Caldas da Rainha

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Caldas da Rainha
City, Seat of a Municipality
Statue of Queen Leonor roundabout in Caldas da Rainha
Statue of Queen Leonor (Rainha Dona Leonor) in the middle of a roundabout in Caldas da Rainha
Image of the flag of Caldas da Rainha
Flag
Image of the coat of arms of Caldas da Rainha
Coat of arms
Logo of the Câmara Municipal of Caldas da Rainha
Logo
Nickname(s): Caldas
Map showing the location of the municipality of Caldas da Rainha within Portugal
Municipality of Caldas da Rainha within Portugal
Coordinates: 39°24′26″N 9°8′9″W / 39.40722°N 9.13583°W / 39.40722; -9.13583Coordinates: 39°24′26″N 9°8′9″W / 39.40722°N 9.13583°W / 39.40722; -9.13583
Country Portugal Portugal
Intermunicipal entity Comunidade Intermunicipal do Oeste
NUTS I statistical division Continente
NUTS II statistical region Centro
NUTS III statistical subregion Oeste
District Leiria
Historical province Estremadura
Founded 1484
Vila (town) status 1511
Concelho/Município (Municipality) 1821
Cidade (city) status 1927
Founded by Queen Leonor[1]
Named for Queen Leonor
Civil Parishes (Freguesias)
Government
 • Type Municipality (Município, or concelho)
 • Body Câmara Municipal (executive)
Assembleia Municipal (deliberative)
 • Presidente da Câmara Municipal (Mayor) Fernando Manuel Tinta Ferreira (PSD)
 • Presidente da Assembleia Municipal Luís Manuel Pereira Monteiro Ribeiro
Area[2]
 • Municipality 255.69 km2 (98.72 sq mi)
Dimensions[3][4]
 • Length 24 km (15 mi)
 • Width 22 km (14 mi)
Highest elevation[5] 255 m (837 ft)
Lowest elevation[6] 0 m (0 ft)
Population (2011)[7][8][9][10]
 • Municipality 51,729
 • Density 202.3/km2 (524/sq mi)
 • Statistical city 27,378
  [note 1]
Demonym Caldense
Time zone Western European Time (UTC±00:00)
 • Summer (DST) Western European Summer Time (UTC+01:00)
Postal code (código postal) 2500
Area code(s) 262
Municipal holiday 15 May
Website http://www.cm-caldas-rainha.pt/

Caldas da Rainha (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈkaɫdɐʒ ðɐ ʁɐˈiɲɐ]) is a medium-sized city in western central Portugal in the historical province of Estremadura. The city serves as the seat of the larger municipality of the same name and of the Comunidade Intermunicipal do Oeste (OesteCIM, Intermunicipal Community of the West).[12] Caldas da Rainha is best known for its sulfurous hot springs[13] and ceramic pottery.[14]

The settlement was founded in the 15th century by Queen Leonor (Rainha Dona Leonor),[1] who established a hospital and a church at the site of some therapeutic hot springs. The Hospital Termal Rainha D. Leonor (Queen Leonor Spring Water Hospital, or Thermal Hospital) is the oldest purpose-built institution of its kind in the world,[15] with five centuries of history. The city's name, often shortened to simply "Caldas",[16] can be translated as "Queen's Hot Springs",[17] "Queen's Spa",[14] or "Queen's Baths".[18]

Caldas da Rainha is home to many cultural institutions. The city's nine museums cover ceramic art, painting, sculpture, local history, and cycling.[19] Caldas hosts six professional- and higher-educational institutions,[20][21] including a major arts and design school[22][23] and a school of ceramics.[24][25] In 2008, the municipal government inaugurated a new performing arts, exhibition, and conference centre.[26]

At the 2011 census, the municipality had a population of 51,729,[7][8] in an area of 255.69 square kilometres (98.72 sq mi).[2] The statistical city[note 1] had 27,378 residents.[9] Caldas da Rainha belongs to the district of Leiria[27] and is part of the Comissão de Coordenação e Desenvolvimento Regional de Lisboa e Vale do Tejo (CCDR LVT; Regional Commission for Coordination and Development of Lisbon and Tagus Valley).[28] For statistical purposes, Caldas is in the NUTS III Oeste (West) subregion—coterminous with OesteCIM—within the NUTS II Centro (Centre) region, which is part of the NUTS I division called Continente (Continental, or Mainland, Portugal).[29]

History[edit]

The region of Caldas da Rainha was inhabited by ancient Romans, who took advantage of the sulfurous waters. Barbarian invasions left the Roman sites in ruins. By the 13th century, the area was known as caldas de Óbidos, after the nearby town. At this time, an order Benedictine nuns looked after the needs of the poor lepers and rheumatics, but the order was disbanded, and the area fell into disrepair by the 15th century.[30]

Queen Leonor (Rainha Dona Leonor, in Portuguese; known as Eleanor of Viseu or Eleanor of Lancaster in English), the wife of King João II, is credited as founder of Caldas da Rainha.[1] One day in 1484, while traveling from Óbidos to Batalha, she happened upon a group of peasants bathing in foul-smelling waters by the roadside. She stopped to inquire about this oddity, and the bathers told her that the waters possessed curative powers. She decided to try them for herself. She was pleased to find that she was quickly relieved of an unknown affliction that she had been suffering. On that site, the queen ordered a hospital built so that others may enjoy the relief that she felt.[31] Construction began the following year, 1485. Although the first patients were admitted in 1488, construction was not completed until about 1496 or 1497. To finance the hospital and its adjoining church, the Queen sold her jewels and used income from her landholdings.[30] The name of the settlement that grew up around the site (Caldas da Rainha), refers to both its founder and the reason for its existence. The city's name can be translated as "Queen's Hot Springs",[17] "Queen's Spa",[14] or "Queen's Baths".[18]

