Kayseri

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"Caesarea in Cappadocia" redirects here. For other locations with similar names, see Caesarea (disambiguation).
Kayseri
Metropolitan Municipality
Top: Kadir Has Stadium, 2nd left: Sivas Avenue, 2nd right: Atatürk Statue and the city walls of Kayseri in the background, 3rd: Tekin business district and Oto Park, Bottom left: Kayseri Castle at night, Bottom right: Kayseray.
Top: Kadir Has Stadium, 2nd left: Sivas Avenue, 2nd right: Atatürk Statue and the city walls of Kayseri in the background, 3rd: Tekin business district and Oto Park, Bottom left: Kayseri Castle at night, Bottom right: Kayseray.
Kayseri is located in Turkey
Kayseri
Kayseri
Location of Kayseri, Turkey
Coordinates: 38°44′N 35°29′E / 38.733°N 35.483°E / 38.733; 35.483Coordinates: 38°44′N 35°29′E / 38.733°N 35.483°E / 38.733; 35.483
Country  Turkey
Region Central Anatolia
Province Kayseri
Government
 • Mayor Mehmet Özhaseki (AKP)
Elevation 1,050 m (3,440 ft)
Population (2013)[1][2]
 • Metropolitan Municipality 1.042.750
 • Metro 1.295.355
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal code 38x xx
Area code(s) (+90) 352
Licence plate 38
Website www.kayseri.bel.tr
www.kayseri.gov.tr

Kayseri (pronounced [ˈkajseɾi]) is a large and industrialized city in Central Anatolia, Turkey. It is the seat of Kayseri Province. The city of Kayseri, as defined by the boundaries of Kayseri Metropolitan Municipality, is structurally composed of five metropolitan districts, the two core districts of Kocasinan and Melikgazi, and since 2004, also Hacılar, İncesu and Talas.

Kayseri is located at the foot of the extinct volcano Mount Erciyes that towers 3916 m over the city. The city is often cited in the first ranks among Turkey's cities that fit the definition of Anatolian Tigers.[3]

The city is rich in historical monuments, dating especially from the Seljuk period. While it is generally visited en route to the international tourist attractions of Cappadocia, Kayseri has many visitor's attractions by its own right: Seljuk and Ottoman era monuments in and around the city center, Mount Erciyes as a trekking and alpinism center, Zamantı River as a rafting center, the historic sites of Kültepe, Ağırnas, Talas and Develi, to name a few. Kayseri is served by Erkilet International Airport and is home to Erciyes University.

According to the Turkish Statistical Institute, as of 2011 the city of Kayseri had a population of 844,656; while Kayseri Province had a population of 1,234,651.[1][2][4]

Etymology[edit]

Kayseri was originally called Mazaka or Mazaca by the Hattians and was known as such to Strabo, during whose time it was the capital of the Roman province of Cilicia, known also as Eusebia at the Argaeus (Εὐσέβεια ἡ πρὸς τῶι Ἀργαίωι in Greek), after Ariarathes V Eusebes, King of Cappadocia (163–130 BC). The name was changed again by Archelaus (d. 17 AD), last King of Cappadocia (36 BC–14 AD) and a Roman vassal, to "Caesarea in Cappadocia" (to distinguish it from other cities with the name Caesarea in the Roman Empire) in honour of Caesar Augustus, upon his death in 14 AD. When the Muslim Arabs arrived, they slightly modified the name into Kaisariyah, and this eventually became Kayseri when the Seljuk Turks took control of the city in circa 1080 AD, remaining as such ever since.[5]

History[edit]

Door detail from the Seljuk era Hunat Hatun Mosque and Külliye, built in 1238 by Sultana Hunat Hatun, wife of the Anatolian Seljuk Sultan Alaeddin Keykubad I and mother of Sultan Gıyaseddin Keyhüsrev II.

The city has been continuously inhabited since perhaps c. 3000 BC[citation needed] with the establishment of the ancient trading colony at Kultepe (Ash Mountain) which is associated with the Hittites. The city has always been a vital trade centre as it is located on major trade routes, particularly along what was called the Great Silk Road. Kültepe, one of the oldest cities in Asia Minor, lies nearby.

As Mazaca, the city served as the residence of the kings of Cappadocia. In ancient times, it was on the crossroads of the trade routes from Sinope to the Euphrates and from the Persian Royal Road that extended from Sardis to Susa. In Roman times, a similar route from Ephesus to the East also crossed the city.

