Caldwell, New Jersey

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Caldwell, New Jersey
Borough
Borough of Caldwell
Grover Cleveland Birthplace Historic Site
Grover Cleveland Birthplace Historic Site
Map of Caldwell in Essex County. Inset: Location of Essex County highlighted in the State of New Jersey.
Map of Caldwell in Essex County. Inset: Location of Essex County highlighted in the State of New Jersey.
Census Bureau map of Caldwell, New Jersey
Census Bureau map of Caldwell, New Jersey
Coordinates: 40°50′21″N 74°16′37″W / 40.839244°N 74.276999°W / 40.839244; -74.276999Coordinates: 40°50′21″N 74°16′37″W / 40.839244°N 74.276999°W / 40.839244; -74.276999[1][2]
Country  United States of America
State  New Jersey
County Essex
Incorporated February 10, 1892
Named for James Caldwell
Government[6]
 • Type Borough
 • Mayor Ann Dassing (term ends December 31, 2014)[3]
 • Administrator Paul M. Carelli[4]
 • Clerk Lisa O'Neill (acting)[5]
Area[1]
 • Total 1.167 sq mi (3.023 km2)
 • Land 1.166 sq mi (3.019 km2)
 • Water 0.001 sq mi (0.004 km2)  0.12%
Area rank 488th of 566 in state
22nd of 22 in county[1]
Elevation[7] 397 ft (121 m)
Population (2010 Census)[8][9][10][11]
 • Total 7,822
 • Estimate (2013)[12] 7,861
 • Rank 294th of 566 in state
17th of 22 in county[13]
 • Density 6,710.3/sq mi (2,590.9/km2)
 • Density rank 69th of 566 in state
8th of 22 in county[13]
Time zone Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) Eastern (EDT) (UTC-4)
ZIP codes 07006-07007[14]
Area code(s) 973[15]
FIPS code 3401309250[1][16][17]
GNIS feature ID 2381010[1][18]
Website www.caldwell-nj.com

Caldwell is a borough located in northwestern Essex County, New Jersey, about 16 miles (26 km) outside of New York City. As of the 2010 United States Census, the borough's population was 7,822,[8][9][10] reflecting an increase of 238 (+3.1%) from the 7,584 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 35 (+0.5%) from the 7,549 counted in the 1990 Census.[19]

Caldwell was incorporated as a borough by an Act of the New Jersey Legislature on February 10, 1892, from portions of Caldwell Township (now Fairfield Township), based on the results of a referendum held on the previous day.[20] In 1981, the name was changed to the "Township of the Borough of Caldwell" to take advantage of federal revenue sharing policies.[21] Effective January 26, 1995, it again became a borough.[22]

Grover Cleveland, the 22nd and 24th President of the United States, and the only president to serve two non-consecutive terms, was born in Caldwell on March 18, 1837. His father, Rev. Richard Cleveland, was pastor of the First Presbyterian Church. The Grover Cleveland birthplace — the church's former rectory — is now a museum and is open to the public.[23]

Though today the Caldwell area is considered to be a suburb of both Newark and New York City, the area originally developed as its own individual, self-contained community and economy rather than as urban sprawl from a larger city. When it was formed, a few miles of woods separated downtown Caldwell from Newark or any of its developing suburbs.

New Jersey Monthly magazine ranked Caldwell as its 3rd best place to live in its 2010 rankings of the "Best Places To Live" in New Jersey.[24]

Geography[edit]

Caldwell is located at 40°50′21″N 74°16′37″W / 40.839244°N 74.276999°W / 40.839244; -74.276999 (40.839244,-74.276999). According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough had a total area of 1.167 square miles (3.023 km2), of which, 1.166 square miles (3.019 km2) of it was land and 0.001 square miles (0.004 km2) of it (0.12%) was water.[1][2]