On 21 March 1511, King Manuel I, brother of Queen Leonor,[1] conferred the status of town (vila) upon Caldas da Rainha.[32] Caldas was made a municipality (concelho or município) in 1821.[33]

During World War I, in which Portugal joined the Allies, Caldas da Rainha had one of three internment camps in the country. In 1916, most Germans in Portugal were deported, but men aged 15 to 45 were imprisoned in Portugal to prevent their joining the German military. Originally, all of the approximately 700 prisoners were shipped to Angra do Heroísmo on Terceira Island in the Azores, where they were held at the Fortress of São João Baptista. In 1918, to reduce overcrowding at the fortress, 168 internees were moved to the Pavilhões do Parque, then used as a military barracks, in Parque D. Carlos I in Caldas. The prisoners were released in 1919, a year after the end of the war.[34]

On 26 April 1919, President João do Canto e Castro knighted the town as a Dame of the Military Order of the Tower and of the Sword, of Valour, Loyalty and Merit (Ordem Militar da Torre e Espada do Valor, Lealdade e Mérito).[35] Unlike other places so honored, Caldas did not add the honor's collar to its coat of arms. The town was elevated to the status of city (cidade) in August 1927.[36]

During World War II, in which Portugal remained neutral, hundreds of Jewish refugees came to Caldas da Rainha to escape Nazism.[37][38][39] During the war, Caldas also served as home to British and American airmen who landed or crashed in Portugal or off its coast.[40] In January 1943, 230 Britons resident in Axis power Italy were evacuated to Caldas, where they were expected to stay until the end of the war. Most of these evacuees were over 65 years of age and had resided in Italy for a long time.[41]

In a prelude to the Carnation Revolution, in the early morning of 16 March 1974, the Fifth Infantry Regiment (Regimento de Infantaria 5), based in Caldas da Rainha in what is now the School of Army Sergeants (Escola de Sargentos do Exército), attempted to stage a coup d'état against the country's authoritarian Estado Novo regime.[42] Thirty officers and about 300 sergeants and enlisted men from the regiment left their quarters at 4:00 a.m., heading for Lisbon, where they planned to occupy the airport. On approaching the capital, the Caldas regiment found themselves alone, realizing that the other units that were supposed to participate in the coup had not joined the upheaval. The regiment turned back and reached their Caldas quarters at around 10:00 a.m., locking themselves in and awaiting a siege. The compound was surrounded by various forces, who penetrated the base at about 5:00 p.m. The revolters were arrested and sent to various military prisons, where they were held until the Carnation Revolution on 25 April 1974, 40 days later.[43]

Caldas da Rainha's coat of arms was granted by Queen Leonor, before municipal coats of arms were typically used in Portugal. Because of its early introduction, several elements of the arms violate Portuguese heraldic standards.[44] For example, Portuguese coat of arms typically feature a mural crown, made up of brick towers. Caldas da Rainha's arms feature a gold crown. The arms lack the typical banner bearing the municipality's name. The shield is much longer than the standard 8:7 ratio. The two smaller shields surrounding the main shield are also not in keeping with Portuguese heraldic rules.

Geography[edit]

Caldas da Rainha is located in western central Portugal at 39°24′26″N 9°8′9″W / 39.40722°N 9.13583°W / 39.40722; -9.13583. The city lies approximately 76 kilometres (47 mi) as the crow flies[45]—or 91 kilometres (57 mi) by the A8 motorway[46]—north of the Portuguese capital, Lisbon. Although three of the municipality's civil parishes—Foz do Arelho, Salir do Porto, and Serra do Bouro—lie on the Atlantic Ocean, the city proper lies about 10.5 kilometres (6.5 mi) from the ocean via the N360 road to Foz do Arelho.[47]

Caldas da Rainha is the seat of the Comunidade Intermunicipal do Oeste (OesteCIM, Intermunicipal Community of the West).[12] For statistical purposes, Caldas is in the NUTS III Oeste (West) subregion—coterminous with OesteCIM—within the NUTS II Centro (Centre) region, which is part of the NUTS I division called Continente (Continental, or Mainland, Portugal).[29] The municipality is part of the Comissão de Coordenação e Desenvolvimento Regional de Lisboa e Vale do Tejo (CCDR LVT; Regional Commission for Coordination and Development of Lisbon and Tagus Valley).[28] Caldas da Rainha belongs to the historical province of Estremadura and to the district of Leiria.[27]

The municipality of Caldas da Rainha comprises an area of 255.69 square kilometres (98.72 sq mi).[2] The municipality extends 24 kilometres (15 mi) north to south[3] and 22 kilometres (14 mi) east to west.[4] The perimeter measures 106 kilometres (66 mi).[48] At its lowest point, the municipality lies at sea level,[6] and its highest point reaches 255 metres (837 ft).[5] The municipality is bordered to the north by Alcobaça, to the east by Rio Maior and to the south by Bombarral, Cadaval and Óbidos.[27]

Along with the rest of Continental Portugal, Caldas da Rainha is in the Western European time zone (UTC±00:00), observing Western European Summer Time (UTC+01:00) from late March to late October. The postal code for Caldas da Rainha is 2500,[49] and its telephone area code is 262.[50]

Former town hall on Praça da República
The former town hall stands on Praça da República. The building now serves as headquarters for the civil parish executive body (junta de freguesia) of União das Freguesias de Caldas da Rainha — Nossa Senhora do Pópulo, Coto e São Gregório.

