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Louisiana English is the dialect of English spoken by Louisianans living in the Creole Parishes (now known as southern Louisiana among Cajuns) and, to some extent, in eastern Texas. Louisiana English is significantly influenced by Louisiana French, the historical language of the Louisiana Creole people, a direct descendant of Acadian French, which differs extensively from Metropolitan or Parisian French in terms of pronunciation and vocabulary, particularly because of the long isolation of Southwestern Creoles, and even more so Creoles, from the Francophone world. English is now spoken by the vast majority of the Creole population, but French influence remains strong in terms of inflection and vocabulary, and the accent is quite distinct from the General American.
- 1 Part of the Louisiana identity
- 2 Features of Louisiana English
- 3 Other examples of Louisiana English vocabulary
- 4 Most confusing phrases
- 5 In popular culture
- 6 Resources
- 7 References
- 8 See also
Part of the Louisiana identity
While Louisiana French is considered by many to be an endangered language, mostly used by elderly generations, Louisiana English is spoken by even the Louisianans, and is considered to be part of the identity of the ethnic group.
Features of Louisiana English
Louisiana English distinguishes itself with some of the following features:
- Many vowels which are separate in General American English are pronounced the same way, for example, the words hill and heel are homophones, both being pronounced /hɪɹl/.
- Stress is generally placed on the second or last syllable of a word, a feature directly inherited from French.
- The voiceless and voiced alveolar stops /t/ and /d/ often replace dental fricatives, a feature used by both Louisiana English speakers and speakers of Louisiana Creole French (Standard French speakers generally render dental fricatives as alveolar). Examples include "bath" being pronounced as "bat" and "they" as "day."
- Louisiana English speakers generally do not aspirate the consonants /p/, /t/, or /k/. As a result, the words "par" and "bar" can sound very similar[by whom?].
- The inclusion of many loanwords, calques, and phrases from French, such as "nonc" (uncle, from the French oncle), "cher" (dear, pronounced /ʃæ/, from the French cher), and "making groceries" (to shop for groceries, a calque of the Louisiana French faire des groceries (épicerie))
These are a few other examples.
|English||Louisiana English (pronounced)|
|Think||Fink or Tink|
Louisiana English vowels
Dress: [ɛ] or [æ]
Square: [ɛ] or [æ]
Start: [ɑ] or [a]
North: [ɔə] or.[ɔɹ]
Force: [ɔə] or [ɔɹ]
Cure: [uə] or [ʊə]
Nurse: [ʌə] or [ʌɹ]
Price/Prize: [ɑɪ] or [a:]
Mouth:[aʊ] or [a:]
happY: [ɪ] or [i]
Mirror/Nearer: [i] or [ɪ]
Orange: [ɑ] or [ɔ]
Other examples of Louisiana English vocabulary
- Allon! : Let's go!
- Alors pas : Of course not
- Fais do-do : To go to sleep, refers to a dance party.
- Dis-moi la vérité ! : Tell me the truth!
- Quoi faire ? : Why?
- Un magasin : A store
- Être en colère : To be angry
- Mo chagren : I’m sorry
- Une sucette : A pacifier
- Une piastre : A dollar
- Un caleçon : Boxers
- Sha/cher (a is pronounced like a in apple, from) : Dear or darling - also used as "buddy" or "pal"
- Mais non, cher ! : Of course not, dear!
Most confusing phrases
There are several phrases used by Creoles that are completely unknown to speakers. When outside of the Creole Parishes (no known as Acadiana among Acadian-Creoles), Creoles tend to be made fun of for using these phrases. Young Creoles are often jokingly discouraged from marrying non-Creoles for this simple fact. Some common phrases are listed below:
Save the dishes
To "save the dishes" means to "put away the dishes into cupboards where they belong after being washed". While dishes are the most common subject, it is not uncommon to save other things. For example: Save up the clothes, saving the tools, save your toys.
Get down at the store
"Getting down at the store" involves stepping out of a car to enter the store. Most commonly, the driver will ask the passenger, "Do you want to get down with me?" One can get down at any place, not just the store. This phrase may come from the act of "getting down from a horse" as many areas of Acadiana were only accessible by horse (or boat) well into the 20th century. It also may originate from the French language descendre meaning to get down, much as some English-Spanish bilingual speakers say "get down," from the Spanish bajar.
Makin' (the) groceries
"Makin' groceries" refers to the act of going grocery shopping, though it conjures images of manufacturing bottles of Zataran's liquid crab boil. Probably a mis-translation of the American French phrase "faire l'épicerie" because "faire" is used in many French idioms and can be both "to do" as well as "to make". In fact, typing in "to do the grocery shopping" or "make groceries" into Google Translate and translating to French will output "faire l'épicerie" for each phrase.
In popular culture
- In the Walt Disney film The Princess and the Frog, the character of the firefly Raymond (or Ray) presented himself to be born and raised in the Bayou and therefore a true-blooded Creole.
- In the movie The Green Mile based on a book by Stephen King and starring Tom Hanks, a character named Eduard Delacroix is a Cajun prisoner who keeps a pet mouse. In the movie he often resorts to speaking his native Louisiana French dialect, which is discouraged by the prison guards.
- In the television series True Blood, the character René Lernier was introduced with a terrible Louisianan/"Cajun" accent. However, later in the series, it was learned that he was faking the accent through the help of some instructional materials.
- In Supernatural, the character Benny Lafitte is a Acadian-Creole vampire that befriends Dean Winchester in the eighth season.
- In X-Men : The Animated Series, the character Gambit was introduced as from Louisiana and is known to speak in a thick Louisiana accent.
- In the television series Luck, the character Leon Micheaux is a Louisiana jockey.
- In the television miniseries Band of Brothers the company's medic Eugene Roe is half-Acadian and speaks with a distinct accent.
- Likewise, Merriell "Snafu" Shelton from a companion miniseries The Pacific.
Several characters of Gabriel Knight: Sins of the Fathers, particularly the narrator, have Louisiana accents. Some characters even use Louisiana French phrases.
- Acadia, home of the "Cajuns" , located in what is now eastern Canada
- Acadiana, A 22-parish region in southern Louisiana
- American English
- Louisiana Creole people
- Louisiana French
- Dialects of the English Language
- Franglais, a term sometimes used to describe a mixed vernacular of French and English
- Louisiana Creole French, a French-based creole which has had Louisiana French and English
- Yat, another Louisiana dialect of English