had emerged. By 1200 the many villages, hamlets, and farmsteads established throughout the Caddo world had begun extensive maize agriculture. Their artistic skills and earthwork mound-building flourished during the 12th and 13th centuries.
The Spiro mounds of present-day southeastern Oklahoma near the Arkansas River, were some of the most elaborate mounds in the United States. They were made by ancestors of the historic Caddo and Wichita tribes, in what is considered the westernmost point of the Mississippian culture. The Caddo were farmers and enjoyed good growing conditions most of the time. But, the Piney Woods, the geographic area where they lived, was affected by the Great Drought, from 1276–1299 CE.
Archeological evidence has confirmed that the cultural continuity is unbroken from prehistory to the present among these peoples. These Caddoan Mississippian people were the direct ancestors of the historic Caddo and related Caddo language speakers who encountered the first Europeans, as well as of the modern Caddo Nation of Oklahoma.
Caddo oral history of their creation story says the tribe emerged from an underground cave, called Chahkanina or "the place of crying," located at the confluence of the Red and Mississippi Rivers in northern Louisiana. Their leader, named Moon, instructed the people not to look back. An old Caddo man carried with him a drum, a pipe, and fire, all of which continued to be important religious items. His wife carried corn and pumpkin seeds. As people and accompanying animals emerged, the wolf looked back and the exit closed to the remaining people and animals.
The Caddo peoples moved west along the Red River, known as Bah'hatteno in Caddo. A Caddo woman, Zacado, instructed the tribe in hunting, fishing, home construction, and clothing. Caddo religion focuses on Kadhi háyuh, translating to "Lord Above" or "Lord of the Sky." In early times, the people were led by priests, including a head priest, the xinesi, who could commune with spirits residing near Caddo temples. A cycle of ceremonies corresponded to corn cultivation. Tobacco was and is used ceremonially. Early priests drank a purifying sacrament made of wild olive leaves.
The Caddo lived in the Piney Woods eco-region of the United States, which is now in areas known as East Texas, southern Arkansas, western Louisiana, and southeastern Oklahoma. The region extends up to the foothills of the Ozark Mountains and the people often settled near the Caddo River. The Piney Woods is a dense forest of deciduous and conifer flora covering rolling hills, steep river valleys, and intermittent wetlands called Bayous. Several former Caddo villages were settled by European colonists, including the community of Elysian Fields, and Nacogdoches, Texas, and Natchitoches, Louisiana, where a fort was built as an early French trading post. In the latter two towns, early explorers and settlers kept the Caddoan names.
The Caddo were progressively forced west by European encroachment until they reached what is now western Oklahoma. The geography of the drier plains was a harsh contrast to the lush hilly forests that were formerly their homeland. The Caddo people had a diet based on cultivated staples, particularly maize. Sunflower seeds and pumpkins, as well as other types of squash, were also important staples with cultural significance, as were wild turkeys.
The Caddo first encountered Europeans in 1541 when the Hernando de Soto Expedition came through their lands. De Soto's force had a violent clash with one band of Caddo Indians, the Tula, near Caddo Gap, Arkansas. This event is marked by a monument that stands in the small town today.
The Caddo tribes were associated in three confederacies when first encountered by the Europeans, the Natchitoches, Hasinai, and Kadohadacho, and were loosely affiliated with other neighboring tribes. The Natchitoches lived in now northern Louisiana and were encountered by French explorers in the early 1700s. The Haisinai lived in East Texas, and the Kadohadacho lived near the border of Texas, Oklahoma, and Arkansas.
Missionaries from Spain and France traveled among the people. They carried infectious diseases such as smallpox. As the Caddoan peoples had no acquired immunity to such new diseases, which were endemic in Europe and Asia, they suffered epidemics with high fatalities that decimated the population. Measles, influenza, and malaria similarly devastated the Caddo.
Before extensive European contact, some of the Caddo territory was invaded by migrating Osage, Ponca, Omaha and Kaw, who had moved west beginning about 1200 CE due of years of warfare with the Iroquois in the Ohio River area of present-day Kentucky. The Osage particularly dominated the Caddo and pushed them out of some former territory, becoming dominant in the region of Missouri, Arkansas, Kansas and Oklahoma. The new tribes had become well settled in their new traditional grounds west of the Mississippi by mid-18th century European contact.
