مترو أنفاق القاهرة
|Transit type||Rapid transit|
|Number of lines||3|
|Number of stations||57|
|Daily ridership||~4 million|
|Operator(s)||Egyptian Railway Authority|
|System length||70.2 km (43.6 mi)|
|Track gauge||1435 mm standard gauge|
|Electrification||Line 1 overhead line
Line 2 third-rail
Line 3 overhead line
The Cairo Metro (Arabic: مترو أنفاق القاهرة or مترو الأنفاق pronounced [ˈmetɾo lʔænˈfæːʔ]) in Egypt is the first of only two full-fledged metro systems in Africa. The system consists of three operational lines.
The metro is run by the National Authority for Tunnels. The lines use standard gauge (1435 mm). The ticket price is EGP 1.00 for each journey (about GBP 0.10, EUR 0.13, or USD 0.16, average exchange rate for December 2012), regardless of distance. On all Cairo metro trains, the middle two cars (4th and 5th) of each train are reserved for women (the 5th car becomes a mixed use after 21:00). There are also blue signs at every station that signify the position of these cars. These cars are used as an option for women who do not wish to ride with men in the same car; however, women can still ride other cars freely. This policy was introduced for protection of women from sexual harassment by men.
As of 2011, the metro carried nearly 4 million passengers per day.
As the biggest and most densely populated city in Africa, and the Arab World, the case for a metro in Cairo was strong. In 1987 that population stood at 10 million residents, not counting the two million or so commuters who came into Cairo every day to work. The capacity of Cairo's public transport infrastructure was around 20,000 passengers/hour, which increased to 60,000 after the construction of the Metro. In 1990 a study was conducted for the future needs of the city and showed there was a need for about 8.4 million journeys by public transport and 2.7 million journeys by other modes, such as taxi and car. The actual public transport capacity is 4.9 million journeys/day, 3.5 million short of the actual requirement. This has led to a 50% increase in the number of taxis on the streets with subsequent increases in traffic congestion in the city.
The idea of a metro was first thought of in the 1930s by the Egyptian engineer Saiyed Abdel Wahed who was working at the Egyptian Railway Authority, however, the idea did not progress. Following the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, there was renewed interest in the idea. In 1954 French experts made a report about the future of the transportation in Egypt. They proposed a metro encompassing two lanes, one 12 km long lane connecting Bab al-Louq and Ismailia and a second 5 km lane connecting Boulaq and Abou al-Ela Castle. They also proposed that there should be one company in charge of all transportation systems.
Later on multiple experts came to Egypt regarding that project: Soviet experts in 1956, Japanese experts in 1960 and French experts in 1962, which concluded the following: The creation of a metro system with multiple lines. The first is a 5 km lane connecting Helwan with El-Marg going under the Kasr el eini street and Ramses Street. The second lane would be from Sayeda Zainab to Shobra going under Downtown Cairo and would be 9.5 km long. The third is from Giza to Abbasiyah and would be 11.5 km long. The fourth is from Al Awqaf to the Castle and is 6.7 km long.
In 1964 British experts advised the creation of a metro line from Bab El Louk to Shubra. In 1966 Japanese experts advised the creation of a lane between Helwan and El Marg and another one going through Mohandessin, Heliopolis and 26 of July street, which would encompass 26 km. Lastly, in 1969, the government approved the need for a study showing the needed capacity for Cairo's transportation system. The Egyptian Ministry of Transport had an international tender for the creation of the study. Eight companies applied and the French company Sufreto won the tender on 20 September 1970. The study was finished in 1973 and included mainly the study of the population development in Cairo and its needs for transportation capacity in 1980,1985 and 1990. It concluded the necessity for three lines in greater Cairo to solve the transportation problem. The first line would use the already available railways (Helwan-Bab El luk and Al Laymoun Bridge- El Marg) and connect them through a metro. It would be in total 43 km long. The second line should be 13.5 km and connect Shubra El-Kheima and Bulak el Dakrur going through Ramses Street and Tahrir Square. The third line would go from El Darasa to Imbaba and would be in total 10 km long.