Since the 2013 administration reform, the municipality is divided into 12 civil parishes (freguesias):[51]

Civil parish (Freguesia) Population[8]
(2011 census)
Total area[2]
A dos Francos town (vila)[52] 1,701 700118930000000000018.93 km2 7.31 sq mi
Alvorninha town (vila)[53][note 2] 2,987 700137600000000000037.60 km2 14.52 sq mi
Caldas da Rainha — Nossa Senhora do Pópulo, Coto e São Gregório 18,413 700131580000000000031.58 km2 12.19 sq mi
Caldas da Rainha — Santo Onofre e Serra do Bouro 11,926 700127420000000000027.42 km2 10.59 sq mi
Carvalhal Benfeito 1,279 700113950000000000013.95 km2 5.39 sq mi
Foz do Arelho town (vila)[55] 1,339 70009619999999999999.62 km2 3.71 sq mi
Landal 1,051 700110210000000000010.21 km2 3.94 sq mi
Nadadouro 1,904 700110660000000000010.66 km2 4.12 sq mi
Salir de Matos 2,583 700124590000000000024.59 km2 9.49 sq mi
Santa Catarina town (vila)[56] 3,029 700119980000000000019.98 km2 7.71 sq mi
Tornada e Salir do Porto 4,358 700129580000000000029.58 km2 11.42 sq mi
Vidais 1,159 700121600000000000021.60 km2 8.34 sq mi

The Assembly of the Republic passed a law effective 29 January 2013 causing the number civil parishes throughout the country to be reduced. Seven of the civil parishes of Caldas da Rainha were combined into three new "unions of civil parishes". Nine civil parishes remained unchanged, except for minor border adjustments to ensure the contiguity of the new unions. The new unions of civil parishes are:[57][58]

According to the Instituto Nacional de Estatística (National Institute of Statistics, or Statistics Portugal), the city of Caldas da Rainha contains the entirety of Santo Onofre, most of Nossa Senhora do Pópulo (excluding the settlements of Lagoa Parceira, Imaginário, and Casal do Tanqueirão) and the southernmost portion of Tornada,[11] but the municipal assembly does not accept any portion of Tornada as part of the city.[59] Nossa Senhora do Pópulo and Santo Onofre are separated by the Linha do Oeste (Western Line) railway line, as specified in the 1984 law that carved Santo Onofre out of the civil parish that was called Caldas da Rainha at that time.[60]

Demographics[edit]

Between the 2001 and the 2011 censuses, the population of the municipality increased 5.90% from 48,846 residents to 51,729.[61][7][8] Females made up 52.63% of the population, and males accounted for 47.37%.[8] The population density was 202.3 /km2 (524 /sq mi).[10] The 2011 census found that the municipality contained 20,598 families, with an average of 2.5 people per family.[8] The municipality had 19,202 buildings and 31,063 dwellings.[8] The population of the statistical city[note 1] grew from 25,316 residents in 2001 to 27,378 in 2011, an increase of 8.1%.[9] A resident of Caldas da Rainha is a Caldense (plural: Caldenses).

Government[edit]

city hall
Caldas da Rainha's municipal building (Paços do Concelho), is located on Praça 25 de Abril.

The Câmara Municipal (city council, literally "municipal chamber") is the executive body of municipal government.[62] The council is led by a president (presidente da câmara municipal, effectively the mayor) and has six other members (vereadores), as required by Portuguese law based on the number of registered voters in the municipality.[63] Fernando Manuel Tinta Ferreira (PSD) serves as president of the council, and Hugo Patrício Martinho de Oliveira (PSD) serves as vice president. The other members are Maria da Conceição Jardim Pereira (PSD), Alberto Pereira (PSD), Jorge Sobral (PS), Rui Correia (PS), and Manuel Isaac (CDS–PP).[64] Fernando José da Costa, the prior mayor, now serves as a member of the city council of Loures, a suburb of Lisbon.[65]

The Assembleia Municipal (municipal assembly) is the deliberative body of municipal government.[62] The assembly has 33 members.[66] The presidents of the each of the 12 juntas de freguesia (civil parish councils) serve on the assembly. Directly elected members of the assembly number 21, triple the number of members on the city council, the minimum required by Portuguese law.[67] Luís Manuel Pereira Monteiro Ribeiro is president of the assembly. Vasco da Cruz Antunes de Oliveira serves as the first secretary, and Maria João dos Santos Ribeiro Querido serves as the second secretary.[68]

Each of the 12 freguesias (civil parishes) has a junta de freguesia (civil parish council) as its executive body and an assembleia de freguesia (civil parish assembly) as its deliberative body.[62]

Caldas da Rainha is twinned with the following places: Poços de Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil since 2001 and Huambo, Angola since 1 May 2007.[69] The municipality intends to twin with Cambo-les-Bains, France; Coria and Badajoz, Spain; Dinant, Belgium; Le Raincy, France; Lubango, Angola; Perth Amboy, New Jersey, United States; and Ribeira Grande, Cape Verde.[69]

Economy[edit]

Bordallo Pinheiro ceramics factory
Bordallo Pinheiro ceramics factory

Caldas da Rainha has about 600 commercial establishments and calls itself Capital do Comércio Tradicional (capital of traditional commerce).[70] The city's downtown/city centre (centro) shopping area contains shops specializing in clothing, jewelry, beauty supplies, decoration, housewares, and other goods. The main shopping streets include Rua dos Heróis da Grande Guerra, Rua Almirante Cândido dos Reis (popularly known as Rua das Montras, Street of Storefronts), Rua Doutor Miguel Bombarda, Rua da Liberdade, and surrounding streets. Praça da Republica (Republic Square), popularly known as Praça da Fruta (Fruit Square), hosts an outdoor farmers' market every morning. A weekly market selling cheap clothing and domestic items is held on Mondays uphill from the square. Several small indoor shopping centres, most with only a few shops, exist throughout the city.[71] The Associação Comercial dos Concelhos das Caldas da Rainha e Óbidos (ACCCRO, Commercial Association of the Municipalities of Caldas da Rainha and Óbidos), founded in 1902, promotes and supports commercial and service businesses in Caldas da Rainha and neighboring Óbidos.[72][73]