The city stood on a low spur on the north side of Mount Erciyes (Mount Argaeus in ancient times). Only a few traces of the ancient site survive in the old town. The city was the centre of a satrapy under Persian rule until it was conquered by Perdikkas, one of the generals of Alexander the Great when it became the seat of a transient satrapy by another of Alexander's former generals, Eumenes of Cardia. The city was subsequently passed to the Seleucid empire after the battle of Ipsus but became once again the centre of an autonomous Greater Cappadocian kingdom under Ariarathes III of Cappadocia in around 250 BC. In the ensuing period, the city came under the sway of Hellenistic influence, and was given the Greek name of Eusebia in honor of the Cappadocian king Ariarathes V Eusebes Philopator of Cappadocia (163–130 BC). Under the new name of Caesarea, by which it has since been known, given to it by the last Cappadocian King Archelaus[5] or perhaps by Tiberius,[6] the city passed under formal Roman rule in 17 BC.

Walls of the Seljuk era Sahabiye Medresesi, built in 1267 by the Seljuk vizier Sahip Ata Fahreddin Ali.

Caesarea was destroyed by the Sassanid king Shapur I after his victory over the Emperor Valerian I in AD 260. At the time it was recorded to have around 400,000 inhabitants. The city gradually recovered, and became home to several early Christian saints: saints Dorothea and Theophilus the martyrs, Gregory of Nazianzus, Gregory of Nyssa and Basil of Caesarea. In the 4th century, bishop Basil established an ecclesiastic centre on the plain, about one mile to the northeast, which gradually supplanted the old town.[7] It included a system of almshouses, an orphanage, old peoples' homes, and a leprosarium (leprosy hospital).

A Notitia Episcopatuum composed during the reign of Byzantine Emperor Heraclius in about 640 lists 5 suffragan dioceses of the metropolitan see of Caesarea. A 10th-century list gives it 15 suffragans.[8] In all the Notitiae Caesarea is given the second place among the metropolitan sees of the patriarchate of Constantinople, preceded only by Constantinople itself, and its archbishops were given the title of protothronos, meaning "of the first see" (after that of Constantinople). More than 50 first-millennium archbishops of the see are known by name, and the see itself continued to be a residential see of the Eastern Orthodox Church until 1923, when by the Treaty of Lausanne members of that Church had to leave what is now Turkey.[9][10][11] Caesarea was also the seat of an Armenian diocese.[12] No longer a residential bishopric, Caesarea in Cappadocia is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see of the Armenian Catholic Church and the Melkite Catholic Church.[13]

Kayseri city walls in 2006

A portion of Basil's new city was surrounded with strong walls, and it was turned into a fortress by Justinian. Caesarea in the 9th century became a Byzantine administrative centre as the capital of the Byzantine Theme of Charsianon.

The Arab general (and later the first Umayyad Caliph) Muawiyah invaded Cappadocia and took Caesarea from the Byzantines temporarily in 647.[14] The city was called Kaisariyah (قيصرية) by the Arabs, and later Kayseri (قیصری) by Seljuk Turks,[5] when it was captured by Alp Arslan in 1067. The forces of the latter demolished the city and massacred its population.[15] The shrine of Saint Basil was also sacked after the fall of the city.[15][16] As a result the city remained uninhabited for the next half century.[15] Later, during 1074–1178 the area came under the control of the Danishmendids and rebuilt the city in 1134.[17] The Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate controlled the city during the period 1178–1243 and became one of their most prominent centers, until it fell to the Mongols in 1243. Within the walls lies the greater part of Kayseri, rebuilt between the 13th and 16th centuries. The city became Ottoman in the 15th century.

View of the city walls from Cumhuriyet Square, with an equestrian statue of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in the foreground.

Thus, there were three golden-age periods for Kayseri. The first, dating to 2000 BC, was when the city was a trade post between the Assyrians and the Hittites. The second golden age came during the Roman rule (1st to 11th centuries). The third golden age was during the reign of Seljuks (1178–1243), when the city was the second capital of the state.

The 1500-year-old castle, built initially by the Byzantines, and expanded by the Seljuks and Ottomans, is still standing in good condition in the central square of the city. The short-lived Seljuk rule left a large number of historic landmarks; historic buildings such as the Hunad Hatun Mosque complex, Kilij Arslan Mosque, The Grand Mosque and Gevher Nesibe Hospital. The Grand Bazaar dates from the latter part of the 1800s, but the adjacent caravanserai (where merchant traders gathered before forming a caravan) dates from around 1500. The town's older districts (which were filled with ornate mansion-houses mostly dating from the 18th and 19th centuries) were subjected to wholesale demolitions starting in the 1970s.[18] The city is famous for its carpet sellers, and carpets and rugs can be purchased ranging from new to 50 or more years old.

