View of Cairns from Lake Morris Road with the Yarrabah peninsula in the background
|Population||156,169 (2011) (14th)|
|• Density||250.9/km2 (650/sq mi) |
|Area||488.1 km2 (188.5 sq mi)|
|Time zone||AEST (UTC+10)|
|State electorate(s)||Cairns, Barron River, Mulgrave|
|Federal Division(s)||Leichhardt (majority) & Kennedy|
Cairns (//, locally //), is a regional city, encompassing smaller townships, in the far north of Queensland, Australia, founded 1876. The city was named after William Wellington Cairns, then-current Governor of Queensland. It was formed to serve miners heading for the Hodgkinson River goldfield, but experienced a decline when an easier route was discovered from Port Douglas. It later developed into a railhead and major port for exporting sugar cane, gold and other metals, minerals and agricultural products from surrounding coastal areas and the Atherton Tableland region. As of June 2011, the population was approximately 156,169.
Cairns is located about 1,700 km (1,056 mi) from Brisbane. It is a popular travel destination for foreign tourists because of its tropical climate. It serves as a starting point for people wanting to visit the Great Barrier Reef and Far North Queensland.
- 1 Geography
- 2 History
- 3 Heritage listings
- 4 Governance
- 5 Economy
- 6 Transport
- 7 Sister cities
- 8 Education
- 9 Health
- 10 Sport and recreation
- 11 Notable residents
- 12 Photo Gallery
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 External links
Cairns is located on the east coast of Cape York Peninsula on a coastal strip between the Coral Sea and the Great Dividing Range. The northern part of the city is located on Trinity Bay and the city centre is located on Trinity Inlet. Some of the city's suburbs are located on flood plains. The Mulgrave River and Barron River flow within the greater Cairns area but not through the CBD. The city centre's foreshore is located on a mud flat.
Cairns is a provincial city, with a linear urban layout that runs from the south, at Edmonton, to the north, at Ellis Beach. The city is approximately 52 km (32 mi) from north to south. Cairns has experienced recent urban sprawl, with suburbs occupying land previously used for sugar cane farming.
The Northern Beaches consist of a number of beach communities extending north along the coast. In general, each beach suburb is located at the end of a spur road extending from the Captain Cook Highway. From south to north, these are Machans Beach, Holloways Beach, Yorkeys Knob, Trinity Park, Trinity Beach, Kewarra Beach, Clifton Beach, Palm Cove, and Ellis Beach.
The suburb of Smithfield is located inland against the mountains of the Great Dividing Range, between Yorkeys Knob and Trinity Park. It serves as the main hub for the Northern Beaches, with a modern shopping arcade, called Smithfield Shopping Centre.
Located south of Smithfield and inland from the Northern Beaches along the edge of the Barron River flood plain are the suburbs of Caravonica, Kamerunga, Freshwater, and Stratford. This area is sometimes referred to as Freshwater Valley, though it is actually the lower part of Redlynch Valley; further up the valley are the suburbs of Redlynch, on the western side of Redlynch Valley, and Brinsmead on the eastern side. Stratford, Freshwater, and Brinsmead are separated from Cairns city by Mount Whitfield (elevation 365 m (1,198 ft)) and Whitfield Range. Crystal Cascades and Copperlode Dam are also located behind this range. (Kuranda, a town on the Barron River on the western side of the Macalister Range, forms part of the Cairns economic catchment but is located in the Tablelands local government area and is not part of the Cairns urban area.)
The city centre of Cairns is adjacent to the suburbs of Cairns North, and Parramatta Park, Bungalow, Portsmith, and close to Westcourt, Manunda, Manoora, Edge Hill, Whitfield, Kanimbla, Mooroobool, Earlville, Woree and Bayview Heights. The small suburb of Aeroglen is pressed between Mount Whitfield and the airport, on the Captain Cook Highway between Cairns North and Stratford.
Southside Cairns, situated in a narrow area between Trinity Inlet to the east and Lamb Range to the west, includes the suburbs of White Rock, Mount Sheridan, Bentley Park and Edmonton. The townships of Goldsborough, Little Mulgrave, and Aloomba are near Gordonvale, located on the Mulgrave River. This area is serviced by the Bruce Highway. Several other small towns and communities within Cairns' jurisdiction are sparsely located along the Bruce highway, the furthest being Mirriwinni, 66 kilometres (41.0 mi) south of Cairns city; the largest of these townships is Babinda, about 60 kilometres (37.3 mi) from the city.
