Caldas da Rainha

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Caldas da Rainha
Municipality
Flag of Caldas da Rainha
Flag
Coat of arms of Caldas da Rainha
Coat of arms
Location of the municipality of Caldas da Rainha within Portugal
Location of the municipality of Caldas da Rainha within Portugal
Coordinates: 39°24′26″N 9°8′9″W / 39.40722°N 9.13583°W / 39.40722; -9.13583Coordinates: 39°24′26″N 9°8′9″W / 39.40722°N 9.13583°W / 39.40722; -9.13583
Country Portugal
Region Centro
Subregion Oeste
District Leiria
Historic province Estremadura
Founded 1484
Elevated to vila (town) 1511
Elevated to cidade (city) 1927
Founded by Queen Leonor
Civil Parishes
Government
 • Type Município/concelho (Municipality)
 • Presidente da Câmara Municipal (Mayor) Fernando Manuel Tinta Ferreira (PSD)
 • Presidente da Assembleia Municipal Luís Manuel Pereira Monteiro Ribeiro
Area
 • Total 255.7 km2 (98.7 sq mi)
Population (2011)[1][2][3]
 • Total 51,729
 • Density 201.0/km2 (521/sq mi)
 • Statistical city 27,378
  [Note 1]
Demonym Caldense
Time zone Western European Time (UTC+0)
 • Summer (DST) Western European Summer Time (UTC+1)
Postal code 2500
Area code(s) 262
Municipal holiday 15 May
Website http://www.cm-caldas-rainha.pt/

Caldas da Rainha (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈkaɫdɐʒ ðɐ ʁɐˈiɲɐ]) is a city (cidade) in western central Portugal. The city serves as the seat of the larger municipality (município or concelho) of the same name and is the seat of the Comunidade Intermunicipal do Oeste[4] (West Intermunicipal Community). Caldas belongs to district of Leiria and to the historical province of Estremadura. The city is best known for its hot springs and pottery.

The city was founded in the 15th century by Queen Leonor, who established a hospital at the site of some therapeutic hot springs. The Hospital Termal Rainha D. Leonor is one of the oldest institutions of its kind in the world, with five centuries of history. The city's name means "Queen's Hot Springs"[5] or "Queen's Spa".

Caldas da Rainha is home to many arts-related institutions. There are numerous museums in the city, mostly related to ceramics and sculpture. The city is home to a major arts and design school, as well as a school of ceramics. In 2008, the municipal government inaugurated a new cultural center.

As of the 2011 census, the municipality has a population of 51,729,[1][2] and the statistical city[Note 1] has 27,378 residents.[3]

History[edit]

Statue of Queen Leonor (Rainha Dona Leonor) in the center of a roundabout in Caldas da Rainha

Caldas da Rainha was founded by Queen Leonor, wife of King João II. One day in 1484, while traveling from Óbidos to Batalha, she found a group of peasants bathing in foul-smelling waters by the roadside. She stopped to inquire about this oddity and was told that the waters possessed curative powers. She decided to try them for herself. She was pleased to find that she was quickly relieved of some affliction she had been suffering (exactly what is not known). On that site, the queen ordered a thermal hospital built so that others may enjoy the relief that she felt. Construction began the following year, 1485. Although the first patients were admitted in 1488, construction was not completed until about 1496 or 1497. The name of the settlement that grew up around the site (Caldas da Rainha), refers to both its founder and the reason for its existence.

On March 21, 1511, King Manuel conferred the status of town (Portuguese: vila) upon Caldas da Rainha.[6] The town was elevated to the status of city (cidade) in August 1927.[7]

During World War I, in which Portugal joined the Allies, Caldas da Rainha had one of three internment camps in the country. In 1916, most Germans in Portugal were deported, but men aged 15 to 45 were imprisoned in Portugal to prevent their joining the German military. Originally, all of the approximately 700 prisoners were shipped to Angra do Heroísmo on Terceira Island in the Azores, where they were held at the Fortress of São João Baptista. In 1918, to reduce overcrowding at the fortress, 168 internees were moved to the Pavilhões do Parque, then used as a military barracks, in Parque D. Carlos I in Caldas. The prisoners were released in 1919, a year after the end of the war.[8]

During World War II, in which Portugal remained neutral, hundreds of Jewish refugees came to Caldas da Rainha to escape Nazism.[9][10] During the war, Caldas also served as home to British and American airmen who landed or crashed in Portugal or off its coast.[11]

In a prelude to the Carnation Revolution, in the early morning of March 16, 1974, the Fifth Infantry Regiment (Regimento de Infantaria 5), based in Caldas da Rainha in what is now the Escola de Sargentos do Exército, attempted to stage a coup d'état against the country's authoritarian Estado Novo regime.[12] Thirty officers and about 300 sergeants and enlisted men from the regiment left their quarters at 4:00 a.m., heading for Lisbon, where they planned to occupy the airport. On approaching the capital, the Caldas regiment found themselves alone, realizing that the other units that were supposed to participate in the coup had not joined the upheaval. The regiment turned back and reached their Caldas quarters at around 10:00 a.m., locking themselves in and awaiting a siege. The compound was surrounded by various forces, who penetrated the base at about 5:00 p.m. The revolters were arrested and sent to various military prisons, where they were held until the Carnation Revolution, 40 days later.[13]

Caldas da Rainha's coat of arms was granted by Queen Leonor, before municipal coats of arms were typically used in Portugal. Because of its early introduction, several elements of the arms violate Portuguese heraldic standards. For example, Portuguese coat of arms typically feature a mural crown, made up of brick towers. Caldas da Rainha's arms feature a gold crown. The arms lack the typical banner bearing the municipality's name. The shield is much longer than the normal 8:7 ratio. The two smaller shields surrounding the main shield are also not in keeping with Portuguese heraldic rules.