The priority for the project was the first line which would reduce 30% of the daily transport to and from Cairo and use the already available structures. The detailed study of the construction took 6 years from 1975 to 1981. A tender was made for the construction of the metro and the Egyptian-French company Entra Nevra Arabco won it and had the task of constructing the metro system.
The construction of Line 1 started in 1982 after the French government agreed on giving Egypt the necessary loan. The first section was opened in 1987 and the line was completed in 1989 connecting Helwan with El Marg and consisting of 33 stations with a total length of 43 km of which 4.5 km underground. The line witnessed few developments since 1989, New El Marg station was added in 1999 to the northern end of the line, bringing its total length to 44.3 km. Helwan University station was built between Wadi Houf and Ain Helwan stations.
Cairo's metro network was greatly expanded in the mid-1990s with the building of Line 2 (yellow), from Shoubra El Kheima to Cairo University, with an extension to Giza. The line includes the first tunnel under the Nile. The construction of the line was finished in October 2000 and was later extended to El Mounib.
|Line 1||Helwan - El Marg||1987||1999||44||34|
|Line 2||Shobra El Kheima - El Mounib||1996||2005||21||20|
|Line 3||Attaba - Abbassia||2012||-||4.3||5|
Line 1 (red) is the oldest line of the Cairo Metro, opened in 1987. The line is 44.3 km long and comprises 35 stations. This line carries trains with 3 Units (9 wagons), which have a headway of 3'30 to 4 minutes and a maximum speed of 100 km/h. The line can carry 60,000 passengers per hour in each direction.
Line 2 (yellow) is the second line of the Cairo Metro. The line is 21.6 kilometres (13 mi) long of which 13 km in tunnels. It comprises 20 stations of which 12 are underground. It is mostly in bored tunnel, with two exceptions: a short section at the northern end approaching Shubra El Kheima which is elevated, and a section just south of this by cut-and-cover. Line 2 uses the third-rail electrification system instead of the overhead line used in the other two lines. The communication extension for line 2 was provided by Alcatel in 2005. The minimum headway for the line is 2'40 to 3 minutes.
The Line 2 has a simulator installed in Shubra since 2002 which was delivered by French company CORYS.
Line 3 presently operates from Attaba to Abbassia, with construction under way for the remaining line to the northeast at Heliopolis and eventually to Cairo International Airport. The line will cross under the two branches of the River Nile, as does Line 2. The total length of the line will be approximately 30 kilometres (19 mi), most of which in bored tunnel, and will be implemented in four phases. Phase 1 from Attaba to Abbassia opened on February 21, 2012 with a total length of 4.3 km (2.7 mi). Phase 2 to Haroun Station is scheduled to open in April 2014.
Line 4 (October-Oasis Highway - the Police Academy)
|This section is outdated. (August 2011)|
Line 4 is planned to run from Haram District reaching the New Cairo district connecting Greater Cairo from West to East.
Phase 1 of the project will run from El-Malek El-Saleh Station (Interchange with Line 1) to the October-Oasis Highway Station with a total length of 17 km, passing through Giza Railway Station (Interchange with Line 2); the original plan for phase 1 was for it to start from EL-Malek El-Saleh Station and end at the Grand Egyptian Museum Station with a total length of 10 km, but the Ministry of Roads & Transportation decided to extend the Line in their efforts to further connect the Governorate of 6 October to the Greater Cairo Area; phase 1 also includes the plan to connect the end of Line 4 to the suburbs of 6 October mainly through executing The October 6th Tram system (The O6T) which will be by using a Tram-train system supplied with the Alstom Regio-Citadis trams.
In September 2009, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) was finalizing the feasibility study of the line, the construction began in 2011. Phase 1 is likely to be operational right after the completion of the 3rd phase in Line 3 by October 2016.
Phase 2 is set to begin in 2014 starting from El-Malek El-Saleh Station passing through Magra El-Oyoun street and Salah El-Din Citadel in Salah Salem street and ending at the 6th District Station (beginning of Nasr City district) with a completion date set at October 2018.
