Cadillac ELR

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Cadillac ELR
2014 Cadillac ELR trimmed.jpg
2014 Cadillac ELR
Overview
Manufacturer General Motors
Production 2013–[1]
Model years 2014–
Assembly United States: Detroit, Michigan (Detroit/Hamtramck Assembly)[2]
Designer
  • Exterior: Tim Kozub
  • Interior: Keith Fisher
[3]
Body and chassis
Class Compact car[2]
Body style 2-door coupé
Layout Transverse front-engine, front-wheel drive[2]
Platform GM Delta II / GM Voltec[4]
Related
Powertrain
Engine 1398 cc EcoFLEX LUU I4 (gasoline)[2]
Transmission CVT Voltec 4ET50 multi-mode electric transaxle[2]
Hybrid drivetrain Series hybrid[5]
Battery 16.5 kWh lithium-ion battery[2]
Range 340 mi (550 km)(EPA)[6]
Electric range 37 mi (60 km) (EPA)[6]
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,695 mm (106.1 in)[2]
Length 4,724 mm (186.0 in)[2]
Width 1,847 mm (72.7 in)[2]
Height 1,420 mm (55.9 in)[2]
Curb weight 1,846 kg (4,070 lb)[2]

The Cadillac ELR is a luxury plug-in hybrid compact coupé developed and manufactured by General Motors.[7] The ELR powertrain is a re-tuned version of the propulsion system used in the Chevrolet Volt.[4] The ELR's 16.5 kWh lithium-ion battery pack delivers an all-electric range of 37 miles (60 km) and a top speed of 106 mph (171 km/h).[6][8] Deliveries to retail customers in the United States and Canada began in December 2013.[9]

General Motors debuted the concept car that would become the ELR, the Cadillac Converj, at the 2009 North American International Auto Show. The production version was unveiled four years later at the 2013 North American International Auto Show.[10][11]

Development[edit]

The Cadillac Converj concept debuted in January, 2009 at the North American International Auto Show.
The Cadillac Converj concept viewed from the rear

General Motors debuted the Cadillac Converj concept, the car that would eventually become the 2014 Cadillac ELR, in January, 2009 at the North American International Auto Show.[12]

In April 2009 Motor Trend reported that General Motors had approved the production version of Cadillac Converj in 2011 as 2012 model year vehicle.[13] However, GM refuted this report and stated that the Converj was "a concept vehicle undergoing a review".[14] An August 2009 BusinessWeek report stated that GM Vice Chairman Robert Lutz wanted to see the Converj go to production, possibly as early as 2014,[15] and it was reported that while delivering the keynote speech at the 46th annual Northwood Auto Show Lutz "hinted that an announcement on production for the well-received Cadillac Converj concept car may be forthcoming."[16] At the 2010 North American International Auto Show, Lutz told the Society of Automotive Analysts “The Cadillac Converj is cleared for production,” but that "It won’t be next year or the year after that.”[17] Despite these statements, in March 2010, Bloomberg BusinessWeek reported that GM decided to end work on the Converj, because the Converj "couldn’t have enough amenities and electric range to be compelling to buyers and produce a profit".[18]

General Motors reversed its decision to cancel the project in August 2011 and announced that the Converj concept would go into production as the Cadillac ELR at a price less than the US$57,400 Tesla Model S, but did not provide details on performance or timing. General Motors stated that the ELR would be about the same size as the Chevrolet Volt and produced in the same facility.[19][20] Within the framework of GM's vehicle electrification strategy,[21] the Cadillac ELR is after the Chevrolet Volt EREV and Spark EV the third electrically powered passenger car by General Motors in the U.S. since the EV1 was discontinued: In contrast to pure battery EV protagonists, like e.g. Tesla Motors, GM focuses for the long-range application on extended-range EV technology.

General Motors began testing ELR prototypes in mid-2012.[22][23] The production version was unveiled at the 2013 North American International Auto Show.[11]

Specifications[edit]

U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu discusses the features of the 2014 Cadillac ELR exhibited at the 2013 Washington Auto Show.

