Calcium nitrite

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Calcium nitrite is an inorganic compound with chemical formula Ca(NO2)2. In this compound, as in all nitrites, nitrogen is in a +3 oxidation state. It has many applications such as antifreeze, rust inhibitor of steel and wash heavy oil.[1]

Properties[edit]

At room temperature and pressure, the compound is an odordess white or light yellowish powder. It is freely soluble in water with a density of 2.26 g/cm3. Its melting point is of 390 °C and it is stable under ordinary conditions of use and storage. It is also characterized for its strong oxidation character.[2]

Synthesis[edit]

Calcium nitrite can be produced by different synthesis processes. One is by reacting hydrated lime with NOX gas, which typically comes from a nitric acid plant. At the acid plant, ammonia is burned to produce the NOX gas for acid as well as calcium nitrite.[3]

Also, it can be prepared as detailed below, forming a solution of sodium nitrite and calcium nitrate; cooling the solution to precipitate sodium nitrate; forming a double salt of calcium nitrite/calcium hydroxide; and in the presence of water, decomposing double salt to form a solution of calcium nitrite and insolubilize calcium hydroxide. Essentially the function of calcium hydroxide is to carry calcium nitrite; calcium hydroxide forms the insolubilized double salt which can be used to separate from calcium nitrite portions from the solution. After, the double salt is dissolved liberating calcium nitrite and regenerating the calcium hydroxide.[4]

1. Precipitation of double salt

Ca(NO2)2 + Ca(OH)2 + H2O → Ca(NO2)2·Ca(OH)2·H2O

2. Liberation of calcium nitrite

Ca(NO2)2·Ca(OH)2·H2O--H2O → Ca(NO2)2(aq) + Ca(OH)2 + H2O

Uses[edit]

Because of its characteristics such as good anti-oxidized effect and frost-proof, it has a great variety of uses. It can be use as antifreezer due to its high solubility, either in solution or powder. It can promote the hydration of minerals in cement using this antifreezer at negative temperature, and the freezing point of operative temperature can be reduced to −20 °C. It also works as metal corrosion inhibitor, so it can protect steel material in concrete buildings and structures from rust, to extend life of specific buildings.[5] Nitrite's success as corrosion inhibitor for the protection of embedded steel in reinforced concrete comes from the "smart" behavior of the AFm phase (AFm is shorthand for a family of hydrated calcium aluminate hydrate phases: aluminate-ferrite-monosubstituent phases); normally it stores nitrite in preference to sulfate, carbonate, and hydroxyl ions so that the nitrite concentrations of pore fluid are low.However if chloride ingress occurs in service (from sea water or de-icing salt), the AFm undergoes ion exchange, gaining chloride and forming Friedel's salt (Cl-AFm), while releasing soluble nitrite ions to the pore fluid. As a result, the aqueous ratio of [NO2]/[Cl] increases which important to assure corrosion inhibition of embedded steel.[6] Also it is used as heavy oil detergent and in pharmaceutical, dyes and metallurgy industries.

This product can substitute the sodium nitrite. Sodium nitrite is used as a heat transfer fluid in thermal energy storage units for large air-conditioning or process cooling applications, so it is widely useful for the high-rise construction, the highway, the bridge, the railroad, the airport, the large-scale hydraulic. It also may enable the coastal area to contain the chlorine high sea sand, that the sea water uses.[7]

Safety[edit]

It is a poisonous inorganic oxidant, which can not be mixed with organic ammonium salt, acid or cyanide. It has to be kept in heat-proof place, because when the temperature is higher than 220 °C it will reduce and decompose into nitrous oxide. During transportation it is important to protect it from rain and insolation, and protect its package from breakage. Also, the warehouse should be ventilated and dry.[5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Calcium nitrite". Retrieved 6 October 2012. 
  2. ^ "Calcium Nitrite MSDS Sheet; Manufacturers". Retrieved 6 October 2012. 
  3. ^ "Calcium nitrite; a definition". Retrieved 6 October 2012. 
  4. ^ Gaidis, James M.; Arnold M. Rosenberg (23 September 1980). "Process for forming calcium nitrite". United States Patent. 
  5. ^ a b "Calcium nitrite". Retrieved 6 October 2012. 
  6. ^ balonis, magdalena; Fredrik P. Glasser (1 July 2011). "Calcium Nitrite Corrosion Inhibitor in Portland Cement: Influence of". American Ceramic Society 94 (7): 2230. doi:10.1111/j.1551-2916.2010.04362.x. 
  7. ^ "Nitrous Acid Calcium". Retrieved 6 October 2012.