Phase 3 is set to begin in 2015 starting from the 6th District Station and ending at Makram Ebeid Station running through Mustafa El-Nahas street in bored tunnels under the existing old tram system, taking it as a guide and ultimately deconstructing the old railway and paving the path it occupied increasing the street by two lanes in each direction which is critically needed to lighten the traffic congestion in the area. This phase has a completion date set at October 2019.
Phase 4, the final phase, has a starting date set in 2017 where it will start from Makram Ebeid Station with bored tunnels running through Doctor Hassan El-Sherif street and all the way under Ahmed El-Zomor street reaching the end of the line and making it complete at the Police Academy Station.
Line 4 is expected to be fully operational by October 2020.
The New Cairo Monorail
This project has been proposed by private investors and awaiting approval from the government with a plan to connect Line 3 with Line 4 through a route which is mostly parallel to the Ring Road's eastern arc, therefore covering New Cairo from north to south starting at the Cairo International Airport and ending at the beginning of the Cairo-Ain Sokhna Highway, where the government is currently planning to build a major bus station to serve those traveling to the eastern part of the country. The project has an estimated cost of $750 million and a completion date set at 2020.
Proposed stations are:
- Cairo International Airport
- The Governmental Complex
- Naguib Mahfouz
- Police Academy
- The 5th Settlement
- Eastern Cairo Bus Station
Long term plans
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (August 2008)|
A transportation study of the Greater Cairo region was completed in 1999. It recommended the implementation of a six line system consisting of lines 1 and 2 (existing), Line 3 (under construction as of 2010); and lines 4, 5 and 6. The completed Metro Network would be capable of serving most of the densely populated areas in the Greater Cairo region, which was much in need of a comprehensive mass transit system. The plans include interchange stations between the six metro lines and would also provides interchange facilities with existing main railway stations, the airport, and bus stations.
The six planned metro lines aim to meet the transportation demands of the Greater Cairo area up to the year 2022. However, the actual construction and implementation schedule will be restricted by available funding, and it is likely that the timetable will slip.
Line 5 would be half-circular line connecting lines 1, 2, 3 and 4, running from Nasr City to Port Said Street and Shubra El Kheima. It would have a length of 20 kilometres (12 mi), entirely within bored tunnels.
Line 6 would stretch from Shubra in the north until the Maadi and Helwan districts in the south. It would run from Ataba Station (Interchange with both Line 2 and Line 3) through El Kalaa street in bored tunnels to Salah Eldin Citadel Station (Interchange with Line 4) and moving on from there to both districts via bored tunnels using the existing route El-Mahager Railway as a guide through both Maadi and Helwan. This Line has a length of 19 kilometres (12 mi),
- New York Times Cairo Journal; For Women Only: A Train Car Safe From Men
- Metro Al Anfaq 11
- Metro Al Anfaq 14
- Metro Al Anfaq 15
- Metro Al Anfaq 16
- Metro Al Anfaq 17
- Metro Al Anfaq 18
- Metro Al Anfaq 19
- Metro Al Anfaq 20
- "Greater Cairo Metro Network". Egyptian Tunneling Society. 2007-04-15. Retrieved 2008-10-20.
- "World: Middle East". Cairo's metro goes under Nile. BBC News. 1999-04-19. Retrieved 2008-10-28.
- Metro Al Anfaq 32
- "Alcatel extends the communications infrastructure of Cairo's metro line 2". Paris: Alcatel Lucent. 2005-04-26. Retrieved 2008-10-27.
- Abeer Saady (May–June 2007). "Cairo's Metro Gets Bigger & Better". German-Arab chamber of industry and commerce. Retrieved 2008-10-27.
- "Abbasiya - Heliopolis Metro open in April". Egypt Independent. 4 December 2013. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cairo Metro.|
- Cairo Metro
- Some hi-res pictures from inside the Cairo Metro
- National Authority for Tunnels official website
- Cairo Metro on UrbanRail.Net
- The Greater Cairo Metro Network (International Tunnelling Association)
- Cairo Metro Stations Chart in English (VirtualTourist.com)
- Underground, Everything That Life Above Is Not, New York Times on-line, May 3, 2012