Several international chains have locations in Caldas da Rainha, including Benetton,[74] Bershka,[75] Claire's,[76] Kiddy's Class,[77] Mango,[78] McDonald's,[79] Oysho,[80] Pull and Bear,[81] Staples,[82] and Stradivarius.[83] Caldas has several supermarkets and hypermarkets, including Aldi,[84] Continente Modelo,[85] E.Leclerc,[86] Lidl,[87] Meu Super,[88] Minipreço (two locations),[89] Pão de Açúcar,[90] and Pingo Doce (three locations).[91]

Vivaci Caldas da Rainha, opened in November 2008 next to the rebuilt Hotel Lisbonense, is the first large shopping centre in Caldas. Vivaci's four floors contain sixty stores and services, including fourteen restaurants, a five-screen movie theater, and a supermarket.[92][93] The CaldasShopping building, opened in December 2008 at the intersection of Rua Dr. Miguel Bombarda and Rua Raul Proença, has space for about forty shops, indoor and outdoor esplanades seating 200 to 250, offices, and thirteen apartments.[94][95] The Centro Bordalo shopping centre—to be built across the street from and connected by a pedestrian bridge to the existing Continente Modelo hypermarket—was originally scheduled to open in 2010 with 95 stores and 1,100 parking spaces. Developer Sonae Sierra planned to invest 56 million euros in the 24,000-square-metre (260,000 sq ft) centre, but the financial crisis of 2007–08 caused postponement of the project.[96]

Based on 2012 sales volume, Caldas has 17 of the 250 largest business firms in the district of Leiria: Sotrapex – T. Rod., Exp/Imp. de Cereais, Lda (9th); A Júlio (15th); Schaeffler Portugal, S.A. (17th); Tabaqueira BEL (25th); Thomaz dos Santos (46th); Plural II – Distribuidora Farmacêutica, Lda (84th); Promol – Indústria de Velas, S.A. (88th); Franco & Filhos – Com. de Gado por Grosso, Lda (132nd); Nova Serviços, Lda (154th); LFG – Com. de Veículos e Combustíveis, Lda (163rd); Monte da Balaia – Construções, Lda (175th); Rações Avenal, S.A. (184th); Becosa – Com e Dist. de Bebidas, S.A. (201st); Frigosto – Ind. Transf. Prep. Prod. Cong., Lda (202nd); Sociedade Avícola Avarela, Lda (218th); PetroCaldas – Comércio de Combustíveis, Lda (241st); and Alberto Pereira, Lda (245th).[97] Nova Serviços, with 1,504 employees, is the largest employer in Caldas (second in the district), and Schaeffler Portugal, with 387 employees, is the second largest employer (tenth in the district).[97] Caldas counts three firms among the district's top fifty exporters: Schaeffler Portugal (5th), Promol (22nd), and Sotrapex (24th).[97]

Caldas da Rainha has ten lodging establishments, six of which are hotels (one 4-star, three 3-star, and two 2-star), and four of which are guest houses (pensões).[98] Lodging capacity totals 948, with 790 in the hotels and 158 at the guest houses.[99] Average monthly earnings in the municipality is 894.81 according to 2011 data.[100] In 2012, there were 25 banks in the municipality.[101]

Arts and culture[edit]

Façade of Centro Cultural e de Congressos (CCC, Cultural and Conference Centre)
Centro Cultural e de Congressos (CCC, Cultural and Conference Centre)

The Centro Cultural e de Congressos (CCC, Cultural and Conference Centre), inaugurated on 15 May 2008 by President Aníbal Cavaco Silva and Mayor Fernando José da Costa,[26] is a cultural, performing arts, and conference centre that hosts music, theatre, dance, and cinema, as well as various expositions and conferences. Expoeste - Centro de Exposições do Oeste (Exhibition Centre of the West), is an indoor event space. The centre hosts various events, including bridal expos, seasonal festivals, fruit expos, car shows, and animal shows. During the annual Expotur - Festa de Verão (Summer Party), popularly called "tasquinhas", which takes place over the span of about week and a half at the beginning of August, food from each of the freguesias is available for purchase and on-site consumption.[102]

Caldas da Rainha has several museums. The Centro de Artes (Arts Centre), a multi-building complex hosts three museums of sculpture: the Museu-Atelier António Duarte,[103] the Museu-Atelier João Fragoso,[104] and the Museu Barata Feyo.[105] The arts centre contains the Pavilhão de Ateliers (Studios Pavilion)—providing workspace and residence for active artists—and O Espaço da Concas, exhibiting the paintings of Maria da Conceição Nunes, known as Concas.[106][107] The Arts Centre hosts the biennial SIMPPETRA–International Stone Sculpture Symposium, with the resulting works being permanently displayed outdoors throughout the municipality.[108] The Museu de Cerâmica (Museum of Ceramics), in an old manor house, exhibits ceramic pieces from Caldas, from throughout Portugal, and from international sources.[109] Casa Museu de São Rafael concentrates on the ceramic creations of Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro's factory.[110] The Museu do Hospital e das Caldas (Museum of the Hospital and of Caldas), installed in the Caza Real (royal house) where Queen Leonor stayed during her visits to Caldas, features exhibits related to the thermal hospital and the city.[111] The Museu de José Malhoa, in the middle of Parque D. Carlos I, displays paintings by the namesake artist and his contemporaries, as well as sculptures and ceramics.[112] The museum building was declared a property of public interest (imóvel de interesse público, IIP) in 2002.[113] The Museu do Ciclismo (Museum of Cycling), opened in 1999 and sited in an Art Nouveau building on Rua de Camões across from Parque D. Carlos I, contains exhibits on the history of cycling and bicycles.[114][115]

Three examples of typical pottery from Caldas da Rainha
Examples of typical pottery from Caldas da Rainha

Caldas da Rainha is well known for its glazed ceramic pottery (louça das Caldas). Caldas da Rainha's pottery falls into two main categories: utilitarian housewares, such as plates, bowls, platters, mugs, and tureens; and purely decorative items, such as caricature figurines and ceramic phalluses of various sizes. Even useful articles usually serve a decorative purpose as well. One popular model, created by Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro, is a cabbage-shaped soup tureen, which can be displayed on a shelf or as a centrepiece when not in use. One of the most popular decorative figures is Zé Povinho, a bearded peasant everyman character created by Bordalo Pinheiro. A symbol of Portugal and the Portuguese people, Zé Povinho appears in many jocular, defiant poses. The ceramics are available for purchase at stands in the daily market at Praça da República (Praça da Fruta) and shops in the vicinity. They are available in stores outside Portugal, including a number of up-market housewares stores.