The ELR is built upon the GM Delta II platform and incorporates a version of the Voltec[4] propulsion system used in the Chevrolet Volt. The Voltec propulsion system includes a 119-135 kilowatt electric motor, a four-cylinder engine-generator and a 16.5 kWh lithium-ion battery pack. The ELR has an official all-electric range of 37 miles (60 km) and a total range of 340 mi (550 km), as rated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).[6] Charging times are 12.5–18 hours using the 120-volt travel charger, and about 5 hours using a 240-volt charging station. Top speed is 106 mph (171 km/h) and accelerates from 0-60 mph in 7.8 seconds in range extended mode.[8]

The 2016 model year Cadillac ELR is scheduled to be unveiled at the November 2014 Los Angeles Auto Show. The 2016 ELR will have several engineering enhancements, but no details have been announced by Cadillac.[24]

Fuel economy[edit]

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) officially rated the 2014 model year ELR's combined city/highway fuel economy in all-electric mode at 82 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (MPG-e) (2.9 L gasoline equivalent/100 km; 98 mpg-imp gasoline equivalent). This rating considers a conversion factor of 33.7 kWh of electricity being the energy equivalent of a gallon of gasoline, and the ELR has an energy consumption rate of 41 kWh/100mi for combined city/highway driving.[6] The EPA rating in gasoline-only mode is 33 mpg-US (7.1 L/100 km; 40 mpg-imp) for combined driving. The 2014 Volt has a rating of 37 mpg-US (6.4 L/100 km; 44 mpg-imp) for gasoline-only mode and a fuel economy in all-electric mode of 98 MPG-e (2.4 L gasoline equivalent/100 km; 118 mpg-imp gasoline equivalent).[25] The ELR has more power than the Volt but is 300 lb (140 kg) heavier.[26]

Operating modes[edit]

The ELR has a traditional shift lever (PRNDL) with a button to select one of four driving modes: Tour, Hold, Mountain and Sport. Tour mode is the default setting, and the ELR will operate in all-electric mode (EV mode) like a pure-electric car until its battery is fully discharged. The Tour mode provides the maximum powertrain efficiency and a minimum level of vibration. Hold mode allows the driver to save the energy currently stored in the battery for later use, such us traveling in urban areas.[26]

Mountain mode was designed to provide more power in mountainous environments by increasing minimum battery state of charge (SOC) in the battery so its power is always available, and by directing the power system to use the gasoline-engine, thus maintaining performance on steep and long grades. This mode is also useful when the driver wants to drive in EV mode at the end of a long highway trip. Sport mode improves throttle response, and improves feedback with more aggressive steering and suspension settings. The ELR has paddles on the back of the steering wheel for its unique "Regen on Demand" feature. Both paddles are held to activate aggressive regenerative braking, which slows the vehicle and simultaneously sends charging power back to the battery.[26]

The EPA's 2014 edition of the "Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends" estimated the utility factors for plug-in hybrids to represent the percentage of miles that will be driven using electricity by an average driver, in electric only or blended modes. The ELR has an utility factor in EV mode of 65%, compared with 83% for the BMW i3 REx, 66% for the Chevrolet Volt, 45% for the Ford Energi models, and 29% for the Toyota Prius PHV.[27]

Production and sales[edit]

Shipping to dealers of the 2014 Cadillac ELR began in late December 2013.

In October 2012, General Motors announced that the ELR would be assembled at the Detroit-Hamtramck Assembly Plant, where the similar Chevrolet Volt, Opel Ampera, and Holden Volt are also assembled. The addition of the ELR to the plant represents an additional US$35 million investment, bringing the total product investment at the plant to US$561 million since December 2009.

General Motors began assembly of pre-production vehicles to be used for testing in late May 2013. Production of vehicles destined for retail customers began in December 2013.[1][28] Shipping to dealerships from the Detroit-Hamtramck Assembly began on 20 December 2013,[29] and even though retail deliveries were scheduled to begin in January 2014, the first 10 units were delivered in December 2013, six in the U.S.[9] and four in Canada.[30] As of November 2014, cumulative sales totaled 1,243 units, with 1,198 in the American market,[9][31] and 45 units in Canada.[30][32]

In the United States the 2014 ELR has a base price of US$75,995, which includes a US$995 destination charge but excludes any applicable government incentives.[28][33] Although a timeline has not been specified, GM plans to expand ELR distribution to global markets including China and Europe.[34]

Awards and recognition[edit]

2014 Cadillac ELR

In 2009, the Converj concept was awarded "Best Concept Vehicle" in the Eyes on Design Awards, "Most Significant Concept Vehicle of 2009" in the North American Concept Vehicle of the Year Awards and "Specialty Concept Vehicle of the Year" by the Southeast Automotive Media Organization.[35][36][37]

In 2012, Green Car Journal selected the ELR as one of the five finalists in the Green Car Vision Awards.[38]