Cairns experiences a tropical climate, specifically a tropical monsoon climate (Am) under the Köppen climate classification. A wet season with tropical monsoons runs from November to May, with a relatively dry season from June to October, though showers are frequent for most of this period. Cairns' mean annual rainfall is 2,015.9 millimetres (79.4 in). Babinda, a town to the south of the city, is one of Australia's wettest towns, recording an annual rainfall of over 4,200 millimetres (165.4 in). It has hot, humid summers and milder temperatures in winter. Mean maximum temperatures vary from 25.7 °C (78.3 °F) in July to 31.4 °C (88.5 °F) in January. Monsoonal activity during the wet season occasionally causes major flooding of the Barron and Mulgrave Rivers, cutting off road and rail access to the city. Cairns has 89.7 clear days, annually. Dewpoint in the wet season (summer) averages at 22 °C (71.6 °F).
|Climate data for Cairns Aero AWS|
|Record high °C (°F)||40.4
|Average high °C (°F)||31.4
|Average low °C (°F)||23.7
|Record low °C (°F)||18.2
|Precipitation mm (inches)||395.3
|Avg. precipitation days||18.3||19.0||19.3||17.7||13.6||9.5||8.8||7.9||7.6||8.3||10.5||13.8||154.3|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||210.8||170.8||198.4||201.0||207.7||219.0||229.4||248.0||258.0||272.8||252.0||238.7||2,706.6|
|Source: Bureau of Meteorology|
Like most of North and Far North Queensland, Cairns is prone to tropical cyclones, usually forming between November and May.
Notable cyclones that have affected the Cairns region include:
- Cyclone Yasi, 2011
- Cyclone Larry, 2006
- Cyclone Abigail, 2001
- Cyclone Steve, 2000
- Cyclone Rona, 1999
- Cyclone Justin, 1997
Prior to British settlement, the Cairns area was inhabited by the Walubarra Yidinji people, who still recognise their indigenous property rights. The area is known in the local Yidiny language as Gimuy.
In 1770, James Cook first mapped the future site of Cairns, naming it Trinity Bay. Closer investigation by several official expeditions 100 years later established its potential for development into a port.
Cairns was founded in 1876, hastened by the need to export gold discovered on the tablelands to the west of the inlet. The site was predominantly mangrove swamps and sand ridges. The swamps were gradually cleared by labourers, and the sand ridges were filled in with dried mud, sawdust from local sawmills, and ballast from a quarry at Edge Hill. Debris collected from the construction of a railway to Herberton on the Atherton Tableland, a project which started in 1886, was also used. The railway opened up land that was later used for agriculture on the lowlands (sugar cane, corn, rice, bananas, pineapples), and for fruit and dairy production on the Tableland. The success of local agriculture helped Cairns to establish itself as a port, and the creation of a harbour board in 1906 helped to support its economic future.
During World War II, Cairns was used by the Allied Forces as a staging base for operations in the Pacific, with US Army Air Force and Royal Australian Air Force operational bases (now the airport), as well as a major military seaplane base in Trinity Inlet, and US Navy and Royal Australian Navy bases near the current wharf. Combat missions were flown out of Cairns in support of the Battle of the Coral Sea in 1942. Edmonton and White Rock south of Cairns were major military supply areas and US Paratroopers trained at Gordonvale and the Goldsborough Valley.
A Special Forces training base was established at the old "Fairview" homestead on Munro's Hill, Mooroobool. This base was officially known as the Z Experimental Station, but referred to informally as "The House on the Hill".
After World War II, Cairns gradually developed into a centre for tourism. The opening of the Cairns International Airport in 1984 helped establish the city as a desirable destination for international tourism.