Geography[edit]

Location[edit]

Caldas da Rainha is located at 39° 24′ 26″ N latitude and 9° 8′ 9″ W longitude. The municipality comprises an area of 255.7 square kilometres (98.7 sq mi) (2004 statistics).[14] The city is located approximately 82 kilometres (51 mi) north of the Portuguese capital, Lisbon. Although the municipality borders the Atlantic Ocean, the city proper is about 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from the ocean.

Caldas da Rainha is located in the NUTS III subregion named Oeste, which forms part of the NUTS II region known as Centro, which is part of the NUTS I subdivision called Portugal Continental (Continental/Mainland Portugal).

Caldas da Rainha is the seat of the Comunidade Intermunicipal do Oeste (West Intermunicipal Community).[4] The Comunidade Intermunicipal do Oeste is legislatively coterminous with the Oeste NUTS III subregion. Before becoming an Intermunicipal Community, Oetse was a Comunidade Urbana (urban community), a designation abolished in August 2008.

Caldas da Rainha is in Estremadura, a historical province with no current legal status. The municipality is in the district of Leiria. Districts are being phased out, but still serve as a primary administrative division.

The municipality is bordered to the north by Alcobaça, to the east by Rio Maior and to the south by Bombarral, Cadaval and Óbidos.

The postal code for Caldas da Rainha is 2500. Its telephone area code is 262.

Civil Parishes (Freguesias)[edit]

The former town hall stands on Praça da República. The building now serves as headquarters for the civil parish executive body (junta de freguesia) of União das Freguesias de Caldas da Rainha — Nossa Senhora do Pópulo, Coto e São Gregório.

Until 28 January 2013[edit]

Until the reorganization of civil parishes in early 2013, the municipality of Caldas da Rainha comprised sixteen civil parishes (Portuguese: freguesias). They were:

Source: Instituto Nacional de Estatística (INE)[2]
Freguesia Population
(2011 census)
Total area
A dos Francos—town (vila)[15] 1,701 19.78 km2 7.64 sq mi
Alvorninha—town (vila)[16] 2,987 37.62 km2 14.53 sq mi
Caldas da Rainha — Nossa Senhora do Pópulo[17] 16,114 12.30 km2 4.75 sq mi
Caldas da Rainha — Santo Onofre[17] 11,223 9.11 km2 3.52 sq mi
Carvalhal Benfeito 1,279 14.08 km2 5.44 sq mi
Coto 1,344 5.50 km2 2.12 sq mi
Foz do Arelho—town (vila)[18] 1,339 9.95 km2 3.84 sq mi
Landal 1,051 9.94 km2 3.84 sq mi
Nadadouro 1,904 9.22 km2 3.56 sq mi
Salir de Matos 2,583 24.29 km2 9.38 sq mi
Salir do Porto 797 9.91 km2 3.83 sq mi
Santa Catarina—town (vila)[19] 3,029 19.94 km2 7.70 sq mi
São Gregório 955 14.42 km2 5.57 sq mi
Serra do Bouro 703 17.98 km2 6.94 sq mi
Tornada 3,561 19.82 km2 7.65 sq mi
Vidais 1,159 22.21 km2 8.58 sq mi

Changes effective 29 January 2013[edit]

Law number 11-A/2013, "administrative reorganization of the territory of the civil parishes",[20][21] was passed by the Assembly of the Republic on 28 January 2013 and took effect on the following day. The law caused civil parishes throughout Portugal to be eliminated or combined. Sixteen civil parishes in Caldas da Rainha were combined into twelve, with some additional minor border adjustments. The new civil parishes are:

  • União das Freguesias de Caldas da Rainha — Nossa Senhora do Pópulo, Coto e São Gregório
  • União das Freguesias de Caldas da Rainha — Santo Onofre e Serra do Bouro
  • União das Freguesias de Tornada e Salir do Porto

The other civil parishes remained unchanged.

Demographics[edit]

A resident of Caldas da Rainha is a Caldense (plural: Caldenses).

Between the 2001 and 2011 censuses, the population of the municipality of Caldas da Rainha increased 5.9% from 48,846 residents to 51,729.[1][2] Females made up 52.63% of the municipal population, and males accounted for 47.37%.[2]

The population of the statistical city[Note 1] of Caldas da Rainha grew from 25,316 residents in 2001 to 27,378 in 2011, an increase of 8.1%.[3]

The 2011 census found that the municipality contained 20,598 families, with an average of 2.5 people per family.[2] The municipality had 19,202 buildings and 31,063 dwellings.[2]

Government[edit]

Câmara Municipal[edit]

Caldas da Rainha's municipal building (Paços do Concelho), is located on Praça 25 de Abril.