Caldas has several traditional sweets. Cavacas das Caldas are a small-bowl-sized, concave confection of flour and eggs, with a crunchy sugar covering. In June 2005, a 26-metre (85 ft) pyramid containing 48,900 cavacas was erected on Praça 25 de Abril in front of the city hall.[116] Beijinhos das Caldas ("little kisses") are similar, but are smaller and spherical. Other local sweets include trouxas de ovos (poached eggs), lampreias de ovos (egg lampreys), and pão-de-ló do Landal (Landal sponge cake).[117] Savory dishes typical of Caldas include ensopado de enguias da lagoa (stewed lagoon eels), bacalhau à lagareiro (cod in olive oil), polvo à lagareiro (octopus in olive oil), and fatias de carne frita à moda do Landal (Landal-style sliced fried meat).[118]

Attractions[edit]

Beaches at Foz do Arelho: Lagoa de Óbidos and Atlantic Ocean
Beaches at Foz do Arelho: Lagoa de Óbidos and Atlantic Ocean

Attractions not mentioning a civil parish (freguesia) are found in Nossa Senhora do Pópulo, the easternmost civil parish of the city proper.

The civil parish of Foz do Arelho has a beach on the Atlantic Ocean, 10.5 kilometres (6.5 mi) from the centre of town. The Lagoa de Óbidos, which straddles the border with the municipality of Óbidos, is a lagoon that empties into the Atlantic Ocean near Foz do Arelho. The ocean beach and the lagoon beach have each been awarded a Blue Flag by the Foundation for Environmental Education.[119] The civil parish of Salir do Porto has a beach on a river which empties into a bay of the Atlantic Ocean. The Reserva Natural Local do Paul de Tornada (Tornada Swamp Local Natural Reserve) is a protected wetland area.[120]

Igreja de Nossa Senhora do Pópulo (Church of Our Lady of the Populace)
Igreja de Nossa Senhora do Pópulo (Church of Our Lady of the Populace)

Igreja de Nossa Senhora do Pópulo (Church of Our Lady of the Populace), adjacent to the thermal hospital, is a late gothic church with Mudéjar and Manueline characteristics. It serves as the mother church (igreja matriz) of Caldas. It was built c. 1500 by order of Queen Leonor and designed by Mateus Fernandes.[121] The church was declared a national monument (monumento nacional) in 1910.[122] Igreja de Nossa Senhora da Conceição (Church of Our Lady of the Conception) is a 20th-century church located on Praça 25 de Abril, near the city hall and the courthouse, and surrounded on three sides by Hemiciclo João Paulo II (John Paul II Semicircle). The Cardinal–Patriarch of Lisbon broke ground on 20 August 1950, and the church was inaugurated on 21 October 1951.[123]

Ermida de São Sebastião (Hermitage of Saint Sebastian) is a mannerist and baroque 16th-century chapel located just off Praça da República.[124] An 18th-century reconstruction added tiles about depicting the life of the chapel's namesake saint. The chapel was declared a property of public interest (imóvel de interesse público, IIP) in 1984.[125] Ermida do Espírito Santo (Hermitage of the Holy Spirit) is a mannerist and baroque chapel located on Largo João de Deus, uphill from the thermal hospital. Originally built in the 16th century, the hermitage was rebuilt in the 18th century. The chapel was declared a property of public interest in 1984.[126] Capela de São Jacinto (Chapel of Saint Hyacinth), located in Casais de São Jacinto in the civil parish of Coto, was originally built in the 16th century and reconstructed in baroque style in the 18th century. The chapel was declared a property of public interest in 2009.[127]

Pavilions in the park
Pavilhões do Parque in Parque D. Carlos I

Praça da República (Republic Square) is a public square in the centre of town. The plaza, popularly known as Praça da Fruta (Fruit Square), hosts Portugal's only daily outdoor farmers' market. The square is surrounded by buildings, most containing shops, banks, and cafés on the ground floor. Built 1747–1750 on the northern side of the square, the baroque former city hall (paços do concelho), now used as the civil parish hall (junta de freguesia) of Nossa Senhora do Pópulo/Coto/São Gregório, was declared a property of public interest (imóvel de interesse público, IIP) in 1984.[128] Praça 5 de Outubro (5 October Square) formerly hosted the city's open-air fish market, which has since moved to an indoor location (Mercado do Peixe). The plaza is now used for outdoor café seating and free cultural events. A statue of Queen Leonor stands in the middle of the roundabout at Largo Conde de Fontalva (Count of Fontalva Square), popularly called Largo da Rainha (Queen's Square). The iconic monument serves as a landmark at the historic city centre's southern approach.