In 2013, the ELR was awarded "Best Production Vehicle" in the Eyes on Design Awards.[39]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Ross, Jeffrey N. (2013-05-30). "First Cadillac ELR Rolls Off the Line". Autoblog. AOL. Archived from the original on 2013-09-17. Retrieved 2013-05-30. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "2014 Cadillac ELR Specifications". Cadillac News. General Motors Company. 2013. Archived from the original on 2013-09-17. Retrieved 2013-09-17. EPA vehicle class: Compact car 
  3. ^ "Design Powers 2014 Cadillac ELR" (Press release). Detroit, Michigan: General Motors Company. 2013-01-15. Archived from the original on 2013-09-18. Retrieved 2013-09-18. “When we introduced the Converj in 2009, we knew any production model would need to advance the concept yet retain the distinctive design language and styling that were so well received,” said Tim Kozub, ELR exterior design manager. 
  4. ^ a b c Matthe, Roland; Eberle, Ulrich (2014-01-01). "The Voltec System - Energy Storage and Electric Propulsion". Retrieved 2014-05-04. 
  5. ^ Miller, Michael A.; Holmes, Alan G.; Conlon, Brendan M.; Savagian, Peter J. (2011-04-12). "The GM "Voltec" 4ET50 Multi-Mode Electric Transaxle". SAE International - Technical Papers (SAE International). doi:10.4271/2011-01-0887. Retrieved 2011-10-30. 
  6. ^ a b c d e U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2014-06-06). "2014 Cadillac ELR". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2014-06-08. 
  7. ^ "Cadillac Converj To Include GM's Volt Plug-In Technology". Autoweek. Crain Communications. 2010-01-10. ISSN 0192-9674. Archived from the original on 2013-10-11. Retrieved 2013-10-11. General Motors Co. will produce the Cadillac Converj plug-in concept car introduced at last year's Detroit auto show, Vice Chairman Bob Lutz said. 
  8. ^ a b Mike Szostech. "Cadillac ELR Specs". My Electric Car Forums. Retrieved 2013-11-21. 
  9. ^ a b c Jay Cole (2014-01-03). "Cadillac ELR Arrives Early, Manages To Sell 6 Copies In December". InsideEvs.com. Retrieved 2014-01-03. 
  10. ^ "Cadillac Converj Extended-Range Electric Vehicle". GM-Volt.com. GM-Volt.com. Retrieved 2012-01-02. 
  11. ^ a b Miersma, Seyth (2013-01-15). "2014 Cadillac ELR Is Making Green Sexy in Detroit". Autoblog. AOL. Retrieved 2013-01-15. 
  12. ^ Johnson, Eric (January 2009). "Cadillac Converj Concept". Car and Driver. Hearst Communications. Archived from the original on 2013-10-11. Retrieved 2013-10-11. ...GM rolled out this gorgeous 2+2 coupe concept at the Detroit auto show. Essentially a Chevrolet Volt sedan underneath, the Cadillac Converj makes that car, no uggo itself, look like a toaster oven in comparison. 
  13. ^ Mick, Jason (2009-04-15). "Report: Production of Cadillac Converj Approved". DailyTech. DailyTech. Retrieved 2010-11-27. 
  14. ^ Abuelsamid, Sam (2009-04-15). "Cadillac Converj Reportedly Approved for Production". Autoblog Green. AOL. Retrieved 2010-11-27. 
  15. ^ Welch, David (2009-08-21). "At GM, Dreams of an Electric Cadillac". Bloomberg BusinessWeek (Bloomberg L.P.). Retrieved 2010-11-27. 
  16. ^ Doerr, Erich T. (2009-10-03). "Lutz Sings Praises, Quality of 'New' GM's New Auto Line". Midland Daily News (Midland Daily News). Retrieved 2010-11-27. 
  17. ^ "GM to Produce Cadillac Converj Electric Vehicle, Lutz Says". Bloomberg BusinessWeek (Bloomberg L.P.). 2010-01-10. Retrieved 2010-11-27. [dead link]
  18. ^ Welch, David (2010-03-01). "GM Said to Drop Volt-Based Cadillac to Focus on Plug-In Hybrids". Bloomberg BusinessWeek (Bloomberg L.P.). Archived from the original on 2010-03-01. Retrieved 2010-11-27. 
  19. ^ "Cadillac Converj Extended Range EV Concept Officially Headed for Production". Green Car Congress. BioAge Group. 2011-08-17. Retrieved 2011-08-17. 
  20. ^ Trudell, Craig; Welch, David (2011-08-17). "GM Plans to Build Plug-In Cadillac ELR That’s Similar to Chevrolet Volt". Bloomberg BusinessWeek (Bloomberg L.P.). Archived from the original on 2013-09-17. Retrieved 2011-08-17. 