The executive body of the municipal government is the Câmara Municipal (municipal chamber, or city council). Fernando Manuel Tinta Ferreira (PSD) serves as president (presidente) of the city council, effectively the mayor of Caldas da Rainha. Hugo Patrício Martinho de Oliveira (PSD) serves as vice president of the council. The other members are Maria da Conceição Jardim Pereira (PSD), Alberto Pereira (PSD), Jorge Sobral (PS), Rui Correia (PS), and Manuel Isaac (CDS–PP).[22]

Assembleia Municipal[edit]

The legislative body of municipal government is the thirty-three-member Assembleia Municipal (municipal assembly). Luís Manuel Pereira Monteiro Ribeiro is president of the assembly. Vasco da Cruz Antunes de Oliveira serves as the first secretary and Maria João dos Santos Ribeiro Querido serves as the second secretary.[23]

The presidents of the each of the twelve juntas de freguesia (civil parish councils) serve on the assembly:[24]

  • António Manuel Rosa Monteiro (A dos Francos)
  • Avelino Custódio (Alvorninha)
  • Vitor Manuel Calisto Marques (União das Freguesias de Caldas da Rainha — Nossa Senhora do Pópulo, Coto e São Gregório)
  • Abílio Maria Camacho (União das Freguesias de Caldas da Rainha — Santo Onofre e Serra do Bouro)
  • Maria João dos Santos Ribeiro Querido (Carvalhal Benfeito)
  • Fernando Luís Santos de Sousa (Foz do Arelho)
  • António José Carvalho de Almeida (Landal)
  • Maria Alice Roberto Gesteiro Pedro (Nadadouro)
  • Rui Manuel Ribeiro Jacinto (Salir de Matos)
  • Rui Miguel Norte Rocha (Santa Catarina)
  • Henrique José Teresa (União das Freguesias de Tornada e Salir do Porto)
  • Virgílio Caetano Filipe (Vidais)

The other members of the assembly are:[24]

  • José Luís de Carvalho Lalanda Ribeiro
  • Manuel Mendes Nunes
  • Luís Manuel Pereira Monteiro Ribeiro
  • Filomena Maria Marques Seabra Rodrigues
  • Jaime Manuel Rodrigues Neto
  • Vasco da Cruz Antunes de Oliveira
  • Edgar Nunes Ximenes Henriques
  • Luís Miguel Rodrigues Brás Gil
  • Daniel Miguel Rebelo
  • Maria Luísa Santos Barros Gomes Barbosa
  • Maria Susana Morais da Costa
  • Paulo Jorge Correia do Espírito Santo
  • José Carlos Mateus Abegão
  • Vítor Manuel Marques Fernandes
  • António Cipriano da Silva
  • Emanuel Ferreira Rocha Pontes
  • João Miguel da Nazaré Diniz
  • Tânia Filipa Borges Correia Galeão
  • Pedro António Rosário Assunção Seixas
  • Pedro Miguel de Oliveira Marques
  • Maria da Conceição Quirino Catalino Paramos de Carvalho

Prior Mayor[edit]

Fernando José da Costa, the prior mayor (presidente da câmara municipal), now serves as a member of the câmara municipal of Loures, a suburb of Lisbon.[25]

Economy[edit]

Statistics[edit]

Bordallo Pinheiro ceramics factory

As of December 31, 2004, there are 2,075 business firms in the municipality. 3.9% are in the primary sector (agriculture), 20.9% are in the secondary sector (manufacturing) and 75.3% are in the tertiary sector (services).[14]

There are 31 banking institutions, with deposits totaling 518,021,400.[14]

As of 2001, 49% of the population is employed, while 6.5% are unemployed.[14] (The remainder are too young, are retired or do not otherwise participate in the workforce.)

Commerce[edit]

Caldas da Rainha has a vibrant downtown/city centre (centro) shopping area, with a variety of shops specializing in clothing, jewelry, beauty supplies, home decoration, housewares, and other goods. The main shopping streets include Rua dos Heróis da Grande Guerra, Rua Almirante Cândido dos Reis (popularly known as Rua das Montras, Street of Storefronts), Rua do Doutor Miguel Bombarda, Rua da Liberdade, and numerous surrounding streets.

Several international chains have locations in Caldas da Rainha, including AKI,[26] Mango,[27] McDonald's,[28] and Staples.[29]

There are numerous supermarkets and hypermarkets in Caldas da Rainha, including Aldi,[30] Continente Modelo,[31] E.Leclerc,[32] Lidl,[33] Meu Super,[34] Minipreço (two locations),[35] Pão de Açúcar,[36] and Pingo Doce (three locations).[37]

Several small indoor shopping centers, most with only a handful of stores, exist throughout the city.

The Associação Comercial dos Concelhos das Caldas da Rainha e Óbidos (ACCCRO, founded in 1902 as the Associação Comercial e Industrial de Caldas da Rainha) aims to promote traditional commerce in Caldas da Rainha and neighboring Óbidos. The association aims to publicize smaller businesses located in the municipalitys' centers, which feel threatened by the increasing popularity of larger businesses, such as malls and hypermarkets usually found on the outskirts.