Cairns has a number of heritage-listed sites, including:
- Abbott Street: Dr EA Koch Memorial
- Abbott Street: Barrier Reef Hotel
- Abbott Street: Bishop's House, Cairns
- Abbott Street: St Monica's High School Administration Building
- 6A-8A Abbott Street: Cairns Customs House (former)
- 38 – 40 Abbott Street: Cairns Court House Complex
- 151 Abbott Street: Cairns City Council Chambers
- 179 Abbott Street: St Joseph's Convent
- 183 Abbott Street: St Monica's War Memorial Cathedral
- Cairns Railway, Section from Redlynch to Crooked Creek Bridge: Kuranda Scenic Railway
- Collins Avenue: Flecker Botanical Gardens
- Collins Avenue: WWII RAN Fuel Installation
- Grafton Street: World War II Volunteer Defence Corps, Cairns Control Room
- Lake Street: Bolands Centre
- 37 Lake Street: Adelaide Steamship Co Ltd (former)
- 39 – 49 Lake Street: Central Court
- 87 Lake Street: Hides Hotel
- 93–105 Lake Street: School of Arts, Cairns (former)
- 99 Grafton Street: 99 Grafton St
- 399 Kamerunga Road, Redlynch: Xavier and Sadie Herbert's Cottage (former)
- 127–145 McLeod Street: McLeod Street Pioneer Cemetery
- 180 McLeod: Herries Private Hospital
- Minnie Street: St Monica's Old Cathedral
- 8 Minnie Street: Cairns Masonic Temple
- The Esplanade: Cairns War Memorial
- 51 The Esplanade: Mulgrave Shire Council Chambers (former)
- 183–185 The Esplanade: Floriana, Cairns
- Wharf Street: Cairns Wharf Complex
- 29 Wharf Street: Jack and Newell Building (former)
Cairns is part of the Cairns Region local government area which is governed by a Regional Council. The Council consists of a directly elected mayor and 10 councillors, elected from 10 single-member divisions (or wards) using an optional preferential voting system. Elections are held every four years.
The Cairns Region consists of three former local government areas. The first was the original City of Cairns, consisting of the Cairns City region as listed above. The second, which was amalgamated in 1995, was the Shire of Mulgrave (comprising the other areas, namely the Northern Beaches, Redlynch Valley and Southside). The town of Gordonvale was once called Nelson. The third area is the Shire of Douglas, which amalgamated in 2008 during major statewide local government reforms.
At the time of the 1995 amalgamation, Cairns City had a population of approximately 40,000 and Mulgrave Shire had a population of approximately 60,000. Both local government authorities had chambers in the Cairns CBD. The old Cairns City Council chambers has been converted into a new city library. In a controversial decision, new Council chambers were constructed on previously contaminated land in the mainly industrial suburb of Portsmith.
Cairns has three representatives in the Queensland Parliament, from the electoral districts of Barron River, Cairns and Mulgrave. The city is represented in the Federal Parliament by representatives elected from the districts of Leichhardt and Kennedy.
Cairns serves as the major commercial centre for the Far North Queensland and Cape York Peninsula Regions. It is a base for the regional offices of various government departments.
Tourism plays a major part in the Cairns economy. According to Tourism Australia, the Cairns region is the fourth-most popular destination for international tourists in Australia after Sydney, Melbourne and Brisbane. While the city does not rank amongst Australia's top 10 destinations for domestic tourism, it attracts a significant number of Australian holiday makers despite its distance from major capitals. There is also a growing interest in Cairns from the Chinese leisure market with occasional direct flights from Chinese cities such as Shanghai and Guangzhou. During the 2013 Chinese Lunar New Year period alone, Cairns saw 20,000 Chinese holidaymakers flying in on chartered flights.
The city is near the Great Barrier Reef, the Wet Tropics of Queensland, and the Atherton Tableland.
Cairns esplanade includes a swimming lagoon with adjoining barbecue areas. In May 2003, the then Cairns Mayor Kevin Byrne declared that topless sunbathing is permitted here, as the area is a gathering point for people from around the world who may wish to do so.
Several shopping centres of various sizes are located throughout Cairns. The largest of these are Cairns Central shopping centre, located in the central business district, and Stockland Cairns, located in the suburb of Earlville. In Westcourt, one of the city's oldest shopping centres has been refurbished, with the city's first DFO. To service the needs of suburbs further from the city centre, shopping complexes are also located at Mount Sheridan, Redlynch, Smithfield, and Clifton Beach.