  21. ^ Brinkman, Norman; Eberle, Ulrich; Formanski, Volker; Grebe, Uwe-Dieter; Matthe, Roland (2012-04-15). "Vehicle Electrification - Quo Vadis". VDI. Retrieved 2013-04-27. 
  22. ^ Vijayenthiran, Viknesh (2012-06-28). "New Details on Cadillac ELR Extended-Range Electric Car". Motor Authority. Motor Authority. Retrieved 2012-09-30. 
  23. ^ Ernst, Kurt (2012-09-06). "2014 Cadillac ELR Spy Shots". Motor Authority. Motor Authority. Retrieved 2012-09-30. 
  24. ^ Anita Lienert and Rick Kranz (2014-09-23). "Improved 2016 Cadillac ELR Expected To Debut at 2014 L.A. Auto Show". Edmunds.com. Retrieved 2014-09-28. 
  25. ^ U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2014-06-06). "2014 Cadillac ELR and 2014 Chevrolet Volt". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2014-06-08. 
  26. ^ a b c Michael Harley (2013-11-25). "First Drive - 2014 Cadillac ELR: When Looks Are Everything". Autoblog.com. Retrieved 2014-06-08. 
  27. ^ U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (October 2014). "Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2014". EPA. Retrieved 2014-10-14.  See Table 7.2 - MY 2014 Alternative Fuel Vehicle Powertrain and Range.
  28. ^ a b Burden, Melissa (2013-10-11). "GM Prices Cadillac ELR Plug-In Coupe at $75,995". The Detroit News (The Detroit News). ISSN 1055-2715. Archived from the original on 2013-10-11. Retrieved 2013-10-11. Production on the luxury coupe at GM’s Detroit-Hamtramck Assembly Plant is expected to begin in December and it should hit dealer lots nationally in early January, said Cadillac spokesman David Caldwell. 
  29. ^ GM Press Release (2013-12-20). "Cadillac Begins Delivery of ELR Luxury Sport Coupe Electric Hybrid". EV World. Retrieved 2013-12-31. 
  30. ^ a b Klippenstein, Matthew (2014-02-10). "Plug-in electric car sales in Canada, Jan 2014". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2014-02-13. 
  31. ^ Jeff Cobb (2014-12-03). "November 2014 Dashboard". HybridCars.com and Baum & Associates. Retrieved 2014-12-04.  See section: "November 2014 Plug-in Hybrid Car Sales Numbers" - Sales totaled 6 units in 2013 and 1,192 during the first eleven months of 2014.
  32. ^ "Cadillac ELR Sales Figures". Good Car Bad Car. December 2014. Retrieved 2014-12-04. 
  33. ^ "Cadillac ELR Sales to Begin in January" (Press release). Detroit, Michigan: General Motors Company. 2013-10-11. Archived from the original on 2013-10-11. Retrieved 2013-10-11. ...the 2014 ELR has a starting price of $75,995, including a $995 destination charge but excluding tax, title, license and dealer fees. Upon IRS certification of an anticipated federal tax credit, purchasers may be eligible for a tax credit from $0 to $7,500 depending on individual tax liability. 
  34. ^ Szostech, Michael. "2014 Cadillac ELR Unveiled in Detroit". My Electric Car Forums. My Electric Car Forums. Retrieved 2013-01-15. 
  35. ^ Maynard, Shawn (2010). "Cadillac Converj Named Best Concept Vehicle of 2009 Detroit Show". Automobile.com. Archived from the original on 2012-02-17. Retrieved 2010-11-27. 
  36. ^ Blanco, Sebastian (2009-06-24). "Fisker Karma Sunset, Converj, BlueSport Roadster win Concept Vehicle of the Year Awards". Autoblog Green. AOL. Retrieved 2010-11-27. 
  37. ^ Biel, John (2009-07-01). "Converj "Emerjes" as Top Concept Vehicle". How Stuff Works ConsumerGuide Automotive. Publications International. Archived from the original on 2012-02-18. Retrieved 2010-11-27. 
  38. ^ King, Danny (2012-01-13). "Tesla Model S, BMW i3 Among 2012 Green Car Vision Finalists". Autoblog Green. AOL. Retrieved 2012-01-13. 
  39. ^ Patton, Phil (2013-01-16). "Cadillac, Ford, Nissan and Lutz Win Design Awards". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Wheels. ISSN 0362-4331. OCLC 1645522. Archived from the original on 2013-10-11. Retrieved 2013-10-11. For best production vehicle, Cadillac’s Volt-based extended range electric ELR beat out the Corvette Stingray. 
  • Leno, Jay (Host); Saucedo, Frank (Guest) (2013-06-17). 2014 Cadillac ELR. Jay Leno's Garage (Web video) (Burbank, California: NBC Studio). Retrieved 2013-11-08. 

External links[edit]

Official website