Vivaci Caldas da Rainha[edit]

Vivaci Caldas da Rainha, an indoor shopping center operated by FDO Imobiliária, was inaugurated on November 25, 2008, and opened to the public the following day. The center is located adjacent to the site of the Hotel Lisbonense, which is being rebuilt. Vivaci's four floors contain sixty stores, including fourteen restaurants, a five-screen movie theater (Cinemas Vivacine in partnership with Zon Lusomundo), a supermarket (Pão de Açúcar), and ATMs (Millenium bcp).[38][39]

CaldasShopping[edit]

CaldasShopping, originally scheduled for conclusion in 2006, was opened in late December 2008. The complex, located at the intersection of Rua Dr. Miguel Bombarda and Rua Raul Proença, is operated by Erguigest. In addition to space for about forty shops and indoor and outdoor esplanades seating 200 to 250, the CaldasShopping edifice contains offices and thirteen apartments.[40][41][42]

Centro Bordalo[edit]

Centro Bordalo, a shopping center to be developed by Sonae Sierra, was originally scheduled to open in 2010 with ninety-five stores and 1,100 parking spaces. Sonae Sierra planned to invest 56 million euros in the 24,000-square-metre (260,000 sq ft) center. The financial crisis of 2007–08 caused Sonae Sierra to postpone the project. The center will be located across from the existing Continente Modelo hypermarket and will be connected to it by a pedestrian bridge over the street.[43]

Arts and Culture[edit]

Centro Cultural e de Congressos[edit]

On May 15, 2008, the municipal holiday, President Aníbal Cavaco Silva and Mayor Fernando José da Costa inaugurated the Centro Cultural e de Congressos (CCC),[Note 2] a cultural and conference center. The center hosts music, theatre, dance, and cinema, as well as various expositions and conferences.

The center's grand auditorium contains 660 seats and a 600 square metres (6,500 sq ft) stage. The smaller auditorium can seat up to 150. A multi-use space of 240 square metres (2,600 sq ft) can be subdivided into four rooms. A concert café seats 60. The rehearsal space is as large as the main stage.

Expoeste[edit]

Expoeste - Centro de Exposições do Oeste, is an indoor event space. The center hosts various events, including bridal expos, seasonal festivals, fruit expos, and car shows. One of the most popular events is the annual Expotur - Festa de Verão, popularly called "tasquinhas". At this event, which takes place over the span of about week and a half at the beginning of August, food from each of the freguesias is available for purchase and on-site consumption.[44]

Ceramics[edit]

Examples of typical pottery from Caldas da Rainha

Caldas da Rainha is well known for its glazed ceramic pottery (louça das Caldas). At the end of the 19th century, the ceramic industry set up place here, making the city Portugal's ceramic and pottery capital. Ancient references to pottery manufacturing can be found in the area, with soils rich in clay. A nearby village's name, Bombarral, can be translated as "good-clay pit", revealing that the pottery tradition has been settled here since ancient times. The typical Caldas pottery has evolved since its great boom in early 20th century, but the main types are still the same.

Caldas da Rainha's pottery falls into two main categories: utilitarian housewares, such as plates, bowls, platters, mugs, and tureens; and purely decorative items, such as caricature figurines and ceramic phalluses of various sizes. Even useful articles usually serve a decorative purpose as well. One popular model, created by Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro, is a cabbage-shaped soup tureen, which can be displayed on a shelf or as a centerpiece when not in use.

One of the most popular decorative figures is Zé Povinho, a bearded peasant everyman character created by Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro. A symbol of Portugal and the Portuguese people, Zé Povinho appears in many jocular, defiant poses.

The ceramics are available for purchase at stands in the daily market at Praça da República (Praça da Fruta) and shops in the vicinity. They are also available in stores outside Portugal, including a number of up-market housewares stores.

Gastronomy[edit]

Cavacas das Caldas are a small-bowl-sized, shell-shaped confection of flour and eggs, with a crunchy sugar covering. In June 2005, a 26 meter pyramid of cavacas was erected on Praça 25 de Abril in front of the city hall.[45] Beijinhos das Caldas (English: "kisses") are similar, but are smaller and round.

Attractions[edit]

Pavilhões do Parque in Parque D. Carlos I

Beaches and water[edit]

Foz do Arelho has a beach on Atlantic Ocean, 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from the center of town. The Lagoa de Óbidos, which empties into the Atlantic Ocean, is a lagoon located on the border with Óbidos near Foz do Arelho. Salir do Porto has a beach on the Atlantic Ocean.

Churches[edit]

The Igreja Nossa Senhora do Pópulo is a gothic church near the thermal hospital. It was built around the year 1500 by order of Queen Leonor. The church has two associated chapels: Capela de São Sebastião and Capela do Espírito Santo. The Ermida da São Sebastião is a 16th-century chapel, adjacent to Praça da República. Igreja de Nossa Senhora da Conceição is a 20th-century church located on Praça 25 de Abril.

Museums[edit]

Several museums are located in Caldas da Rainha. The Centro de Artes (arts center) hosts three museums of sculpture: the Museu-Atelier António Duarte, the Museu-Atelier João Fragoso, and the Museu Barata Feyo. The Museu de Cerâmica exhibits ceramic works of art, as does the Casa-Museu de São Rafael. The Museu do Hospital e das Caldas features exhibits related to the thermal hospital and the city. The Museu José Malhoa is an art museum located in Parque D. Carlos I.

Parks and plazas[edit]

Parque D. Carlos I is a large park in the center of town. The José Malhoa Museum sits in the middle of the park. The park contains a doughnut-shaped pond with a small island in the center. Visitors can rent rowboats on the pond.

Praça da República (Republic Plaza) is a public square in the center of town. The plaza, also known as Praça da Fruta (Fruit Plaza), hosts Portugal's only daily outdoor farmers' market. The plaza is surrounded by buildings, most containing shops, banks, and cafés on the ground floor.

Praça 5 de Outubro (October 5 Plaza) formerly hosted the city's open-air fish market, which has since moved to an indoor location (Mercado do Peixe). The plaza is now used for outdoor café seating and free cultural events. A parking garage sits underground below the plaza.