The Cairns Post is a daily newspaper published in the city; a weekly paper, The Cairns Sun, is also published. The Courier-Mail is a daily Queensland-wide newspaper published in Brisbane. The Australian newspaper also circulates widely. The Cairns Bulletin is an independent newspaper in circulation in the Cairns area.
Cairns is served by five television stations, three commercial television stations (WIN Television, Seven Queensland and Southern Cross Ten) which are regional affiliates of the three Australian commercial television networks (Nine, Seven and Ten), and public broadcasters the ABC (ABC1) and SBS (SBS ONE). services.
Of the three main commercial networks, Seven Queensland and WIN produce 30-minute local news bulletins each weeknight (both produced from local newsrooms, but broadcast from studios in Maroochydore with WIN also producing a state-wide late news bulletin for regional Queensland. Southern Cross Ten also provides short local news updates throughout the day.
Cairns radio stations include a number of public, commercial and community broadcasters. The ABC broadcasts ABC Radio National, ABC Local, ABC Classic FM and the Triple J youth network. Commercial radio stations include Zinc 102.7 FM, 4CA 846 AM, Hot FM, Sea FM and 104.3 4TAB sports radio, while the community radio stations are 4CCR-FM, 101.9 Coast FM, Orbit FM 88.0FM & 87.8FM and 4CIM 98.7FM.
Industry and agriculture
The land around Cairns is still used for sugar cane farming, although this land is increasingly under pressure from new suburbs as the city grows. Within the Cairns City Council area there is a sugar mill at Gordonvale.
Cairns is an important transport hub in the Far North Queensland region. Located at the base of Cape York Peninsula, it provides important transport links between the Peninsula and Gulf of Carpentaria regions, and the areas to the south of the state. Cairns International Airport is essential to the viability of the area's tourism industry.
The Bruce Highway runs for 1,700 km (1,056 mi) from Brisbane, and terminates in the Cairns CBD. From there the Captain Cook Highway (also referred to as the Cook Highway) commences, and runs for approximately 76 km (47 mi) northwest to Mossman.
A need for future upgrades to the Bruce Highway to motorway standards through the southern suburbs to Gordonvale has been identified in regional planning strategies to cope with increasing congestion from rapid population growth. This will result in overpasses at all major intersections from Woree to Gordonvale. The motorway will divert from Bentley Park to Gordonvale, bypassing Edmonton to reduce the effects of road noise on residential areas.
The Kennedy Highway commences at Smithfield on the Barron River flood plain north of Cairns, and ascends the Macalister Range to the township of Kuranda. The highway then extends to the town of Mareeba on the Atherton Tableland, and continues to communities of Cape York Peninsula.
The Gillies Highway commences at the township of Gordonvale, and ascends the Gillies Range (part of the Great Dividing Range) to the town of Atherton on the Atherton Tableland, passing through the township of Yungaburra on the way.
The controversial private road, Quaid Road, was constructed in 1989 through what is now a Wet Tropics World Heritage Area, and links Wangetti, on the coast just north of Cairns, to Southedge, just south of Mount Molloy. The road is not open to the public and is not used for general traffic.
Cairns is served by long-distance coaches to Brisbane, and regional cities to the south. Coaches also operate west to Mount Isa via Townsville, and to Alice Springs and Darwin in the Northern Territory.
A public transport network is operated throughout the city by Marlin Coast Sunbus. A transit mall is located in the CBD, through which all services operate. Services include most parts of the city, from Palm Cove in the north, to Gordonvale in the south. Bus services operated by 'TRANSLink' run to Kuranda and to the Atherton Tableland. A smaller minibus service, Jon's Kuranda Bus runs between Cairns and Kuranda. Cairns also has one major taxi company, Cairns Taxis, which services the Cairns region.
Cairns railway station is the terminus for Queensland's North Coast railway line, which follows the eastern seaboard from Brisbane. Services are operated by Queensland Rail (QR). In April 2009, the high speed tilt train service from Brisbane to Cairns was suspended due to safety concerns but resumed service on 4 May. Freight trains also operate along the route, with a QR Freight handling facility located at Portsmith.
Pacific National Queensland (a division of Pacific National, owned by Asciano Limited) operates a rail siding at Woree. It runs private trains on the rail network owned by the Queensland State Government and managed by QR's Network Division.
