The club was founded in 1884, making it one of the oldest clubs in county Limerick. The early years of the club were its most successful, winning the Limerick Senior Hurling Championship on three occasions; 1896, 1905 and 1907. Caherline also lost two county finals in this period; in 1898 (When a lack of crowd control caused the match to be abandoned) and in 1908.
By the 1920s Caherline had slipped back to the junior ranks but returned to the limelight in 1927 when winning their first Limerick Junior Hurling Championship by beating Kilmallock in the county final. This was followed by a second junior title in 1931, when once again Kilmallock were beaten in the final.
The club went through lean times after this and were not to appear in another county final until 1974 when Glenroe were the victors in the county junior hurling final. Defeat was to be Caherline's lot once again in the 2001 county junior hurling final, losing out to Newcastlewest. These heartbreaking defeats were consigned to history however, when in 2007 Caherline bridged a 76-year gap and claimed their third junior hurling championship title defeating Effin in the county final.
In 2008 the club played in the county intermediate hurling championship for the first time and exceeded expectations by reaching the county final. However Bruff were to be the victors on this occasion, winning on a scoreline of 3-14 to 0-15 in Ballyagran on October 12, 2008.