Caldwell is part of "The Caldwells", the group of three Essex County municipalities which all have the word Caldwell in their name. Together with North Caldwell and West Caldwell, these communities are named after the Reverend James Caldwell, a Patriot who played an active role supporting the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, most notably his actions at the Battle of Springfield, where he gave the soldiers pages from hymn books to use as wadding for their rifle bullets.[25] While each community has its own independent government, and the three municipalities have no shared governance (other than Essex County), the term is often used to refer to the area, including on highway exit signs. Signage for Exit 47B and 52 on Interstate 80 refer to "The Caldwells" as a destination. Fairfield Township was known as Caldwell Township until it abandoned its original name in 1963 in an effort to avoid confusion of mail distribution in the various Caldwells.[26]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1900 1,367
1910 2,236 63.6%
1920 3,776 68.9%
1930 5,144 36.2%
1940 4,932 −4.1%
1950 6,270 27.1%
1960 6,942 10.7%
1970 8,677 25.0%
1980 7,624 −12.1%
1990 7,549 −1.0%
2000 7,584 0.5%
2010 7,822 3.1%
Est. 2013 7,861 [12] 0.5%
Population sources: 1900-1920[27]
1900-1910[28] 1910-1930[29]
1930-1990[30] 2000[31][32] 2010[8][9][10]

In a report performed by the United Way of Northern New Jersey based on 2012 data, around 34% of Caldwell households were classified as "Asset Limited, Income Constrained, Employed" households (below a threshold of $50,000 for households below 65, below $35,000 for those over 65), struggling with basic necessities, such as housing, childcare, food, health care, and transportation, compared to 38% statewide and 47% in Essex County.[33]

Census 2010[edit]

At the 2010 United States Census, there were 7,822 people, 3,359 households, and 1,797 families residing in the borough. The population density was 6,710.3 per square mile (2,590.9/km2). There were 3,510 housing units at an average density of 3,011.1 per square mile (1,162.6/km2). The racial makeup of the borough was 86.78% (6,788) White, 3.32% (260) Black or African American, 0.10% (8) Native American, 4.72% (369) Asian, 0.04% (3) Pacific Islander, 3.14% (246) from other races, and 1.89% (148) from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 10.05% (786) of the population.[8]

There were 3,359 households, of which 23.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.3% were married couples living together, 9.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 46.5% were non-families. 39.7% of all households were made up of individuals, and 14.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.19 and the average family size was 3.01.[8]

In the borough, 18.5% of the population were under the age of 18, 11.1% from 18 to 24, 27.8% from 25 to 44, 26.5% from 45 to 64, and 16.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40.4 years. For every 100 females there were 87.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.5 males.[8]

The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $76,354 (with a margin of error of +/- $7,683) and the median family income was $99,898 (+/- $10,668). Males had a median income of $75,026 (+/- $12,328) versus $61,667 (+/- $20,342) for females. The per capita income for the borough was $45,693 (+/- $4,350). About 1.1% of families and 2.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.7% of those under age 18 and 5.7% of those age 65 or over.[34]

Census 2000[edit]

As of the 2000 United States Census[16] there were 7,584 people, 3,311 households, and 1,814 families residing in the borough. The population density was 6,396.4 people per square mile (2,460.7/km²). There were 3,396 housing units at an average density of 2,864.2 per square mile (1,101.9/km²). The racial makeup of the borough was 91.22% White, 2.27% African American, 0.11% Native American, 4.06% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 1.20% from other races, and 1.08% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.64% of the population.[31][32]

There were 3,311 households out of which 23.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.5% were married couples living together, 9.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 45.2% were non-families. 38.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 2.93.[31][32]

In the borough the population was spread out with 18.1% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 32.9% from 25 to 44, 22.3% from 45 to 64, and 17.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 82.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.6 males.[31][32]

The median income for a household in the borough was $61,250, and the median income for a family was $81,989. Males had a median income of $53,548 versus $40,543 for females. The per capita income for the borough was $34,630. About 2.5% of families and 4.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.0% of those under age 18 and 7.6% of those age 65 or over.[31][32]

Government[edit]

Local government[edit]

Caldwell is governed under the Borough form of New Jersey municipal government. The governing body consists of a Mayor and a Borough Council comprising six council members, with all positions elected at-large on a partisan basis as part of the November general election. A Mayor is elected directly by the voters to a four-year term of office. The Borough Council consists of six members elected to serve three-year terms on a staggered basis, with two seats coming up for election each year in a three-year cycle.[6] The Borough form of government used by Caldwell, the most common system used in the state, is a "weak mayor / strong council" government in which council members act as the legislative body with the mayor presiding at meetings and voting only in the event of a tie. The mayor can veto ordinances subject to an override by a two-thirds majority vote of the council. The mayor makes committee and liaison assignments for council members, and most appointments are made by the mayor with the advice and consent of the council.[35][36]