The Kuranda Scenic Railway operates from Cairns. The tourist railway ascends the Macalister Range and is not used for commuter services. It passes through the suburbs of Stratford, Freshwater (stopping at Freshwater Station) and Redlynch before reaching Kuranda.
Freight services to Forsayth were discontinued in the mid-1990s. These were mixed freight and passenger services that served the semi-remote towns west of the Great Dividing Range. There is now a weekly passenger-only service, The Savannahlander, that leaves Cairns on Wednesday mornings. The Savannahlander is run by a private company, Cairns Kuranda Steam Trains.
Cairns is served by a narrow gauge cane railway (or cane train) network that hauls harvested sugar cane to the Mulgrave Mill located in Gordonvale. The pressure of urban sprawl on land previously cultivated by cane farmers has seen this network reduced over recent years.
The use of the existing heavy rail line for commuter services between Redlynch and Gordonvale is occasionally discussed; however this is not a favoured option under the FNQ 2010 Regional Plan, which recommends the use of buses.
Cairns International Airport is located 7 km (4 mi) north of Cairns City between the CBD and the Northern Beaches. It is Australia's seventh busiest domestic airport and sixth busiest international airport. In 2005/2006 there were 3.76 million international and domestic passenger movements.
The domestic terminal at Cairns Airport underwent an extensive redevelopment which began in 2007 and was completed in 2010.
The airport has a domestic terminal, a separate international terminal, and a general aviation area. The airport handles international flights, and flights to major Australian cities, tourist destinations, and regional destinations throughout North Queensland. It is an important base for general aviation serving the Cape York Peninsula and Gulf of Carpentaria communities. The Cairns airport is also a base for the Royal Flying Doctor Service.
The Cairns Seaport, located on Trinity Inlet, is operated by the Cairns Port Authority. It serves as an important port for tourist operators providing daily reef trips. These consist of large catamarans capable of carrying over 300 passengers, as well as smaller operators that may take as few as 12 tourists. Cairns Port is also a port of call for cruise ships, such as Captain Cook Cruises, cruising the South Pacific Ocean. It also provides freight services to coastal townships on Cape York Peninsula, the Torres Strait and the Gulf of Carpentaria.
Yearly cargo through the port totals 1.13 million tonnes. Almost 90% of the trade is bulk cargoes – including petroleum, sugar, molasses, fertiliser and LP gas. A large number of fishing trawlers are also located at the port. There is also a marina that houses private yachts and boats used for tourist operations.
The Royal Australian Navy has a base in Cairns (HMAS Cairns). The base has a complement of 900 personnel, and supports fourteen warships, including the four Armidale class patrol boats of Ardent Division, four of the six Balikpapan class landing craft, and all six ships of the Royal Australian Navy Hydrographic Service.
The Trinity Wharf has recently been the subject of a major redevelopment to improve the area for tourist and cruise ship operations. The freight wharves are located to the south of Trinity Wharf further up Trinity Inlet.
- Lae, Papua New Guinea (Morobe Province) since 1984
- Minami, Japan (Tokushima Prefecture) since 1969
- Oyama, Japan (Tochigi Prefecture) since 15 June 2006
- Riga, Latvia since 1990
- Scottsdale, Arizona (USA) since 1987
- Sidney, British Columbia (Canada) since 1984
- Zhanjiang, People's Republic of China (Guangdong province) since 2005
A selection of memorabilia and artefacts relating to Cairns Sister Cities is displayed at Cairns City Library.
Cairns has numerous primary and secondary schools. Separate systems of private and public schools operate in Queensland. There are 20 state primary schools and 16 state high schools operated by the Queensland state government Department of Education within the Cairns City Council area, including 6 schools in the predominantly rural areas south of Gordonvale.
Roman Catholic schools are operated by Catholic Education Cairns. The Roman Catholic system encompasses nineteen primary schools, six secondary colleges and one P-12 college. There are almost 6,700 primary students and 4,000 secondary students enrolled in the Roman Catholic school system.
There are also three other independent schools – Peace Lutheran College, Trinity Anglican School and Freshwater Christian Ciollege.
The Cairns Campus of James Cook University is located at Smithfield. CQUniversity Australia has established a study centre in Cairns. The city also hosts a TAFE college, and a School of the Air base, both located in the inner suburb of Manunda.
