|CAS number||, 34330-64-8 (monohydrate)|
|Jmol-3D images||Image 1|
|Molar mass||183.32 g/mol|
|Appearance||white solid, hygroscopic|
|Density||4.047 g/cm3 (anhydrous)
3.33 g/cm3 (pentahydrate)
|Melting point||564 °C; 1,047 °F; 837 K|
|Boiling point||967 °C; 1,773 °F; 1,240 K|
|Solubility in water||100 g/100 mL (0 °C)
135 g/100 mL (20 °C)
147 g/100 mL (100 °C)
|Solubility||soluble in acetone, alcohol
negligible in ether
|Crystal structure||Rhombohedral, hr9, SpaceGroup = R-3m, No. 166|
|EU classification||Carc. Cat. 2
Muta. Cat. 2
Repr. Cat. 2
Highly toxic (T+)
Dangerous for the environment (N)
|R-phrases||R45, R46, R60, R61, R25, R26, R48/23/25, R50/53|
|S-phrases||S53, S45, S60, S61|
|Other anions||Cadmium fluoride
|Other cations||Zinc chloride
| (what is: / ?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
Cadmium chloride is a white crystalline compound of cadmium and chlorine, with the formula CdCl2. It is a hygroscopic solid that is highly soluble in water and slightly soluble in alcohol. Although it is considered to be ionic, it has considerable covalent character to its bonding. The crystal structure of cadmium chloride (described below), composed of two-dimensional layers of ions, is a reference for describing other crystal structures. Also known are CdCl2.H2O and CdCl2.5H2O.
Cadmium chloride forms crystals with rhombohedral symmetry. Cadmium iodide, CdI2, has a very similar crystal structure to CdCl2. The individual layers in the two structures are identical, but in CdCl2 the chloride ions are arranged in a CCP lattice, whereas in CdI2 the iodide ions are arranged in an HCP lattice.
Cadmium chloride dissolves well in water and other polar solvents. In water, its high solubility is due in part to formation of complex ions such as [CdCl4]2−. Because of this behavior, CdCl2 is a mild Lewis acid).
- CdCl2 + 2 Cl− → [CdCl4]2−
- Cd + 2 HCl → CdCl2 + H2
2 + H
2S → CdS + 2 HCl
In the laboratory, anhydrous CdCl2 can be used for the preparation of organocadmium compounds of the type R2Cd, where R is an aryl or a primary alkyl. These were once used in the synthesis of ketones from acyl chlorides:
2 + 2 RMgX → R
2Cd + MgCl
2 + MgX
2Cd + R'COCl → R'COR + CdCl
Such reagents have largely been supplanted by organocopper compounds, which are much less toxic.
- Lide, David R. (1998), Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (87 ed.), Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, pp. 4–67; 1363, ISBN 0-8493-0594-2
- N. N. Greenwood, A. Earnshaw, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd ed., Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, UK, 1997.
- A. F. Wells, Structural Inorganic Chemistry, 5th ed., Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 1984.
- D. Nicholls, Complexes and First-Row Transition Elements, Macmillan Press, London, 1973.
- J. March, Advanced Organic Chemistry, 4th ed., p. 723, Wiley, New York, 1992.
- International Chemical Safety Card 0116
- IARC Monograph "Cadmium and Cadmium Compounds"
- National Pollutant Inventory - Cadmium and compounds
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