As of 2014, the Mayor of Caldwell is Republican Ann M. Dassing, whose term of office ends December 31, 2014. Members of the Borough Council (with party affiliation, term-end year and committee chairmanship listed in parentheses) are Council President Richard Hauser (R, 2015; Finance), Pasquale Capozzoli (R, 2016; Public Safety), Edward Durkin, Jr. (D, 2015; Public Works / Utilities), John T. Kelley (D, 2014; Personnel), Thomas O'Donnell (R, 2016; Finance) and Francis X. "Frank" Rodgers, III (D, 2014; Community Center).[37][38][39][40]

Caldwell and West Caldwell share services including the Recreation Department and the school system. The Board of Recreation Commissioners of the Boroughs of Caldwell and West Caldwell was established in 1947.

Federal, state and county representation[edit]

Caldwell is located in the 11th Congressional District[41] and is part of New Jersey's 27th state legislative district.[9][42][43]

New Jersey's Eleventh Congressional District is represented by Rodney Frelinghuysen (R, Harding Township).[44] New Jersey is represented in the United States Senate by Cory Booker (D, Newark; took office on October 31, 2013, after winning a special election to fill the seat of Frank Lautenberg)[45][46] and Bob Menendez (D, Paramus).[47][48]

For the 2014-2015 Session, the 27th Legislative District of the New Jersey Legislature is represented in the State Senate by Richard Codey (D, Roseland) and in the General Assembly by Mila Jasey (D, South Orange) and John F. McKeon (D, West Orange).[49][50] The Governor of New Jersey is Chris Christie (R, Mendham Township).[51] The Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey is Kim Guadagno (R, Monmouth Beach).[52]

Essex County is governed by a directly-elected County Executive, with legislative functions performed by the Board of Chosen Freeholders.[53] As of 2014, the County Executive is Joseph N. DiVincenzo, Jr.[54] The county's Board of Chosen Freeholders consists of nine members, four elected on an at-large basis and one from each of five wards, who serve three-year terms of office on a concurrent basis, all of which end December 31, 2014.[53][55][56] Essex County's Freeholders are Freeholder President Blonnie R. Watson (at large; Newark)[57], Freeholder Vice President Patricia Sebold (at large; Livingston)[58], Rufus I. Johnson (at large; Newark)[59], Gerald W. Owens (At large; South Orange, filling the vacant seat after the resignation of Donald Payne, Jr.)[60] Rolando Bobadilla (District 1 - Newark's North and East Wards, parts of Central and West Wards; Newark)[61], D. Bilal Beasley (District 2 - Irvington, Maplewood and Newark's South Ward and parts of West Ward; Irvington)[62], Carol Y. Clark (District 3 - East Orange, Newark's West and Central Wards, Orange and South Orange; East Orange)[63] and Leonard M. Luciano (District 4 - Caldwell, Cedar Grove, Essex Fells, Fairfield, Livingston, Millburn, North Caldwell, Roseland, Verona, West Caldwell and West Orange; West Caldwell),[64] and Brendan W. Gill (District 5 - Belleville, Bloomfield, Glen Ridge, Montclair and Nutley; Montclair).[65][66][67] Constitutional elected countywide are County Clerk Christopher J. Durkin (West Caldwell, 2015),[68] Sheriff Armando B. Fontoura (2015)[69] and Surrogate Theodore N. Stephens, II (2016).[70][55][71]

Politics[edit]

As of March 23, 2011, there were a total of 5,035 registered voters in Caldwell, of which 1,585 (31.5%) were registered as Democrats, 1,118 (22.2%) were registered as Republicans and 2,331 (46.3%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There was one voter registered to another party.[72]

In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 48.4% of the vote here (1,823 cast), ahead of Republican John McCain with 47.0% (1,770 votes) and other candidates with 1.1% (41 votes), among the 3,769 ballots cast by the borough's 4,973 registered voters, for a turnout of 75.8%.[73] In the 2004 presidential election, Republican George W. Bush received 52.2% of the vote here (1,981 ballots cast), outpolling Democrat John Kerry with 46.6% (1,767 votes) and other candidates with 0.7% (33 votes), among the 3,794 ballots cast by the borough's 4,852 registered voters, for a turnout percentage of 78.2.[74]