The Parque D. Carlos I is a large park in the centre of town. The park contains a doughnut-shaped lake with a small island in the middle. Visitors can rent rowboats on the lake. The José Malhoa Museum sits in the middle of the park. The Jardim da Água (Water Garden) is a large-scale outdoor sculpture combining concrete, ceramic tiles, and water.[129]

Caldas has three mid-18th-century baroque fountains which were declared properties of public interest in 1982: Chafariz da Estrada da Foz (Fountain of Foz do Arelho Road),[130] Chafariz da Rua Nova (Fountain of the New Street),[131] and Chafariz das Cinco Bicas (Fountain of the Five Spouts).[132] The Estação da Mala-Posta do Casal dos Carreiros (mail coach station of Casal dos Carreiros), built in the 19th century in the civil parish of A dos Francos, was declared a property of public interest in 1977.[133] The Pelourinho de Santa Catarina (pillory of Saint Catherine) in the civil parish of Santa Catarina, constructed in the 16th century, was declared a property of public interest in 1933.[134]

Transport[edit]

Railway station
Caldas da Rainha railway station

Caldas da Rainha has a railway station served by the Linha do Oeste (western line) of Comboios de Portugal.[135] Regional trains, which make frequent local stops, run south to Lisbon, to its suburbs, or to Torres Vedras, and north to Leiria.[135] Interregional trains, which make select stops, run north to Coimbra via Leiria.[135] Salir do Porto, a civil parish on the Atlantic Ocean, is the next station north of Caldas and the only other active train stop in the municipality. Former train stops in the municipality are Campo–Serra and Bouro.[136]

Caldas da Rainha has a bus station (terminal rodoviário) located in the city centre. Rede Nacional de Expressos provides express bus service to various destinations within Portugal. Rodoviária do Tejo (also known as Rodotejo) provides interurban services to the cities, towns, villages, and hamlets near and around Caldas.[137] Rodotejo also provides three Rápida (literally "rapid", express-like, limited-stop) services from Caldas,[138] serving Campo Grande in Lisbon, Óbidos, and Bombarral (Rápida Verde, Green Rapid);[139] Leiria, São Martinho do Porto, and Nazaré (Rápida Rosa, Pink Rapid);[140] and Santarém and Rio Maior (Rápida Caldas da Rainha–Santarém).[141]

On 15 May 2007, the municipal holiday, the city council inaugurated local bus service called TOMA. The name means "take this" in Portuguese and commemorates everyman figure Zé Povinho, whose image appears on the buses. TOMA service consists of three routes: Linha Azul (Blue Line), Linha Laranja (Orange Line), and Linha Verde (Green Line). The Blue line uses two minibuses and runs between the western and eastern ends of town. The Orange and Green lines each operate using a single twenty-nine-seat minibus on loop routes.[142][143]

"Projecto Tornada" seeks to improve bus services along the busy N8 road in Tornada, the civil parish just north of the city. The municipal government, in coordination with Rodoviário do Tejo and Rocaldas - Empresa de Transportes Auto Penafiel, has undertaken to distribute a combined schedule of services and to improve bus stops.[144] Rede RoCaldas is an initiative to join intra-municipal bus service outside the city proper under a single banner and pricing scheme. Introduced in September 2013, Rede RoCaldas combines all services of Rocaldas - Empresa de Transportes Auto Penafiel with the short-haul services of Rodotejo. Rocaldas is a wholly owned subsidiary of Rodotejo, operating as a separate brand.[145] The combined service promises various benefits, including use of the Rodotejo's central bus terminal, restructuring city-centre bus stops, more frequent service, and streamlined ticketing.[146][147][148]

Caldas da Rainha is served by an extensive network of roads. Two motorways (autoestradas), operated by Auto-Estradas do Atlântico, serve the municipality. The A8 motorway, also known as Autoestrada do Oeste, goes south to Óbidos, Bombarral, Torres Vedras, Loures, and Lisbon, and north to Nazaré, Alcobaça, Marinha Grande, and Leiria.[149] The A15 motorway goes west to Santarém via Rio Maior.[149] The IP6 road is a main route (itinerário principal) connecting to Peniche, Rio Maior, Santarém, Torres Novas, Abrantes, and Castelo Branco.[150] For much of its route, IP6 runs concurrent with various motorways, including the entire length of A15 and the portion of A8 in Óbidos.[151] The IC1 road is a secondary route (itinerário complementar) which runs the length of the country from Valença in the north to Guia (Albufeira) in the south via Porto and Lisbon.[152] North of Lisbon, IC1 runs concurrent with various motorways, including almost the entire length of A8.[151]

Several national roads (estradas nacionais), which are older and not as well-maintained as motorways and main routes, serve the municipality. The N8 road (EN 8), the municipality's main roadway before the A8 motorway was built, crosses the municipality from north to south through the city centre, connecting with Alcobaça to the north and with Óbidos, Bombarral, Torres Vedras, and Loures—a suburb of Lisbon—to the south.[151][153] The N114 road (EN 114), in the centre and southeast of the municipality, goes to Peniche, Rio Maior and Santarém.[151][153][154] The N114-1 road (EN 114-1), in the centre and east of the municipality, connects the city centre to N114.[155] The N115 road (EN 115), along the south and southwest border of the municipality, goes south to Loures.[151][153][156] The N360 road (EN 360) crosses the municipality southwest to northeast through the city, connecting Foz do Arelho to Benedita in Alcobaça Municipality.[151][157] The N361 road (EN 361), in the southwest of the municipality, connects Lourinhã and Rio Maior.[151][158] Avenida Atlântica (or Variante Atlântica), which has no numerical designation, connects the western end of city to the beach at Foz do Arelho, and serves as an alternate route in lieu of N360.[159]

Education[edit]

Caldas da Rainha is home to many educational institutions. During the 2012–2013 school year, 10,882 students were enrolled in schools of various levels, from preschool to vocational and higher education.[160]