A statue of Queen Queen Leonor stands in the middle of the roundabout at Largo Conde de Fontalva, typically called Largo da Rainha. The iconic monument serves as a landmark and marks the entrance to the historic city center when approaching from the south on N8/N115/N360 or from the west on the N360.

Transport[edit]

Rail[edit]

Caldas da Rainha railway station

Caldas da Rainha has a railway station served by the Linha do Oeste (western line) of Comboios de Portugal.[46] Salir do Porto, a civil parish on the Atlantic Ocean in Caldas da Rainha municipality, is the next station north of Caldas. Former train stops in the municipality are Campo-Serra and Bouro.

As part of the deal to help Portugal overcome its debt burden, the government had announced that it would discontinue passenger service on the Linha do Oeste north of Caldas da Rainha by the end of 2011.[47] The decision was later overturned, and service was restructured instead.[48]

Regional service[edit]

Regional trains, which make frequent local stops, run south to Lisbon and north to Leiria.[46]

South toward Lisbon[edit]

Some trips travel as far as the Lisbon stations of Sete-Rios, Entrecampos, and Santa Apolónia (3 trips southbound, 4 trips northbound). Some trips reach only Mira Sintra-Meleças, in the suburbs of Lisbon, where passengers can transfer to an Urbano (commuter train) to reach Lisbon stations at Sete-Rios, Entrecampos, Roma Areeiro, and Oriente (3 trips in each direction). One southbound trip terminates at Entrecampos. One trip in each direction goes only as far as Torres Vedras.[46]

North toward Leiria[edit]

Three Regional round trips daily travel between Caldas da Rainha and Leiria.[46]

Interregional service[edit]

Interregional trains, which make select stops, run north to Coimbra-B station (3 round trips daily), where passengers can switch to trains to the central Coimbra station. These trains also serve Leiria, among other stops. Direct service was previously available to Figueira da Foz, but passengers must now transfer to an Urbano at Verride.[46]

Long distance and suburban buses[edit]

Caldas da Rainha has a bus station (terminal rodoviário) located in the city center.

Rede Nacional de Expressos provides express bus service to various destinations in the country.

Rodoviária do Tejo (a/k/a Rodotejo) provides interurban services to destinations within its service area—the cities, towns, villages, and hamlets near and around Caldas da Rainha, Leiria, Santarém, and Torres Novas.[49] Rodotejo also provides three Rápida (literally "rapid", experess-like, limited-stop) services from Caldas.[50] The Rápida Verde (Green Rapid) offers frequent service to Campo Grande in Lisbon, with most trips stopping in Óbidos and in Bombarral.[51] The Rápida Rosa (Pink Rapid) goes to Leiria, with stops at São Martinho do Porto, Nazaré, and several smaller communities.[52] A twice-daily unnamed Rápida goes to Santarém via Rio Maior.[53]

Rocaldas-Empresa de transportes Auto-Penafiel, Lda. services outlying, suburban, and rural areas near the city. Their buses do not use the bus station.

Local buses[edit]

TOMA[edit]

On May 15, 2007, the municipal holiday, the municipal council inaugurated local bus service called TOMA. The name means "take this" in Portuguese and commemorates everyman figure Zé Povinho, whose image appears on the buses.

TOMA service consists of three routes: Linha Azul (Blue Line), Linha Laranja (Orange Line), and Linha Verde (Green Line). The Blue line uses two minibuses and runs between the western and eastern ends of town. The Orange and Green lines each operate using a single twenty-nine-seat minibus on loop routes.[54][55]

TOMA service runs from 7:30 a.m. to 7:30 p.m. on weekdays and from 8:00 a.m to 1:30 p.m. on Saturdays, with no service on Sundays. All routes operate at thirty-minute intervals, expect for Saturday service on the Blue Line, which runs hourly.[56][57][58][59]

Since August 16, 2011, a trip on TOMA costs €1.10 without a pass and €0.55 with a pass, called TTT – Título de Transporte do TOMA. Passengers receive volume discounts for purchasing multiple trips simultaneously. They can also purchase passes for unlimited rides for given number of days.[60] On January 9, 2008, the city council announced that persons in wheelchairs would ride free of charge.[61]

Linha Azul (Blue Line)[edit]

In May 2008, the municipality announced TOMA's third route, Linha Azul (Blue Line), which serves the northern areas of the city not included in the two first-phase routes. The new route operates using two buses, rather than the single bus used by each of the other two routes.[62] Introduction of the new line was delayed, because the company that won the bid to operate the line decided not to undertake the project after all.[63] The municipality inaugurated the new route on September 19, 2009, Public Transport Day.[64]

On westbound trips, the Blue line stops at:[55][56]

  • Mercado (weekly market/fairground)
  • Belver (neighborhood)
  • Hospital
  • Cinco Bicas/CCC (fountain/Centro Cultural e de Congressos, cultural and conference center)
  • Chafariz (fountain)
  • Montepio (health organization)
  • Câmara (city hall)
  • PSP (police station)
  • Quinta Canários (neighborhood)
  • Hortas (factory)
  • Cutileira (neighborhood)
  • Centro de Saúde (health center)
  • Cidade Nova (neighborhood)
  • Expoeste (special events center)
  • Raúl Proença (secondary school)
  • D. João II (street)
  • Piscinas (municipal pools)
  • Rugby/Colégio (sports center/private school)

On eastbound trips, the Blue line stops at:[55][57]