The Cairns Hospital is situated on the Cairns Esplanade and is the major hospital for the Cape York Peninsula Region. The smaller Cairns Private Hospital is located nearby. A new building due to be completed in 2015 will provide up to 168 more beds.
Sport and recreation
The Skill360 Australia Northern Pride Queensland Cup rugby league team played their first season in 2008, and act as a feeder team to the North Queensland Cowboys who play in the National Rugby League. Cairns is represented by Brothers Cairns, Cairns Kangaroos and Southern Suburbs in the Cairns District Rugby League, products Justin Hodges, Steve Earnest, Stephen Cairns.
Cairns has a seven-team AFL competition between teams from the Cairns and Port Douglas region. AFL Cairns currently hosts one AFL game each season. Cairns has a National Basketball League (NBL) team, the Cairns Taipans whose home court is the Convention Centre, known as The Snakepit during Taipans home games. The Cairns region has a large association football (soccer) community with a local competition which spans from Port Douglas to Innisfail and west to Dimbulah. Notable association football (soccer) players from the region include Socceroos Frank Farina, Steve Corica, Shane Stefanutto and Michael Thwaite. Cairns also hosts growing bases for Rugby union, and a local league of Australian rules football.
Cairns is a major international destination for water sports and scuba diving due to its close proximity to the Great Barrier Reef. Other recreational activities popular with tourists include whitewater rafting, skydiving, kitesurfing and snorkelling.
- Terence Cooper, film actor, artist
- Courtenay Dempsey, AFL footballer, Essendon Football Club
- Charlie Dixon, AFL footballer, Gold Coast Football Club
- Jarrod Harbrow, AFL footballer, Gold Coast Football Club
- Xavier Herbert, writer 
- Justin Hodges, International Rugby League player
- Isabel Lucas, actress
- Ryan McGoldrick, rugby league player, Castleford Tigers
- Ken Ham, creationist and religious activist
- Nate Myles, International rugby league player
- Johnny Nicol, musician
- Tania Peitzker writer, literary scholar & publicist
- Wilma Reading, singer
- Shakaya, Cairns-based R&B duo
- Brenton Thwaites, actor
- Rhys Wakefield, actor
- Ben Halloran, footballer for Brisbane Roar
- Michael Thwaite, footballer for Perth Glory, and occasional Socceroo
Kuranda scenic railway, Kuranda
Mossman river and Gorge, Daintree National Park, outskirts of Cairns
Moved termite mounds, Mareeba, Queensland, outskirts of Cairns
Marine stingers sign, Trinity beach, Cairns
- Australian Bureau of Statistics (31 October 2012). "Cairns (Local Government Area)". 2011 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 22 December 2014.
- Australian Bureau of Statistics (25 October 2007). "Cairns (QLD) (Statistical District)". 2006 Census QuickStats. Retrieved 30 September 2009.
- "National Regional Profile : Cairns City Part A (Statistical Subdivision)". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 20 November 2006. Retrieved 26 November 2007.
- Macquarie Dictionary, Fourth Edition (2005). Melbourne, The Macquarie Library Pty Ltd. ISBN 1-876429-14-3
- Tapper, Andrew; Tapper, Nigel (1996). Gray, Kathleen, ed. The weather and climate of Australia and New Zealand (First ed.). Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press. p. 300. ISBN 0-19-553393-3.
- Linacre, Edward; Geerts, Bart (1997). Climates and Weather Explained. London: Routledge. p. 379. ISBN 0-415-12519-7.
- "Climate of Cairns". Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 13 April 2011.
- "Climate statistics for Cairns Aero AWS". Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
- Dixon, R. M. W. (1977). "A grammar of Yidiny". Cambridge Studies in Linguistics. Cambridge University Press. p. 19. ISBN 0-521-14242-3.
- "Welcome – 2007 Native Title Conference". AIATSIS. 2007.
- "MEMORIAL UNVEILED AT CAIRNS.". The Brisbane Courier (Qld. : 1864 - 1933) (Qld.: National Library of Australia). 27 April 1926. p. 8. Retrieved 6 April 2014.
- "Sailors and Soldiers War Memorial". Monument Australia. Retrieved 6 April 2014.