The Escola Superior de Artes e Design de Caldas da Rainha (ESAD.CR, Upper School of Arts and Design), founded in 1990, is a division of the Instituto Politécnico de Leiria (IPL, Polytechnic Institute of Leiria). ESAD.CR offers courses in plastic arts, ambient design, industrial design, ceramic and glass design, graphic and multimedia design, product design, typographic design, theatre, sound, image, and cultural management.[22][23] Former institutions of higher learning in Caldas include a campus of the Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa (UAL, Autonomous University of Lisbon)[161] and a branch of the Escola Superior de Biotecnologia (ESB; Upper School of Biotechnology) of the Universidade Católica Portuguesa (UCP, Catholic University of Portugal [sic]), which offered courses in biotechnology (1999–2011).[162]

Caldas da Rainha has five institutions offering professional development and vocational education.[20] The Escola Técnica Empresarial do Oeste (ETEO, Technical Business School of the West) offers courses in business and technology.[20][163][164] The Centro de Formação Profissional Para a Indústria Cerâmica (CENCAL, Vocational Training Centre for the Ceramics Industry) offers training related to the ceramics industry.[20][24][25] The Centro de Formação Profissional da Indústria Metalúrgica e Metalomecânica (CENFIM, Vocational Training Centre of Metallurgical and Metalworking Industry) offers courses in metallurgy and metalworking.[20][165][166] The Escola de Sargentos do Exército (ESE, School of Army Sergeants) trains sergeants for the Portuguese Army.[20][167][168] The Escola de Hotelaria e Turismo do Oeste-Caldas da Rainha (EHTO, School of Hospitality and Tourism of the West) offers training in hospitality and tourism.[20][169][170]

As in the rest of Portugal, compulsory public education consists of basic education (ensino básico) taught in "basic" schools (escolas básicas) and of secondary education (ensino secundário) taught in secondary schools (escolas secundárias). Basic education is divided into three "cycles" (ciclos): the first cycle (primeiro [1°] ciclo) for years one though four, the second cycle (segundo [2°] ciclo) for years five and six, and the third cycle (terceiro [3°] ciclo) for years seven through nine. Secondary schools teach years ten through twelve.

Caldas da Rainha has two public secondary schools, both of which also include the third cycle of basic education.[171] The Escola Secundária com 3º CEB Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro (Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro Secondary School with Third Cycle of Basic Education) is in Nossa Senhora do Pópulo,[172] and the Escola Secundária com 3º CEB Raul Proença (Raul Proença Secondary School with Third Cycle of Basic Education) is in the neighborhood of Bairro do Arneiros in Santo Onofre.[173]

The municipality has three public schools which offer the second and third cycles of basic education without including secondary education.[174] The Escola Básica 2, 3 D. João II (King John II Second- and Third-Cycle Basic School), in Nossa Senhora do Pópulo, offers classes to second- and third-cycle students only.[175] The Escola Básica Integrada Santo Onofre (Santo Onofre Integrated Basic School), in the neighbourhood of Bairro das Morenas, offers all three cycles of basic education.[176] The Escola Básica Integrada de Santa Catarina (Santa Catarina Integrated Basic School) offers all three cycles of basic education, as well as kindergarten.[177]

There are 27 public schools for the first cycle of basic education throughout the municipality, in A dos Francos, Alvorninha, Avenal, Bairro da Ponte, Bairro dos Arneiros, Campo, Carvalhal Benfeito, Casais da Serra, Chão da Parada, Coto, Encosta do Sol, Foz do Arelho, Lagoa Parceira, Nossa Senhora do Pópulo, Nadadouro, Parque, Peso, Reguengo da Parada, Relvas, Salir de Matos, Salir do Porto, Santa Catarina, Santa Susana, Santo Onofre, São Gregório, Tornada, and Vidais.[178] The municipality has 28 public kindergartens (jardims de infância), at A dos Francos, Alvorninha, Antas, Avenal, Bairro das Morenas, Bairro dos Arneiros, Campo, Carreiros, Carvalhal Benfeito, Casais da Serra, Coto, Foz do Arelho, Lagoa Parceira, Nossa Senhora do Pópulo, Nadadouro, Rabaceira, Ramalhosa, Reguengo da Parada, São Gregório, Salir de Matos, Salir do Porto, Santa Catarina, Santa Susana, Santo Onofre, Serra do Bouro, Santa Catarina, São Cristóvão, and Tornada.[179] Several private schools offer kindergarten and first-cycle classes.[178][179]

Colégio Rainha D. Leonor (Queen Leonor College), in Santo Onofre, offers private first-cycle basic education. For years five through twelve, the school offers privately managed public education.[160][180][181] Colégio Frei Cristóvão (Friar Christopher College) offers privately managed public education in years five through nine in A dos Francos.[160][180][182] The Centro de Educação Especial Rainha Dona Leonor (CEERDL, Queen Leonor Special Education Centre) offers special education.[183][184][185] The Conservatório Caldas da Rainha (CCR, Conservatory of Caldas da Rainha) is a conservatory of music.[183][186][187] The Escola Vocacional de Dança "Os Pimpões" ("Os Pimpões" Vocational School of Dance) offers training in dance.[183][188][189]

Health and safety[edit]

Hospital Termal Rainha D. Leonor (Queen Leonor Spring Water Hospital, or Thermal Hospital)
Hospital Termal Rainha D. Leonor (Queen Leonor Spring Water Hospital, or Thermal Hospital)

Caldas da Rainha is home to the Hospital Distrital Caldas da Rainha (Caldas da Rainha District Hospital), which is managed by the multi-city Centro Hospitalar do Oeste (CHO, Hospital Centre of the West). The hospital serves all general emergency needs of residents in all civil parishes of Bombarral, Caldas da Rainha, and Óbidos, plus parts of Alcobaça; pediatric emergencies for the aforementioned municipalities, plus Peniche; and obstetric and gynecological emergency needs for the aforementioned municipalities, plus Cadaval, Lourinhã, Mafra, and Torres Vedras.[190][191] In 2012, the municipality had 326 inhabitants per physician.[192]