  • Rugby/Colégio (sports center/private school)
  • Piscinas (municipal pools)
  • Arneiros (neighborhood)
  • Raúl Proença (secondary school)
  • Expoeste (special events center)
  • Cidade Nova (neighborhood)
  • Centro de Saúde (health center)
  • Cutileira (neighborhood)
  • Hortas (factory)
  • Quinta Canários (neighborhood)
  • EB2,3 D. João II (middle school)
  • Montepio (health organization)
  • Heróis da Grande Guerra (pedestrianized downtown shopping street)
  • Rainha (roundabout with statue of Queen Leonor)
  • Praça da Fruta (main square, daily farmers market, official name: Praça da República)
  • Hospital
  • Univ. Católica (university)
  • Colina do Sol (neighborhood)
  • Santa Rita (neighborhood)
  • Gago Coutinho (crossroads in neighborhood)
  • Mercado (weekly market/fairground)
Linha Laranja (Orange Line)[edit]

The Linha Laranja (Orange Line) was inaugurated on May 15, 2007, as part of the first phase of TOMA service.[64] This loop route stops at:[55][58]

  • Terminal Rodoviário (bus station)
  • Cinco Bicas/CCC (fountain/Centro Cultural e de Congressos, cultural and conference center)
  • Hospital
  • Univ. Católica (university)
  • Encosta do Sol (neighborhood)
  • Chafariz (fountain; formerly at nearby Bordalo Pinheiro secondary school)
  • Montepio (health organization)
  • Heróis da Grande Guerra (pedestrianized downtown shopping street)
  • Rainha (roundabout with statue of Queen Leonor)
  • Biblioteca (library)
  • Cencal (ceramics school)
  • Rugby/Colégio (sports center/private school)
  • Piscinas (municipal pools)
  • Arneiros (neighborhood)
  • Fonte Luminosa (fountain)
  • Centro de Saúde (health center)
  • Estação CP (railway station)
  • Câmara (city hall)
Linha Verde (Green Line)[edit]

The Linha Verde (Green Line) was inaugurated on May 15, 2007, as part of the first phase of TOMA service.[64] This loop route stops at:[55][59]

  • Rainha (roundabout with statue of Queen Leonor)
  • Parque (park)
  • Centro D'Artes (arts center)
  • Avenal Escola (school)
  • Avenal (neighborhood)
  • ESAD (Escola Superior de Artes e Design, art and design college)
  • Quinta da Oliveira (apartment complex)
  • EBI (Escola Basica Integrada de Santo Onofre, primary and middle school)
  • Bairro das Morenas (neighborhood)
  • ETEO (Escola Técnica Empresarial do Oeste, professional school)
  • Ponte (bridge)
  • Bairro da Ponte (neighborhood)
  • Fonte Luminosa (fountain)
  • Centro de Saúde (health center)
  • Estação CP (railway station)
  • Câmara (city hall)
  • Terminal Rodoviário (bus station)
  • Cinco Bicas/CCC (fountain/Centro Cultural e de Congressos, cultural and conference center)
  • Hospital
  • Chafariz (fountain)
  • Montepio (health organization)
  • Heróis da Grande Guerra (pedestrianized downtown shopping street)

Projecto Tornada[edit]

Tornada is a significant population and employment center in the municipality, just north of the city on the N8 (aka EN8) roadway. Many residents complain of poor public transportation options. In reality, many buses operated by Rodoviário do Tejo or Rocaldas (aka Empresa de Transportes Auto Penafiel) pass through and stop in Tornada, though all are designed for further destinations. The municipal government in cooperation with the two bus operators, has undertaken "Projecto Tornada" to produce and disseminate a combined schedule of services, to coordinate and improve bus stops on N8, and to improve pedestrian access along N8. Conclusion of the project is set for the beginning of 2010.[64]

Rede RoCaldas[edit]

Rede RoCaldas is an initiative to join together intra-municipal bus service outside the city proper under a single banner and pricing scheme. Introduced in September 2013, Rede RoCaldas combines all services of Rocaldas - Empresa de Transportes Auto-Penafiel with the short-haul services of Rodoviária do Tejo (a/k/a Rodotejo). RoCaldas is a wholly owned subsidiary of Rodotejo, operating as a separate brand.[65] The combined service promises various benefits, including use of the Rodotejo's central bus terminal, restructuring city-center bus stops, more frequent service, and streamlined ticketing.[66][67][68]

Roads[edit]

Caldas da Rainha is served by an extensive network of roads. Two motorways (auto-estradas), both operated by Auto-Estradas do Atlântico, serve the municipality. The A8 (also known as Auto-estrada do Oeste and as IC1) goes south to Lisbon, Loures, Torres Vedras, and Bombarral and north to Leiria, Marinha Grande, Alcobaça, and Nazaré. The A15 goes west to Santarém via Rio Maior. IP 6 is a main route (itinerário principal) connecting to Peniche, Santarém, Castelo Branco, and Spain.

Several national roads (estradas nacionais), which are older and not as well-maintained as motorways and main routes, serve the municipality. EN 8 (N8) crosses the municipality from north to south, connecting to Alcobaça and Leiria to the north and Óbidos, Bombarral, Torres Vedras, and Loures to the south. EN 8 runs through the center of the city, although the part of its route along Rua dos Heróis da Grande Guerra is now a pedestrian zone. EN 8 was the municipality's main roadway before the A8 motorway was built.