- "Cairns". RAAF Museum. Royal Australian Air Force. Retrieved 13 April 2011.
- McKie, Ronald (1960). The Heroes. Sydney: Angus & Robertson Ltd. p. 9. ISBN 0-207-12133-8.
- "Dr EA Koch Memorial (entry 16441)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "Barrier Reef Hotel (entry 16369)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "Bishop's House (entry 16484)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "St Monica's High School Administration Building (entry 16485)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "Cairns Customs House (former) (entry 15152)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "Cairns Court House Complex (entry 15151)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "Cairns City Council Chambers (entry 16337)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "St Joseph's Convent (entry 16486)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "St Monica's War Memorial Cathedral (entry 16697)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "Cairns to Kuranda Railway (entry 15530)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "Flecker Botanical Gardens (entry 2961)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "WWII RAN Fuel Installation (entry 22226)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "World War II Volunteer Defence Corps, Cairns Control Room (entry 29196)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "Bolands Centre (entry 2977)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "Adelaide Steamship Co Ltd (former) (entry 15156)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "Central Court (entry 15154)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "Hides Hotel (entry 15157)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "School of Arts, Cairns (former) (entry 15155)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "99 Grafton St (entry 2962)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "Xavier and Sadie Herbert's Cottage (former) (entry 16476)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "McLeod Street Pioneer Cemetery (entry 15158)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "Herries Private Hospital (entry 16873)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "St Monica's Old Cathedral (entry 16487)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "Cairns Masonic Temple (entry 16302)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "Cairns War Memorial (entry 15153)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "Mulgrave Shire Council Chambers (former) (entry 16649)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "Floriana (entry 31331)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "Cairns Wharf Complex (entry 16527)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "Jack and Newell Building (former) (entry 16371)". Queensland Heritage Register. Queensland Heritage Council. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- "Land Row". The Cairns Post. News Limited. 19 July 2001. p. 1.
- "International Market Tourism Facts" (PDF). Tourism Australia.
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- "Chinese groups head for Cairns". TTGmice. Retrieved 4 March 2013.
- "Backpacker Boobs Cause Stir". Sydney Morning Herald. 23 May 2003. Retrieved 29 January 2008.
- "Cairns Esplanade Redevelopment Progress – Topless Sunbathing".
- "Direct Factory Outlets".
- "Direct Benefit". The Cairns Post. News Limited. 3 December 2008.
- "William McCormack Place, Stage Two, Cairns". Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation. Queensland Government. Retrieved 13 April 2011.
- Regional digital TV timetable, Australian Government
- "FNQ Regional Plan – Supporting Technical Documents – Integrated Transport". February 2000. pp. 41–43.
- recently brought the public transport from 'Trans North'. Transnorthbus.com. Retrieved on 9 September 2014.
- The Cairns Range Railway was built to connect the mining centre of Herberton with Cairns. Work began on 10 May 1886; the first sod was turned in Cairns by Samuel Griffith, Premier of Queensland, and the first train arrived in Herberton on 20 October 1910 (Information taken from: A.D. Broughton, A pictorial history of the construction of the Cairns Range Railway, 1886–1891, 1991).
- "Rail union safety fears grow as Qld tilt train resumes". ABC. 4 May 2009.
- "Cairns Port Authority 2005/6 Annual Report".
- "Cairns Port Authority".
- "HMAS Cairns". Royal Australian Navy. Retrieved 21 August 2008.
- Sister cities – Cairns Regional Council. Cairns.qld.gov.au. Retrieved on 16 July 2013.
- "Catholic Education Services Cairns".
- "Catholic Education in the Cairns Diocese".
- A hub of higher learning for Cairns
- "AFL Cairns – History".
- Cairns Baseball League. Cairns Baseball League (23 July 2012). Retrieved on 2013-07-16.
- [dead link]
- McDougall, Russell. "Biography – Albert Francis Xavier Herbert". Australian National University. Retrieved 10 February 2012.
- The Australian Woman's Weekly 6 June 1973
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- Cairns City Council Website
- University of Queensland: Queensland Places: Cairns
- Cairns Local Information Website
- Watch historical footage of Cairns and Far North Queensland from the National Film and Sound Archive of Australia's collection.
- Cairns – Tourism Australia