The Hospital Termal Rainha D. Leonor (Queen Leonor Spring Water Hospital, or Thermal Hospital), a medical spa offering physician-prescribed treatment in sulfurous waters, is managed by CHO.[193] The hospital is the world's oldest purpose-built thermal medical institution.[15] Among the non-medical holdings of the Centro Hospitlar–legacies of Queen Leonor–are the Museu do Hospital e das Caldas (Museum of the Hospital and Spa); the Igreja de Nossa Senhora do Pópulo and Igreja de São Sebastião, churches; Parque D. Carlos I, a public park; and Mata Rainha D. Leonor, woods adjacent to the park.[194]

Caldas da Rainha is served by a health centre, Centro de Saúde Caldas da Rainha,[195] which offers primary and non-urgent care. In addition to several units co-located with the main health centre,[196][197][198][199] there are extensions located in the outlying civil parishes of A dos Francos,[200] Alvorninha,[201] Foz do Arelho,[202] Landal,[203] Santa Catarina,[204] Tornada,[205] and Vidais.[206]

The municipality has fifteen pharmacies. Seven are found in the city, and each of the following civil parishes has one: A dos Francos, Alvorninha, Foz do Arelho, Landal, Salir de Matos, Santa Catarina, Tornada, and Vidais.[207][208]

Fire protection is provided by the Bombeiros Voluntários de Caldas da Rainha (BVCR, Volunteer Firefighters of Caldas da Rainha).[209] Police protection in the urban areas of the municipality is provided by the Polícia de Segurança Pública (PSP, Public Security Police).[210] Rural areas of the municipality are patrolled by the Guarda Nacional Republicana (GNR, Republican National Guard). The GNR's base is located within the city proper.[211][212]

Sports[edit]

headquarters of the badminton federation
Headquarters of Federação Portuguesa de Badminton

The municipal Complexo Desportivo (Sports Complex), located on the western edge of the city in Santo Onofre, features a rugby field and a running track.[213] The field is home to Caldas Rugby Clube and can be used for association football (soccer). In 2008 the municipality added five tennis courts (two of which are covered) in an adjacent facility.[214] The municipal pools are located nearby.[215]

Four multi-use sports pavillions are found throughout the city.[216] Santo Onofre hosts a skateboard park.[213] The municipality has designated five cycling routes, three of which can be used on foot. All five routes are in the western portion of the municipality, and one crosses into São Martinho do Porto in Alcobaça municipality.[217]

Caldas da Rainha has a bullring (praça de touros) in Nossa Senhora do Pópulo, inaugurated on 13 June 1883. The octagonal arena originally seated 4,000 spectators, but now has capacity for 3,250. In a typical year, the ring hosts between three and five bullfights, with peak years seeing six such events. The arena also hosts concerts.[218] The Grupo de Forcados Amadores das Caldas da Rainha (Amateur Forcado Group of Caldas da Rainha) participate in a phase of the Portuguese bullfight wherein they attempt to immobilize the bull by grabbing it, using no tools but their hands and bodies.[219]

Caldas Sport Clube (CSC) was founded 15 May 1916.[220] The club sponsors an association football (soccer) team which competes in the Portuguese Football Federation's 2nd Division — Series C. The team plays at Campo da Mata, a 13,000-seat field located in a forest adjacent to Parque D. Carlos I. CSC sponsors several youth (junior) football teams for various age groups.

The Federação Portuguesa de Badminton (Portuguese Badminton Federation) is headquartered in Caldas da Rainha.[221] The Centro de Alto Rendimento de Badminton (High Performance Badminton Centre) was inaugurated in Santo Onofre on 6 February 2010.[222]

Notable people[edit]

José Malhoa (28 April 1885, Caldas da Rainha – 26 October 1933, Figueiró dos Vinhos) was a painter. The Museu de José Malhoa (José Malhoa Museum) displays several of his pieces.[223]

Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro (21 March 1846, Lisbon – 23 January 1905, Lisbon; often rendered in pre-reform spelling of "Raphael Bordallo Pinheiro") was a caricaturist, illustrator, ceramist, cartoonist, editor, decorator, and figurist. He created the enduring everyman character of Zé Povinho in 1875. He founded Faianças Artísticas Bordallo Pinheiro, a factory still in existence, in Caldas in 1884. In addition to his factory, his name has been applied to the Casa Museu São Rafael (Saint [sic] Rafael House Museum) and the Escola Secundária Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro, one of two secondary schools in Caldas.[224][225]

José da Cruz Policarpo (26 February 1926, Alvorninha – 12 March 2014, Lisbon) became the sixteenth Patriarch of Lisbon, as José IV, on 24 March 1998. Pope John Paul II created Policarpo a cardinal on 21 February 2001.[226]

Raul Proença (10 May 1884, Caldas da Rainha – 20 May 1941, Porto) was a writer, journalist, and intellectual.[227] One of the two public secondary schools in Caldas bares his name.[228]

Notes and references[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ a b c The "statistical city" of Caldas da Rainha contains the entirety of the civil parish of Santo Onofre, most of the civil parish of Nossa Senhora do Pópulo (excluding Lagoa Parceira, Imaginário, and Casal do Tanqueirão) and the southernmost portion of the civil parish of Tornada.[11]
  2. ^ The prior reference is dubious. Researcher cannot find the law which elevated Alvorninha to the status of vila. Statistics Portugal reports that Caldas da Rainha has only three vilas (but does not name them).[54] Three other places—A dos Francos, Foz do Arelho, and Santa Catarina—have references to laws elevating them to the status of vila.
References
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  3. ^ a b "Maximum length North/ South (km) of territorial units by Geographic localization (NUTS - 2002); Annual–2012". Instituto Nacional de Estatística (Statistics Portugal). 23 October 2013. Retrieved 28 April 2014.  (Click "Change selection conditions" to choose Caldas da Rainha under Portugal > Continente > Centro > Oeste.)
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External links[edit]