The building that hosts the Kayseri lyceum was arranged to host the Turkish Grand National Assembly during the Turkish War of Independence when the Greek army had advanced very close to Ankara, the base of the Turkish National Movement.

A panoramic view of the city center, with Tekin business district and Oto Park in the foreground.

Climate[edit]

Kayseri has a dry summer continental climate, on the borderline of Köppen climate classification (Dsb')' and (Dsa')' with cold, snowy winters and very warm, dry summers with cool nights due to Kayseri's high elevation. Rainfall occurs mostly during the spring, early summer and late autumn, yet precipitation is generally moderate throughout the year.

Climate data for Kayseri (1960-2012)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 18.0
(64.4)
20.1
(68.2)
27.6
(81.7)
31.2
(88.2)
33.6
(92.5)
36.0
(96.8)
40.7
(105.3)
40.0
(104)
36.0
(96.8)
32.6
(90.7)
25.5
(77.9)
21.0
(69.8)
40.7
(105.3)
Average high °C (°F) 4.1
(39.4)
6.0
(42.8)
11.7
(53.1)
17.6
(63.7)
22.4
(72.3)
26.7
(80.1)
30.6
(87.1)
30.6
(87.1)
26.5
(79.7)
20.3
(68.5)
12.7
(54.9)
6.4
(43.5)
17.97
(64.35)
Daily mean °C (°F) −1.8
(28.8)
0.0
(32)
5.0
(41)
10.6
(51.1)
15.0
(59)
19.1
(66.4)
22.6
(72.7)
22.0
(71.6)
17.1
(62.8)
11.6
(52.9)
5.0
(41)
0.5
(32.9)
10.56
(51.02)
Average low °C (°F) −7.0
(19.4)
−5.4
(22.3)
−1.3
(29.7)
3.3
(37.9)
6.7
(44.1)
9.7
(49.5)
12.0
(53.6)
11.3
(52.3)
7.2
(45)
3.6
(38.5)
−1.1
(30)
−4.4
(24.1)
2.88
(37.2)
Record low °C (°F) −31.4
(−24.5)
−31.2
(−24.2)
−28.1
(−18.6)
−11.6
(11.1)
−6.9
(19.6)
−0.5
(31.1)
2.9
(37.2)
1.4
(34.5)
−3.2
(26.2)
−12.2
(10)
−17.8
(0)
−26.0
(−14.8)
−31.4
(−24.5)
Precipitation mm (inches) 33.6
(1.323)
33.6
(1.323)
42.5
(1.673)
57.2
(2.252)
56.6
(2.228)
35.9
(1.413)
14.3
(0.563)
8.5
(0.335)
12.9
(0.508)
34.8
(1.37)
37.2
(1.465)
39.0
(1.535)
406.1
(15.988)
Avg. rainy days 11.6 11.6 12.3 13.5 13.5 8.4 2.8 2.4 4.2 7.9 9.3 11.6 109.1
Avg. snowy days 9 9 6 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 8 36
 % humidity 76 72 62 58 56 50 44 44 47 58 69 77 59.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 89.9 112 151.9 183 254.2 309 362.7 350.3 270 201.5 138 80.6 2,503.1
Source #1: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü[19]
Source #2: Weather2[20]

Political structure[edit]

The city of Kayseri consists of the following metropolitan districts:

Metropolitan districts of Kayseri
Name
Akkışla
Bünyan
Develi
Felâhiye
Hacılar
İncesu
Kocasinan
Melikgâzi
Özvatan
Pınarbaşı
Sarıoğlan
Sarız
Talas
Tomarza
Yahyâlı
Yeşilhisar

Economy[edit]

Mount Erciyes near Kayseri is a popular destination for winter sports.

Kayseri received notable public investments in the 1920s and 1930s. Sumer Textile and Kayseri Tayyare Fabrikasi (airplane manufacturer) were set up here during the post Republican Era with the help of German and particularly Russian experts. The latter manufactured the first aircraft "made in Turkey" in the 1940s. After the 1950s, the city suffered from a decrease in the amount of public investment. It was, however, during the same years that Kayseri businessmen and merchants became transformed into countrywide capitalists. Families such as Sabancı, Has, Dedeman, Hattat, Kurmel, Özyeğin, Karamanlargil and Özilhan who started out as small-scale merchants in the city of Kayseri became prominent actors in the Turkish economy. These families set up their headquarters in cities such as Istanbul and Adana, nevertheless often coming back to Kayseri to invest.