In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Republican Chris Christie received 50.5% of the vote here (1,353 ballots cast), ahead of Democrat Jon Corzine with 37.7% (1,008 votes), Independent Chris Daggett with 9.4% (251 votes) and other candidates with 0.9% (24 votes), among the 2,677 ballots cast by the borough's 4,974 registered voters, yielding a 53.8% turnout.[75]

Education[edit]

The Caldwell-West Caldwell Public Schools system serves students from Caldwell and West Caldwell and dates back to 1872, though formal consolidation of the districts was established in 1904.[76] As of the 2011-12 school year, the district's six schools had an enrollment of 2,558 students and 203.3 classroom teachers (on an FTE basis), for a student–teacher ratio of 12.58:1.[77] Schools in the district (with 2011-12 enrollment data from the National Center for Education Statistics[78]) are Jefferson Elementary School[79] (West Caldwell; 308 students; grades K-5), Lincoln Elementary School[80] (Caldwell; 232; K-5), Washington Elementary School[81] (West Caldwell; 360; K-5), Wilson Elementary School[82] (West Caldwell; 256; K-5), Grover Cleveland Middle School[83] (Caldwell; 617; 6-8) and James Caldwell High School[84] (West Caldwell; 785; 9-12).[85] Students are enrolled in an elementary school based on their home location, and students attend one middle school and one high school.

The Essex County Vocational Technical Schools offers magnet school and vocational programs to students from Caldwell and all of Essex County.[86]

Private schools in Caldwell include Trinity Academy for kindergarten through eighth grade and Mount Saint Dominic Academy for grades 9-12, which operates under the auspices of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Newark.[87]

The area is home to Caldwell College, a catholic liberal arts college with 2,300 students.[88] The West Essex Campus of Essex County College is located in West Caldwell.

Transportation[edit]

As of 2010, the borough had a total of 18.41 miles (29.63 km) of roadways, of which 14.77 miles (23.77 km) were maintained by the municipality and 3.64 miles (5.86 km) by Essex County.[89]

New Jersey Transit offers bus service to and from Caldwell on the 29 and 71 routes.[90]

Historical information[edit]

In 1702, settlers purchased the 14,000 acres (57 km2) Horseneck Tract from the Lenni Lenape Native Americans for goods equal to $325. This purchase encompassed much of western Essex County, from the First Mountain to the Passaic River. Caldwell is located in the center of the Horse Neck Tract. Settlement began about 1740 by Thomas Gould and Saunders Sanders.

The Horseneck Tract consisted of modern day Caldwell, West Caldwell, North Caldwell, Fairfield, Verona, Cedar Grove, Essex Fells, Roseland, and portions of Livingston and West Orange. This land was part of the larger purchase and referred to as the Horse Neck Tract until February 17, 1787, when the town congregation voted to change the name to Caldwell, in honor of the Reverend James Caldwell who pushed for their organization’s creation.

Caldwell Township contained what is today the towns of West Caldwell and Caldwell. Soon after, the area of Caldwell Township just to the east of Caldwell Borough between Caldwell Borough and Montclair (present-day Verona and Cedar Grove) decided to follow Caldwell's lead and incorporated itself as its own borough, Verona. Some of the already developed eastern neighborhoods of Caldwell Township chose to become part of Montclair, as it was a rapidly developing suburb of Newark and Paterson. At around the same time, the area north of Caldwell Borough became its own town, North Caldwell. The wooded area directly to the south of downtown Caldwell Borough became Essex Fells. Meanwhile, the farmland to the south of the western portion of Caldwell township attempted to become its own municipality known as South Caldwell. This failed, as much of developed sections of that area lied on its southernmost and easternmost borders, along the expanding Newark suburbs of Livingston and West Orange respectively. Those areas were engulfed by those two towns once they became incorporated municipalities of several small villages and developments.

This left only the most rural farmland south of Caldwell Borough and Essex Fells to become its own township, Roseland. At this point, all that remained of the original Caldwell Township was a large piece of undeveloped land in the northwestern-most part of Essex County. In 1963, Caldwell Township changed its name to Fairfield in order to avoid being confused with Caldwell Borough.[91]

Immediately following the separation of the original Caldwell, the western part of Caldwell Borough generally remained less developed than downtown Caldwell Borough and contained several farms and a large area of undeveloped swampland known as Hatfield Swamp. However, two individual settlements, known as Franklin and Westville, soon formed in the western part of Caldwell Borough. As development increased and population grew in the western part of Caldwell, the town's more rural western population and more urban east often could not reconcile their differences. This led to the areas of Franklin and Westville consolidating into their own township known as West Caldwell in 1904, leaving only the one square mile of original downtown Horseneck development as the borough of Caldwell. Lewis G. Lockward was elected the first mayor of Caldwell. In 1929, a failed attempt to consolidate the three Caldwells was rejected by voters.