Having given way over years before the power of the former Ohio Valley tribes, the Caddo later negotiated for place with Spanish, French, and finally Anglo-American settlers. After the 1803 Louisiana Purchase, the United States government sought to ally with the Caddo peoples. During the War of 1812, American generals such as William Henry Harrison, William Clark (explorer), and Andrew Jackson had crushed pro-British Indian uprisings. Due to the Caddo's neutrality and their importance as a source of information for the Louisiana government, they were left alone until the 1830s.
In 1835 the Kadohadacho, the northernmost Caddo confederacy, signed a treaty with the US to relocate to Mexico (east Texas). This area became rapidly transformed by greatly increased immigration of European Americans, who in 1836 declared independence from Mexico with the Republic of Texas. "Texas" comes from the Hasinai word táysha?, meaning "friend."
In 1845 when Texas was admitted to the US as a state, the government forced the relocation of both the Hasinai and the Kadohadacho onto the Brazos Reservation. In 1859 many of the Caddo were relocated to Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River. After the Civil War, the Caddo were concentrated on a reservation located between the Washita and Canadian rivers in Indian Territory.
In the late 19th century, the Caddo took up the Ghost Dance religion, which was widespread among American Indian nations in the West. John Wilson, a Caddo-Delaware medicine man who spoke only Caddo, was an influential leader in the Ghost Dance. In 1880, Wilson became a peyote roadman. The tribe had known the Half Moon peyote ceremony, but Wilson introduced the Big Moon ceremony to them. The Caddo tribe remains very active in the Native American Church today.
Late 19th century to present
Congress passed the Dawes Act to support assimilation of tribes in Indian Territory. It authorized distribution of tribal communal landholdings into allotments for individual households so they could establish subsistence farms. Lands remaining were to be declared "surplus" and sold to non-Native Americans. The allotment system was intended to extinguish tribal Native American land claims in order to admit Oklahoma as a state and assimilate Native Americans into majority culture. The Caddo vigorously opposed allotment. Whitebread, a Caddo leader, said, that "because of their peaceful lives and friendship to the white man, and through their ignorance were not consulted, and have been ignored and stuck away in a corner and allowed to exist by sufferance." Tribal governments were dismantled at this time, and Native Americans were expected to act as state and US citizens. After some period, the adverse effects of these changes were recognized, as Caddo and other Native Americans suffered the loss of their lands and breakup of their traditional cultures.
Under the federal Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 and the Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act of 1936, the Caddo restored their tribal government, while adopting a written constitution and a process of electing officials. They organized in 1938 as the Caddo Indian Tribe of Oklahoma. They ratified their constitution on 17 January 1938. In 1976, they drafted a new constitution which continues elected representative government. During the 20th century, Caddo leaders such as Melford Williams, Harry Guy, Hubert Halfmoon, and Vernon Hunter have shaped the tribe.
There have sometimes been severe disagreements among tribal members that are not resolved in elections. In August 2013, a group led by Philip Smith attempted to recall Brenda Shemayme Edwards, the Chairman of the Tribal Council. This faction conducted a new election but the victor stepped down, and Edwards refused to leave office. In October 2013 Philip Smith and his supporters broke into the Caddo Nation headquarters. They chained the front doors from the inside and blocked off the entrance to the administration building. The Bureau of Indian Affairs Police were called.
Operation of the tribe was split among two factions. The Court of Indian Offenses, which had been overseeing issues for a year because of the internal conflict, in October 2014 ordered a new election for all positions.,
- T. C. Cannon, Kiowa-Caddo artist
- LaRue Parker, former tribal chairperson
- Jeri Redcorn, Caddo-Potawatomi potter
- John Wilson, peyote roadman
- Caddoan village bundle
- Caddo Lake
- Dush-toh, traditional Caddo women's hair ornament
- List of sites and peoples visited by the Hernando de Soto Expedition
- Spiro Mounds
- "Census 2010". census.gov. Retrieved 2015.