Sivas Avenue in Kayseri

Thanks to the economic liberalization policies introduced in the 1980s, a new wave of merchants and industrialists from Kayseri joined their predecessors. Most of these new industrialists choose Kayseri as base of their operations. As a consequence of better infrastructures, the city achieved a remarkable industrial growth since 2000 and is one of the key cities that characterizes the class of Anatolian Tigers, with a favorable environment present especially for small and medium enterprises.

The pace of growth of the city was so fast that in 2004 the city applied to the Guinness Book of World Records for the most new manufacturing industries started in a single day: 139 factories. Kayseri also has emerged as one of the most successful furniture-making hub in Turkey earned more than a billion dollars in export revenues in 2007.

Kayseri Free Zone established in 1998, today has more than 43 companies with an investment of 140 million dollars. The Zone's main business activities including; production, trading, warehouse management, mounting and demounting, assembly-disassembly, Merchandising, maintenance and repair, engineering workshops, office and workplace rental, packing-repacking, banking and insurance, leasing, labelling and exhiption facilities. Kayseri FTZ with cost of $8 per square meter is one of the lowest cost land free zones in the world.[21]

Some social scientists trace this economic success to a modernist Islamic outlook referred to as "Islamic Calvinism" which they say is taking root in Kayseri.[22]

Transport[edit]

Route of Kayseray LRT

The city is served by Erkilet International Airport and the International Air Transport Association symbol for the airport is ASR. The airport is a short distance from the centre of Kayseri. There are several flights per day to Istanbul, Turkey's premium air transportation hub. Since the air transportation industry in Turkey is growing quickly, new flights from Kayseri to several other localities inside and outside Turkey are soon to be expected.

Kayseri is connected to the rest of country with railway service. There are four trains per day to Ankara. To the east there are two branches: one to Kars and Doğukapi toward Armenia, and another to Tatvan on the west shore of Lake Van.

As the city is located in central Turkey, car and bus transportation are highly efficient. It takes approximately 3 hours to reach Ankara, approximately 3 hours to Mediterranean shores and 45 minutes to Cappadocia. The symbol of the city, Mount Erciyes, which is a notable ski center in winters and a trekker's paradise in summers, is at only 30 minutes' drive from the city centre.

The transportation within the city relies mainly on buses, and personal vehicles. A light rail transit (LRT) system called Kayseray was constructed and completed by the end of 2009.[specify]

Sports[edit]

The city has two professional football teams competing in the top-flight of Turkish football: Kayserispor and Kayseri Erciyesspor, both playing in the Spor Toto Super League, making Kayseri one of the only two cities having more than one team in Spor Toto Süper Lig 2013-14, the other being Istanbul. Kayserispor is the only Turkish team to have won the UEFA Intertoto Cup, in 2007.

The Erciyes Ski Resort at Mount Erciyes is one of the largest ski centers in Turkey.

Sports venues[edit]

  • Kadir Has Stadium is a new generation post-modern stadium, it is located in the outskirts of the city. The all-seater stadium has the capacity to host 33,000 spectators and it is totally covered. It is shared by the two Kayserian football clubs, as before, and the Kadir Has Stadium is the new home for both teams. The stadium and surrounding sports complex are served by the Light-rail system, Kayseray, making access to the complex easier for traveling locals. It was completed in early 2009. The inauguration of stadium was made with a KayserisporFenerbahce league match. Kadir Has Stadium was one of the 8 host stadiums of the 2013 FIFA U-20 World Cup, The stadium hosted the opening ceremony followed by the opening match between Cuba versus the Republic of Korea.
A panoramic view of the Kadir Has Stadium in Kayseri.

Education[edit]

Kayseri High School (Kayseri Lisesi), established in 1893, is one of the oldest high schools in Turkey. Küçükçalık Anatolian High School (Nuh Mehmet Küçükçalık Anadolu Lisesi), established in 1984, which is providing education in English, is among the first ones in Turkey. Kılıçarslan is a private high school in Kayseri, In 2000, it became a sister school with Anatolia College in Thessaloniki. TED Kayseri College in Kocasinan district of the city a Private, non-profit, co-educational kindergarten, primary, junior high, and high school is the third largest school in TED, since its foundation in 1966 thousands of students have graduated from the school.

Kayseri is home to 2 state and 2 private universities.

Erciyes University is the largest university in the city founded in 1978 and is a continuation of a number of schools founded in 1206 and 1956.[23] currently serving with 13 faculties, 6 colleges and 7 vocational schools. The university employs more than 3100 academic and administrative personnel and enrolls 41,225 students. The university is highly developed and thus well organised compared to the standards of Turkey.