EN 114 (N114), in the center and southeast of the municipality, goes to Peniche, Rio Maior and Santarém. EN 114-1 (N114-1), in the center and east of the municipality, connects to EN 114. EN 115 (N115), along the south and southwest border of the municipality, runs to Cadaval. EN 360 (N360) crosses the municipality southwest to northeast, connecting to Alcobaça. EN 361 (N361), in the southwest of the municipality, connects to Cadaval and Rio Maior.

Education[edit]

Caldas da Rainha is home to many educational institutions.

Higher education[edit]

Escola Superior de Artes e Design de Caldas da Rainha (ESAD.CR), founded in 1990, is a school of the Instituto Politécnico de Leiria (IPL). ESAD offers courses in plastic arts, industrial design, ceramic design, graphic design, multimedia design, theatre and sound & image.[69]

Former institutions of higher learning in Caldas include Escola Superior de Biotecnologia (ESB) of Universidade Católica Portuguesa, which offered courses in biotechnology; and an extension of Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa.

Primary and secondary education[edit]

There are two secondary schools (escolas secundárias, years ten through twelve) in Caldas da Rainha.[70] Escola Secundária Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro is located in Nossa Senhora do Pópulo freguesia and Escola Secundária Raúl Proença is located in the neighborhood of Bairro do Arneiros in Santo Onofre freguesia.

Caldas da Rainha has three basic schools (escolas básicas) for the second and third cycles (segundo (2°) ciclo, years five and six; and terceiro (3°) ciclo, years seven through nine).[70] E.B. 2,3 D. João II is located in Nossa Senhora do Pópulo freguesia and offers the second and third cycles only. EBI 1,2,3 Santo Onofre is located in the neighborhood of Bairro das Morenas in Santo Onofre freguesia and offers the first, second, and third cycles. EBI de Santa Catarina, located in Santa Catarina freguesia, offers kindergarten, first, second, and third cycle classes.

Caldas da Rainha has 48 schools for the first cycle (primeiro (1°) ciclo, years one though four) located throughout the municipality. The schools, together with the kindergartens, are divided into five geographic groups for administrative purposes.[71] They are located at A-dos-Francos, Alvorninha, Antas, Avenal, Bairradas, Bairro da Ponte, Bairro dos Arneiros, Cabreiros, Campo, Carreiros, Carvalhal Benfeito, Casais da Serra, Casal da Areia, Casal da Marinha, Casal das Freiras, Chão da Parada, Coto, Cumeira, Encosta do Sol, Espinheira, Fanadia, Foz do Arelho, Guisado, Lagoa Parceira, Mata, Mestras, Moita, Nadadouro, Parque, Peso, Rabaceira, Ramalhosa, Reguengo da Parada, Relvas, Ribeira dos Amiais, Rostos, Salir de Matos, Salir do Porto, Santa Catarina (E.B.I. 0,1,2,3), Santa Susana, Santo Onofre (E.B.I. 1,2,3), São Clemente, São Gregório, Tornada, Trabalhias, Vidais, Vila Verde, and Zambujal.

Caldas da Rainha has 27 kindergartens (jardims de infância).[71] They are located at A-dos-Francos, Antas, Avenal, Bairro dos Arneiros, Carreiros, Carvalhal Benfeito, Casais da Serra, Casal Celão, Casal da Areia, Coto, Cruzes, Foz do Arelho, Lagoa Parceira, Moita, Morenas, Nadadouro, Rabaceira, Ramalhosa, Reguengo da Parada, Salir do Porto, Santa Catarina, Santa Catarina (E.B.I.), Santa Susana, São Clemente, São Cristovão, São Gregório, and Tornada.

Colégio Rainha D. Leonor, in Santo Onofre, is a private school offering basic and secondary education.

Colégio Frei Cristóvão, in A-dos-Francos, is a private school, offering years five through nine.[72]

Professional, technical, and vocational education[edit]

Caldas da Rainha has five institutions offering professional, technical, vocational education.[73]

The Escola Técnica Empresarial do Oeste (ETEO) offers courses in business and technology.[73][74][75]

The Centro de Formação Profissional Para a Indústria Cerâmica (CENCAL) offers training related to the ceramics industry.[73][76][77]

The Centro Formação Profissional Indústria Metalúrgica e Metalomecânica (CENFIM) offers courses in metallurgy.[73][78][79]

The Escola de Sargentos do Exército (ESE) trains sergeants for the Portuguese Army.[73][80][81]

The Escola de Hotelaria e Turismo do Oeste-Caldas da Rainha offers training in hospitality and tourism.[73][82][83][84]

Other Education[edit]

The Centro de Educação Especial Rainha Dona Leonor (CEERDL) offers special education.[85][86][87]

The Conservatório de Caldas da Rainha is a conservatory of music.[85][88][89]

Escola Vocacional de Dança "Os Pimpões" offers training in dance.[85][90][91]

Health care[edit]

Hospital[edit]

Hospital Termal Rainha D. Leonor

Caldas da Rainha is home to the Hospital Distrital Caldas da Rainha (Caldas da Rainha District Hospital), which forms part of Centro Hospitalar do Oeste (CHO, Hospital Center of Oeste). The hospital serves all general emergency needs of all civil parishes of the municipalities of Bombarral, Caldas da Rainha, and Óbidos, plus parts of Alcobaça. It also handles pediatric emergencies for the aforementioned municipalities, plus the municipality of Peniche. It also serves obstetric and gynecological emergency needs for the aforementioned municipalities, plus the municipalities of Cadaval, Lourinhã, Mafra, and Torres Vedras.[92][93]

The Hospital Termal Rainha D. Leonor (Queen Leonor Thermal Hospital), a spa offering medically prescribed treatment in sulfurous waters, is also part of the Centro Hospitalar do Oeste.[94]

Among the non-medical institutions of the Centro Hospitlar are the Museu do Hospital e das Caldas (Museum of the Hospital and Spa); the Igreja de Nossa Senhora do Pópulo, a church; and Parque D. Carlos I, a public park.