- Constitution and By-Laws of the Caddo Indian Tribe of Oklahoma. National Tribal Justice Resource Center. (retrieved 13 September 2009)
- 2011 Oklahoma Indian Nations Pocket Pictorial Directory. Oklahoma Indian Affairs Commission. 2011: 7. Retrieved 2 Jan 2012.
- Hasinai Summer Youth Camp. Hasinai Society. 2008 (retrieved 13 Sept 2009)
- General Information. Hasinai Society. 2008 (retrieved 13 Sept 2009)
- Edge, Donald. Caddo Culture Club. Caddo Nation: Heritage and Culture. (retrieved 13 Sept 2009)
- Background. Kiwat Hasinay Foundation.(retrieved 13 Sept 2009)
- "Tejas-Caddo Fundamentals-Caddo Timeline". Retrieved 2010-02-04.
- Carter, 17=8
- Fforde et al, 154
- Great Drought. (2008). Encyclopædia Britannica. (Retrieved September 30, 2008). Encyclopædia Britannica Online
- "Tejas-Caddo Fundamentals-Caddoan Languages and Peoples". Retrieved 2010-02-04.
- Sturtevant, 625
- Meredith, Howard. "Caddo (Kadohadacho)." Oklahoma Historical Society's Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture. (retrieved 13 Sept 2009)
- Sturtevant, 626
- Sturtevant, 619
- Sturtevant, 616–617
- Peter Kastor, The Nation's Crucible: The Louisiana Purchase and the Creation of America,(New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004) 159-160.
- Bolton 2002:63–64
- Stewart, 86–88
- Caddo Nation Constitutional Amendments. Caddo Nation. (retrieved 14 Sept 2009)
- M. Scott Carpenter, "Caddo Nation fight stops tribal government", The Journal Record, 1 October 2013, retrieved 10 Oct 2013 (subscription required)
- "Caddo Nation told to prepare for new election for all positions", Indianz.com, 7 October 2014
- Scott Rains, "Caddo Tribe To Get New Leadership", The Lawton Constitution, 10 October 2014, retrieved 2 Feb 2015
- Bolton, Herbet E. The Hasinais: Southern Caddoans As Seen by the Earliest Europeans. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2002. ISBN 978-0-8061-3441-3.
- Carter, Cecile Elkins. Caddo Indians: Where We Come From. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8061-3318-X
- Fford, Cressida, Jane Hubert, and Paul Turnbull. The Dead and their Possessions: Repatriation in Principle, Policy and Practice. New York: Routledge, 2004. ISBN 978-0-415-34449-4.
- Stewart, Omer Call. Peyote Religion: A History. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1993. ISBN 978-0-8061-2457-5.
- Sturtevant, William C., general editor and Raymond D. Fogelson, volume editor. Handbook of North American Indians: Southeast. Volume 14. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution, 2004. ISBN 0-16-072300-0.
- Dorsey, George Amos. Traditions of the Caddo. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997. ISBN 0-8032-6602-2
- LaVere, David. The Caddo Chiefdoms: Caddo Economics and Politics, 1700–1835. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1998. ISBN 0-8032-2927-5
- Newkumet, Vynola Beaver and Howard L. Meredith. Hasinai: A Traditional History of the Caddo People. College Station: Texas A&M Press, 1988. ISBN 0-89096-342-8
- Perttula, Timothy K. The Caddo Nation: Archaeological and Ethnohistoric Perspectives. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1997. ISBN 0-292-76574-6
- Smith, F. Todd. The Caddo Indians: Tribes at the Convergence of Empires, 1542–1854. College Station: Texas A&M Press, 1995. ISBN 0-89096-981-7
- Swanton, John R. "Source Material on the History and Ethnology of the Caddo Indians." Bureau of American Ethnology. Bulletin 132. (1942) ASIN B000NLBAPK
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Caddo.|
- Caddo Nation of Oklahoma, official website
- Caddo Heritage Museum
- Kiwat Hasinay Foundation – Caddo Language for Caddo People
- Caddo Legacy from Caddo People, arts and humanities
- Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture – Caddo (Kadohadacho)