Abdullah Gül University a newly established state university. AGU is the first state university in Turkey to have, as part of its constitution, legal provision for support by a foundation whose entire efforts are solely dedicated to the work of the University. The university started enrolling students in 2013.

Melikşah University was founded in 2008, it is the first private university in Kayseri. located in Talas district. It has four faculties, two institutions and a college.

Nuh Naci Yazgan University is a private university founded in 2009 with 4 faculties, 2 colleges and 1 vocational school.

Manti, a popular dish in Kayseri

Cuisine[edit]

Kayseri is renowned for its culinary specialties such as mantı, pastırma and sucuk. Mantı is the most popular dish in Kayseri for the local people and tourists. Stuffed zucchini flowers made with Köfte, garlic and spicies. Nevzine flavor kind of Kayseri is also a traditional dessert.

Notable people from Kayseri[edit]

International relations[edit]

Twin towns — Sister cities[edit]

Kayseri is twinned with:

Europe

Asia

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b - 2011
  2. ^ a b Büyükşehir belediyeleri ve bağlı belediyelerin nüfusları - 2011
  3. ^ ESI. "Islamic Calvinists: Change and Conservatism in Central Anatolia". European Stability Initiative, Berlin. Retrieved 2005-09-19. 
  4. ^ Turkish Statistical Institute: Province populations in Turkey, 2009 and 2010.
  5. ^ a b c Everett-Heath, John (2005). = Main&entry = t209.e3530 "Kayseri". Concise Dictionary of World Place-Names. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 12 1 1 2007. 
  6. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia
  7. ^ Tore Kjeilen (2005-10-17). "Kayseri - LookLex Encyclopaedia". Lexicorient.com. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 
  8. ^ Heinrich Gelzer, Ungedruckte und ungenügend veröffentlichte Texte der Notitiae episcopatuum, in: Abhandlungen der philosophisch-historische classe der bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1901, p. 536, nº 77-82, and pp. 551-552, nnº 106-121.
  9. ^ Pius Bonifacius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae, Leipzig 1931, p. 440
  10. ^ Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris 1740, Vol. I, coll. 367-390
  11. ^ Raymond Janin, v. 2. Césarée de Cappadoce, in Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie ecclésiastiques, vol. XII, Paris 1953, coll. 199-203
  12. ^ "Caesarea". Catholic Encyclopedia. 
  13. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 867
  14. ^ Ostrogorsky, George. History of the Byzantine State. New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1969. Pg 116.
  15. ^ a b c Ash, John (2006). A Byzantine journey ([2. ed.] ed.). London: Tauris Parke Paperbacks. p. 167. ISBN 9781845113070. "In that year the Turks captured Caesarea, the chief city of eastern Cappadocia, burnt it to the ground, massacred its inhabitants and descrated the great shrine of Saint Basil." 
  16. ^ Vaughan, Louis Bréhier ; translated by Margaret (1977). The life and death of Byzantium. Amsterdam: North-Holland Pub. Co. p. 193. ISBN 9780720490084. "In the spring of 1067 he invaded the Pontus and penetrated as far as Caesarea in Cappadocia which he demolished" 
  17. ^ Speros Vryonis, The Decline of Medieval Hellenism in Asia Minor and the Process of Islamization from the Eleventh through the Fifteenth Century' (University of California Press, 1971), p. 155
  18. ^ [1] Traditional houses in Kayseri
  19. ^ "İl ve İlçelerimize Ait İstatistiki Veriler- Meteoroloji Genel Müdürlüğü". Dmi.gov.tr. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 
  20. ^ "December Climate History for Kayseri | Local | Turkey". Myweather2.com. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 
  21. ^ http://www.kayser.com.tr/en/nasil-yararlanilir.php
  22. ^ "Chronology of all ESI publications - Reports - ESI". Esiweb.org. 2005-09-19. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 
  23. ^ Tore Kjeilen (2005-10-17). "Kayseri - LookLex Encyclopaedia". I-cias.com. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 
  24. ^ "Mostar Gradovi prijatelji" [Mostar Twin Towns]. Grad Mostar [Mostar Official City Website] (in Macedonian). Archived from the original on 2013-10-30. Retrieved 2013-12-19. 
  25. ^ http://www.nation.com.pk/pakistan-news-newspaper-daily-english-online/Regional/Lahore/15-Jan-2010/Punjab-Turkey-sign-four-MoUs

External links[edit]