Calcareous

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Calcareous is an adjective meaning mostly or partly composed of calcium carbonate, in other words, containing lime or being chalky. The term is used in a wide variety of scientific disciplines.

In zoology[edit]

"Calcareous" is used as an adjectival term applied to anatomical structures which are made primarily of calcium carbonate, in animals such as gastropods, i.e., snails, specifically about such structures as the operculum, the clausilium, and the love dart.

The term also applies to the calcium carbonate tests of often more or less microscopic Foraminifera. Note that not all tests are calcareous; diatoms and radiolaria have siliceous tests.

The Molluscs are calcareous, as are Calcareous sponges are sponges (Porifera), that have spicules which are made of calcium carbonate.[1]

In botany[edit]

Calcareous grassland is a form of grassland characteristic of soils containing a lot of calcium carbonate from underlying chalk or limestone rock. Species of algae such as the green-segmented genus Halimeda are calcareous.[1]

In medicine[edit]

The term is used in medicine in pathology, for example in "calcareous conjunctivitis" and "calcareous metastasis".

In geology[edit]

Calcareous mine in Perm Krai, Russia

The term calcareous can be applied to a sediment, sedimentary rock, or soil type which is formed from, or contains a high proportion of, calcium carbonate in the form of calcite or aragonite.

Marine sediments[edit]

Calcareous sediments are usually deposited in shallow water near land, since the carbonate is precipitated by marine organisms that need land-derived nutrients. Generally speaking, the farther from land sediments fall, the less calcareous they are. Some areas can have interbedded calcareous sediments due to storms, or changes in ocean currents.

Calcareous ooze is a form of calcium carbonate derived from planktonic organisms that accumulates on the sea floor. This can only occur if the ocean is shallower than the carbonate compensation depth (CCD). Below this depth, calcium carbonate begins to dissolve in the ocean, and only non-calcareous sediments are stable, such as siliceous ooze or red clay.

Calcareous soils[edit]

Calcareous soils are relatively alkaline, in other words they have a high pH. This is because of the very weak acidity of carbonic acid. Note that this is not the only reason for a high soil pH. They are characterized by the presence of calcium carbonate in the parent material and may have a Calcic horizon, a layer of secondary accumulation of carbonates (usually Ca or Mg) in excess of 15% calcium carbonate equivalent and at least 5% more carbonate than an underlying layer.[2]

In electrochemistry[edit]

Calcareous coatings, or calcareous deposits, are mixtures of calcium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide that are deposited on cathodically protected surfaces because of the increased pH adjacent to the surface.

List of calcareous lakes[edit]

Thompson Pond

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Murphy, Richard C. (2002). Coral Reefs: Cities Under The Seas. The Darwin Press, Inc. ISBN 0-87850-138-X. 
  2. ^ FAO. "Diagnostic horizons, properties and materials". Lecture notes on the major soils of the world. Retrieved 14 June 2014.