The gens Caesonia was the name of two unrelated Roman families. The first was a plebeian family at Rome who emerged during the late Republic and extended into early imperial times. The second were an Italian equestrian family who emerged during the second century AD.
 Origin of the gens
The nomen Caesonius is a patronymic surname, based on the praenomen Caeso, which must have belonged to the ancestor of the gens. The second and third century Caesonii were probably not related to the Republican gens; an equestrian family, it has been speculated that the later Caesonii had Italic roots, possibly hailing from Antium. Sometime during the reign of the Severan Dynasty, the family had been elevated to Patrician status.
 Members of the gens
- Marcus Caesonius, praetor, probably in 66 B.C.
- Milonia Caesonia, the last wife of the emperor Caligula.
- Caesonius Maximus, an ex-consul, and friend of Seneca the Younger, banished from Italy by the Emperor Nero in A.D. 66.
- Gaius Caesonius Macer Rufinianus, suffect consul around 197/198
- Lucius Caesonius Lucillus Macer Rufinianus, suffect consul around 226/229
- Lucius Caesonius Ovinius Manlius Rufinianus Bassus, suffect consul twice, first around 260, the second in 284
- Caesonius Bassus, ordinary consul in 317
 See also
- Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, William Smith, Editor.
- George Davis Chase, "The Origin of Roman Praenomina", in Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, vol. VIII (1897).
- Mennen, Inge, Power and Status in the Roman Empire, AD 193-284 (2011), pgs. 55-56
- Publius Cornelius Tacitus, Annales, xv. 72.
- Marcus Valerius Martialis, Epigrams, vii. 44.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed. (1867). "article name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.
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