2014 Cadillac ELR
|Assembly||United States: Detroit, Michigan (Detroit/Hamtramck Assembly)|
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||2-door coupé|
|Layout||Transverse front-engine, front-wheel drive|
|Platform||GM Delta II / GM Voltec|
|Engine||1398 cc EcoFLEX LUU I4 (gasoline)|
|Transmission||CVT Voltec 4ET50 multi-mode electric transaxle|
|Hybrid drivetrain||Series hybrid|
|Battery||16.5 kWh lithium-ion battery|
|Range||340 mi (550 km)(EPA)|
|Electric range||37 mi (60 km) (EPA)|
|Wheelbase||2,695 mm (106.1 in)|
|Length||4,724 mm (186.0 in)|
|Width||1,847 mm (72.7 in)|
|Height||1,420 mm (55.9 in)|
|Curb weight||1,846 kg (4,070 lb)|
The Cadillac ELR is a luxury plug-in hybrid compact coupé developed and manufactured by General Motors. The ELR powertrain is a re-tuned version of the propulsion system used in the Chevrolet Volt. The ELR's 16.5 kWh lithium-ion battery pack delivers an all-electric range of 37 miles (60 km) and a top speed of 106 mph (171 km/h). Deliveries to retail customers in the United States and Canada began in December 2013.
General Motors debuted the concept car that would become the ELR, the Cadillac Converj, at the 2009 North American International Auto Show. The production version was unveiled four years later at the 2013 North American International Auto Show.
In April 2009 Motor Trend reported that General Motors had approved the production version of Cadillac Converj in 2011 as 2012 model year vehicle. However, GM refuted this report and stated that the Converj was "a concept vehicle undergoing a review". An August 2009 BusinessWeek report stated that GM Vice Chairman Robert Lutz wanted to see the Converj go to production, possibly as early as 2014, and it was reported that while delivering the keynote speech at the 46th annual Northwood Auto Show Lutz "hinted that an announcement on production for the well-received Cadillac Converj concept car may be forthcoming." At the 2010 North American International Auto Show, Lutz told the Society of Automotive Analysts “The Cadillac Converj is cleared for production,” but that "It won’t be next year or the year after that.” Despite these statements, in March 2010, Bloomberg BusinessWeek reported that GM decided to end work on the Converj, because the Converj "couldn’t have enough amenities and electric range to be compelling to buyers and produce a profit".
General Motors reversed its decision to cancel the project in August 2011 and announced that the Converj concept would go into production as the Cadillac ELR at a price less than the US$57,400 Tesla Model S, but did not provide details on performance or timing. General Motors stated that the ELR would be about the same size as the Chevrolet Volt and produced in the same facility. Within the framework of GM's vehicle electrification strategy, the Cadillac ELR is after the Chevrolet Volt EREV and Spark EV the third electrically powered passenger car by General Motors in the U.S. since the EV1 was discontinued: In contrast to pure battery EV protagonists, like e.g. Tesla Motors, GM focuses for the long-range application on extended-range EV technology.
The ELR is built upon the GM Delta II platform and incorporates a version of the Voltec propulsion system used in the Chevrolet Volt. The Voltec propulsion system includes a 119-135 kilowatt electric motor, a four-cylinder engine-generator and a 16.5 kWh lithium-ion battery pack. The ELR has an official all-electric range of 37 miles (60 km) and a total range of 340 mi (550 km), as rated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Charging times are 12.5–18 hours using the 120-volt travel charger, and about 5 hours using a 240-volt charging station. Top speed is 106 mph (171 km/h) and accelerates from 0-60 mph in 7.8 seconds in range extended mode.