This borough was one of the filming locations for the Columbia Pictures 1994 comedy film North.[citation needed]

Historical facts[edit]

  • George Washington and his staff made their way through the community during the Revolution. They stopped at the old stone house of Saunders Sanders, one of the two people to settle the original area, for lunch.
  • Marquis de Lafayette visited in 1824, featuring a celebration party at the Crane Tavern.
  • During the 1928 Presidential campaign, Herbert Hoover visited the Grover Cleveland Birthplace with his wife.[92]
  • Grover Cleveland lived the first four years of his life in Caldwell.
  • In October 1897, a severe fire ripped through a large portion of Bloomfield Avenue, destroying buildings in its wake. These buildings were replaced, in part, by the Hasler Building, opposite the Presbyterian Church. This became Caldwell's first brick building.[93]
  • In 1914, during a Fourth of July fireworks celebration, a bomb fell, injuring 20 people. Local churches raised funds to defray the medical bills of the injured.
  • In 1968, Caldwell's historic cannon was stolen off the town green. The cannon had been given to the borough by Colonel Peter Decatur in 1824. a replica was constructed and was placed at the site.[93]
  • On July 14, 1974, the landmark Park Theatre was destroyed in a fire.[94]

Notable people[edit]

Cleveland's birthplace, in Caldwell, New Jersey

People who were born in, residents of, or otherwise closely associated with Caldwell include:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Gazetteer of New Jersey Places, United States Census Bureau. Accessed June 6, 2013.
  2. ^ a b US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 4, 2014.
  3. ^ 2013 New Jersey Mayors Directory, New Jersey Department of Community Affairs. Accessed May 12, 2013.
  4. ^ Borough Administrator, Borough of Caldwell. Accessed July 5, 2012.
  5. ^ Borough Clerk, Borough of Caldwell. Accessed July 5, 2012.
  6. ^ a b 2012 New Jersey Legislative District Data Book, Rutgers University Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, March 2013, p. 125.
  7. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Borough of Caldwell, Geographic Names Information System. Accessed March 4, 2013.
  8. ^ a b c d e f DP-1 - Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 for Caldwell borough, Essex County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 5, 2012.
  9. ^ a b c d Municipalities Grouped by 2011-2020 Legislative Districts, New Jersey Department of State, p. 12. Accessed January 6, 2013.
  10. ^ a b c Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2010 for Caldwell borough, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development. Accessed July 5, 2012.
  11. ^ 2010 Census: Essex County, Asbury Park Press. Accessed June 30, 2011.
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  14. ^ Look Up a ZIP Code for CITYNAME, NJ, United States Postal Service. Accessed August 30, 2011.
  15. ^ Area Code Lookup - NPA NXX for Caldwell, NJ, Area-Codes.com. Accessed September 7, 2014.
  16. ^ a b American FactFinder, United States Census Bureau. Accessed September 4, 2014.
  17. ^ A Cure for the Common Codes: New Jersey, Missouri Census Data Center. Accessed July 5, 2012.
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  19. ^ Table 7. Population for the Counties and Municipalities in New Jersey: 1990, 2000 and 2010, New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development, February 2011. Accessed July 5, 2012.
  20. ^ Snyder, John P. The Story of New Jersey's Civil Boundaries: 1606-1968, Bureau of Geology and Topography; Trenton, New Jersey; 1969. p. 75. Accessed July 6, 2012.
  21. ^ New Jersey State Commission on County and Municipal Government, Modern Forms of Municipal Government, 1992, Chapter VI: Municipal Names and Municipal Classification
  22. ^ 1990s boundary changes: New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed August 30, 2011.
  23. ^ Grover Cleveland Birthplace, New Jersey Division of Parks and Forestry New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Accessed July 2, 2011. "Grover Cleveland’s birthplace was built in 1832 as the Manse, or Pastor’s residence, for the first Presbyterian Church at Caldwell."
  24. ^ "Best Places To Live - The Complete Top Towns List 1-100", New Jersey Monthly, February 11, 2010. Accessed February 24, 2010.
  25. ^ NJ Community Prepares to Honor Fighting Spirit of Reverend James Caldwell, accessed August 6, 2006.
