|Born||March 30, 1895
|Died||August 4, 1931 (aged 36)|
|Other names||Runhuan (润寰),
Lin Bin (林彬)
Cai Hesen (Chinese: 蔡和森; pinyin: Cài Hésēn) (March 30, 1895 - August 4, 1931) was an early leader of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), and a friend and comrade of Mao Zedong. His courtesy name was Runhuan (润寰), and he was also known as Hexian (和仙), Zeying (泽膺), and Lin Bin (林彬). Cai was born in Shanghai but grew up in Shuangfeng County in Hunan Province of China.
Cai was born in Shanghai on March 30, 1895. In the spring of 1899, Cai went back to his hometown Shuangfeng County with his mother. In his youth, he studied at Hunan First Normal School and at the Higher Normal School in Changsha. Cai studied under Yang Changji, and joined student movements. In June 1917, after he graduated, Cai didn't return home, but instead took an active part in revolutionary activities. In April 1918, he organized the New People's Study Society (Xin Min Xue Hui) along with Mao Zedong and others, which had a strong influence on the youth of Hunan province. Cai participated in a number of labor movements after this. In 1919, he traveled to France with his mother Ge Jianhao (葛健豪), his sister Cai Chang (蔡畅), and his girlfriend Xiang Jingyu. In Paris, Cai organized the Work and Study Cooperative Society (Gongxue huzhu she) and accepted communism. In May 1920, Cai married Xiang Jingyu.
In the latter half of 1921, Cai was arrested by the French government for organizing a wave of worker disputes, and was deported soon after. With his wife Xiang Jingyu, he returned to China to participate in the founding of the Chinese Communist Party and worked in the Party's central organization. He founded the first newspaper, The Guide (向导), of the CCP's central authority. Cai was a member of the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, and 6th Central Committees of the Communist Party of China, as well as a member of the 5th and 6th Central Political Bureaus and other important positions. In 1925, he served as the CCP's representative to the international Communist movement. In 1927, he returned to China, but went to Moscow again in 1928 to cure disease. In 1931 he returned to Shanghai to support the Guangdong provincial People's Committee. He then went to Hong Kong to direct party work there. He was arrested by the British Hong Kong police and extradited to Chinese authorities in Guangzhou, where he was then executed.
In 1931, Cai was betrayed by Gu Shunzhang when attending a meeting in Hong Kong, and was arrested by the Hong Kong police. He was then extradited to Guangzhou. There he was tortured by the Guangdong warlord Chen Jitang. Cai Hesen was executed in August 1931, aged 36.
Cai had four children: Cai Ni (蔡妮) and Cai Bo (蔡博) by Xiang Jingyu, and Cai Zhuan (蔡转) and Cai Lin (蔡霖) by Li Yichun.
- Donald W. Klein and Anne B. Clark. Biographic Dictionary of Chinese Communism 1921-1965. Cambridge, Mass., 1971. Vol 2, p. 851.
- Donald W. Klein and Anne B. Clark. Biographic Dictionary of Chinese Communism 1921-1965. Cambridge, Mass., 1971. Vol 2, p. 852.