Health center[edit]

Caldas da Rainha is also served by a health center, Centro de Saúde Caldas da Rainha,[95] which offers primary and non-urgent care. The following centers and units are affiliated with the health center:

  • Centro de Diagnóstico Pneumológico Caldas da Rainha[96]
  • Unidade de Cuidados de Saude Personalizados Caldas da Rainha- Extensão A-dos-Francos[97]
  • Unidade de Cuidados de Saúde Personalizados Caldas da Rainha - Extensão da Foz do Arelho[98]
  • Unidade de Cuidados de Saúde Personalizados Caldas da Rainha - Extensão de Alvorninha[99]
  • Unidade de Cuidados de Saúde Personalizados Caldas da Rainha - Extensão de Santa Catarina[100]
  • Unidade de Cuidados de Saúde Personalizados Caldas da Rainha - Extensão de Rostos (Landal)[101]
  • Unidade de Cuidados na Comunidade Caldas da Rainha (CS Caldas da Rainha)[102]
  • Unidade de Saúde Familiar Tornada (CS Caldas Rainha)[103]
  • Unidade de Saúde Familiar Bordalo Pinheiro (CS Caldas da Rainha)[104]
  • Unidade Saúde Familiar Rainha Dona Leonor[105]
  • USF Bordalo Pinheiro - Pólo Vidais[106]

Pharmacies[edit]

There are fifteen pharmacies in the municipality. Seven are found in the city, and one is found in each of the following civil parishes: A-do-Francos, Alvorninha, Foz do Arelho, Landal, Salir de Matos, Santa Catarina, Tornada, and Vidais.[107][108]

Public safety[edit]

Fire protection is provided by the Bombeiros Voluntários de Caldas da Rainha (BVCR, Volunteer Firefighters of Caldas da Rainha).[109]

Police protection in the urban areas of the municipality is provided by the Polícia de Segurança Pública (PSP, Public Security Police).[110]

Rural areas of the municipality are patrolled by the Guarda Nacional Republicana (GNR, Republican National Guard). The GNR's base is located within the city proper.[111][112]

Twin towns (sister cities)[edit]

Caldas da Rainha is twinned with the following places:[113]

The municipality intends to twin with the following places:[113]

Sports[edit]

Headquarters of Federação Portuguesa de Badminton

Caldas Sport Clube (CSC) was founded May 15, 1916. The club sponsors an association football (soccer) team which competes in the Portuguese Football Federation's 2nd Division — Series C. The team plays at Campo da Mata, a 13,000-seat field located in a forest adjacent to Parque D. Carlos I. CSC also sponsors several youth (junior) football teams for various age groups.

The western edge of the city is home to the Complexo Desportivo Municipal (municipal sports complex). The main feature is a rugby field surrounded by a running track. The field is home to Caldas Rugby Clube. The field can also be used for association football (soccer). The municipality recently added five tennis courts (two of which are covered) in an adjacent facility. The municipal pools are located nearby.

The Portuguese Badminton Federation (Federação Portuguesa de Badminton) is headquartered in Caldas da Rainha.[114] On February 6, 2010, the Centro de Alto Rendimento de Badminton (high performance badminton center) was inaugurated in the Complexo Desportivo Municipal area.[115]

Caldas da Rainha has a bullring (praça de touros), inaugurated on June 13, 1883. The octagonal arena originally seated 4,000 spectators, but now has capacity for 3,250. In a typical year, the ring hosts between three and five bullfights, with peak years seeing six such events. The arena also hosts concerts.[116]

On October 4 and 5, 2008, Caldas da Rainha hosted the modern pentathlon World Cup final, an event sanctioned by the Union Internationale de Pentathlon Moderne (UIPM).[117]

Media[edit]

Caldas da Rainha has two weekly newspapers. Jornal das Caldas, published on Wednesdays.[118] Gazeta das Caldas, founded in 1925,[119] is published on Fridays.

Notable natives[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c The "statistical city" of Caldas da Rainha contains the entirety of the civil parish of Santo Onofre, most of the civil parish of Nossa Senhora do Pópulo (excluding Lagoa Parceira, Imaginário, and Casal do Tanqueirão) and the southernmost portion of the civil parish of Tornada. "INE - Censos 2011 Resultados Definitivos". Instituto Nacional de Estatística (Statistics Portugal). Retrieved 13 April 2014. 
  2. ^ Some sources omit the word "de" before "Congressos". This omission is incorrect, as "de" is needed for grammatical parallel structure, since "cultural" is an adjective and "congressos" is a noun. Even the center's official World Wide Web site at http://www.ccc.eu.com/ does not resolve the issue. The page title contains "de", but the logo does not. At http://www.presidencia.pt/?idc=10&idi=16093, the plaque in the fourth photo contains "de", but the podium in the eighth photo and the signage in the last photo do not. A Municipal Assembly meeting resolved the issue, with the omission being classified as an error to be corrected [1] (in Portuguese)

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External links[edit]

  • Portal Caldas da Rainha, by Município das Caldas da Rainha — the municipality's official Web site (Portuguese)