The 2016 model year Cadillac ELR is scheduled to be unveiled at the November 2014 Los Angeles Auto Show. The 2016 ELR will have several engineering enhancements, but no details have been announced by Cadillac.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) officially rated the 2014 model year ELR's combined city/highway fuel economy in all-electric mode at 82 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (MPG-e) (2.9 L gasoline equivalent/100 km; 98 mpg-imp gasoline equivalent). This rating considers a conversion factor of 33.7 kWh of electricity being the energy equivalent of a gallon of gasoline, and the ELR has an energy consumption rate of 41 kWh/100mi for combined city/highway driving. The EPA rating in gasoline-only mode is 33 mpg-US (7.1 L/100 km; 40 mpg-imp) for combined driving. The 2014 Volt has a rating of 37 mpg-US (6.4 L/100 km; 44 mpg-imp) for gasoline-only mode and a fuel economy in all-electric mode of 98 MPG-e (2.4 L gasoline equivalent/100 km; 118 mpg-imp gasoline equivalent). The ELR has more power than the Volt but is 300 lb (140 kg) heavier.
The ELR has a traditional shift lever (PRNDL) with a button to select one of four driving modes: Tour, Hold, Mountain and Sport. Tour mode is the default setting, and the ELR will operate in all-electric mode (EV mode) like a pure-electric car until its battery is fully discharged. The Tour mode provides the maximum powertrain efficiency and a minimum level of vibration. Hold mode allows the driver to save the energy currently stored in the battery for later use, such us traveling in urban areas.
Mountain mode was designed to provide more power in mountainous environments by increasing minimum battery state of charge (SOC) in the battery so its power is always available, and by directing the power system to use the gasoline-engine, thus maintaining performance on steep and long grades. This mode is also useful when the driver wants to drive in EV mode at the end of a long highway trip. Sport mode improves throttle response, and improves feedback with more aggressive steering and suspension settings. The ELR has paddles on the back of the steering wheel for its unique "Regen on Demand" feature. Both paddles are held to activate aggressive regenerative braking, which slows the vehicle and simultaneously sends charging power back to the battery.
The EPA's 2014 edition of the "Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends" estimated the utility factors for plug-in hybrids to represent the percentage of miles that will be driven using electricity by an average driver, in electric only or blended modes. The ELR has an utility factor in EV mode of 65%, compared with 83% for the BMW i3 REx, 66% for the Chevrolet Volt, 45% for the Ford Energi models, and 29% for the Toyota Prius PHV.
Production and sales
In October 2012, General Motors announced that the ELR would be assembled at the Detroit-Hamtramck Assembly Plant, where the similar Chevrolet Volt, Opel Ampera, and Holden Volt are also assembled. The addition of the ELR to the plant represents an additional US$35 million investment, bringing the total product investment at the plant to US$561 million since December 2009.
General Motors began assembly of pre-production vehicles to be used for testing in late May 2013. Production of vehicles destined for retail customers began in December 2013. Shipping to dealerships from the Detroit-Hamtramck Assembly began on 20 December 2013, and even though retail deliveries were scheduled to begin in January 2014, the first 10 units were delivered in December 2013, six in the U.S. and four in Canada. As of September 2014[update], cumulative sales totaled 926 units, 891 in the American market, and 35 units in Canada.
In the United States the 2014 ELR has a base price of US$75,995, which includes a US$995 destination charge but excludes any applicable government incentives. Although a timeline has not been specified, GM plans to expand ELR distribution to global markets including China and Europe.
Awards and recognition
In 2009, the Converj concept was awarded "Best Concept Vehicle" in the Eyes on Design Awards, "Most Significant Concept Vehicle of 2009" in the North American Concept Vehicle of the Year Awards and "Specialty Concept Vehicle of the Year" by the Southeast Automotive Media Organization.
In 2013, the ELR was awarded "Best Production Vehicle" in the Eyes on Design Awards.
- Electric car use by country
- Government incentives for plug-in electric vehicles
- List of modern production plug-in electric vehicles
- List of production battery electric vehicles
- Plug-in electric vehicle
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- Leno, Jay (Host); Saucedo, Frank (Guest) (2013-06-17). 2014 Cadillac ELR. Jay Leno's Garage (Web video) (Burbank, California: NBC Studio). Retrieved 2013-11-08.
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