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Caicó, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil
City of Prince
Flag of Caicó, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil
RioGrandedoNorte Municip Caico.svg
Country  Brazil
Region Nordeste
State Rio Grande do Norte
Mesoregion Central Potiguar
 • Type Democracy
 • Mayor Roberto Germano
Time zone UTC -3

Caicó, also known as the City of Prince, is the seventh largest city in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Norte. The climate is hot and dry, but it rains between January and June. The population is 66,246 (2013 est). The city has a total area of 1229 km2. Located between the Seridó and Barra Nova rivers, in the eastern portion of Western Seridó, the city has the highest human development index of the Semi-arid Northeast Brazil. Founded in 1735 as Vila Nova do Príncipe, The city has evolved into a political and cultural centre of Rio Grande do Norte. The name "Caicó" is derived from the indigenous word Queicuó, meaning "Cuó River and Mountain".


The settlement was made initially by migrants of Pernambuco in search of land for cattle ranching, since the Royal Charter of 1701 prohibited cattle on the coast. Were awarded land grants as rewards for military shapes such as the expulsion of the Dutch and for priests, with the construction of the chapel in honor of St. Anne in 1695. In 1700 gave up the foundation of the Camp Queiquó by Manuel de Souza Forte. However the first families to settle fully took place from 1720, by Portuguese coming mainly from northern Portugal and the Azores.



Caicó has a tropical semi wet climate (Köppen climate classification Aw) with little or no water surplus. The local climate is subject to variability, and the dry periods (droughts) may last more than one year. Rain falls between January and June, with an average annual precipitation of 830.0 millimetres (32.6 in). There are about 2,600 hours of average sunshine annually.

The lowest temperature in Caicó was 12 °C (53.6 °F) on June 27, 1975, and the highest temperature was 39,2 °C (102.5 °F) on March 7, 2010, both at Brazilian National Meteorology Institute (INMET).


The 2013 census had the city's population as 66,246. The city had a density of 53,9 persons per km2 in 2012. Caicó's median age of 27, as well as its percentage of seniors are above the state average and the national average, while those under 15 are below Brazilian percentages. Around 92% describe themselves as Christian, with Catholics account for 90,4% of the population and members of Protestant churches is 2.3%. The city is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Caicó. Ethnically, 59% describe themselves as white, 35% mixed, 4% black, and 1% Asian.

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Coordinates: 6°27′28″S 37°05′52″W / 6.45778°S 37.09778°W / -6.45778; -37.09778