  26. ^ Wright, George Cable. "JERSEY AROUSED BY REFERENDUMS; Some Ballots on Tuesday to List Nine Questions Junior College Vote Name Change in Brick", The New York Times, November 3, 1963. Accessed October 2, 2011. "The voters of Caldwell Township will be asked to substitute the name of Fairfield, which the township bore 100 years ago when it stretched east to Newark. The name change was recommended because of confusion of mail distribution in Caldwell, West Caldwell and North Caldwell."
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  28. ^ Thirteenth Census of the United States, 1910: Population by Counties and Minor Civil Divisions, 1910, 1900, 1890, United States Census Bureau, p. 336. Accessed July 5, 2012.
  29. ^ Fifteenth Census of the United States : 1930 - Population Volume I, United States Census Bureau, p. 716. Accessed July 5, 2012. As of the 1930 Census, the data for the 1920 enumeration was adjusted to reflect the transfer of 217 residents imprisoned at the Essex County Penitentiary from Caldwell to North Caldwell.
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  33. ^ "ALICE Asset Limited, Income Constrained, Employed: Study of Financial Hardship", United Way of Northern New Jersey, September 2014. Accessed September 18, 2014. "In total, 1.2 million households in New Jersey – fully 38 percent – struggled to support themselves in 2012."
  34. ^ DP03: Selected Economic Characteristics from the 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates for Caldwell borough, Essex County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed June 21, 2012.
  35. ^ Cerra, Michael F. "Forms of Government: Everything You've Always Wanted to Know, But Were Afraid to Ask", New Jersey State League of Municipalities. Accessed November 30, 2014.
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  40. ^ Staff. "Capozzoli, O’Donnell take oaths in Caldwell", The Progress News, January 8, 2014. Accessed August 20, 2014. "Sworn in to three-year terms were Republicans Tom O’Donnell, who is beginning his second council term, and Pasquale Capozzoli.... This splits the makeup of the council down the middle: three Republicans, three Democrats and a Republican mayor whose vote would act as tiebreaker. Council President Richard Hauser, a Republican, was re-named council president for the third year in a row in a 3-2 vote."
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  46. ^ Nutt, Amy Ellis (October 31, 2013). "Booker is officially a U.S. senator after being sworn in". NJ.com/Associated Press. Accessed October 31, 2013.
  47. ^ Biography of Bob Menendez, United States Senate. Accessed November 5, 2013. "He currently lives in North Bergen and has two children, Alicia and Robert."
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  50. ^ District 27 Legislators, New Jersey Legislature. Accessed February 18, 2014.
  51. ^ "About the Governor". State of New Jersey. Retrieved 2010-01-21. 
  52. ^ "About the Lieutenant Governor". State of New Jersey. Retrieved 2010-01-21. 
  53. ^ a b General Information, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 9, 2014. "The Board of Chosen Freeholders consists of nine members, five of whom are elected from districts and four of whom are elected at-large. They are elected for three-year concurrent terms and may be re-elected to successive terms at the annual election in November."
  54. ^ Essex County Executive, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 9, 2014.
  55. ^ a b Essex County Elected Officials, Essex County Clerk, as of February 2012. Accessed July 9, 2014.
  56. ^ Definition of a Freeholder, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 9, 2014.
  57. ^ Blonnie R. Watson, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 9, 2014.
  58. ^ Patricia Sebold, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 9, 2014.
  59. ^ Rufus I. Johnson, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 9, 2014.
  60. ^ Lee, Eunice. "Labor leader from South Orange tapped as new Essex County freeholder", The Star-Ledger, December 19, 2012. Accessed July 9, 2014. "A longtime labor union leader from South Orange was sworn in this afternoon as the newest Essex County freeholder.Gerald Owens, 74, is a general organizer for the International Longshoremen's Association.... Owens is filling the seat vacated by former at-large freeholder Donald Payne Jr., who stepped down from the post last month after securing the 10th Congressional District seat left open by his late father."
  61. ^ Rolando Bobadilla, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 9, 2014.
  62. ^ D. Bilal Beasley, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 9, 2014.
  63. ^ Carol Y. Clark, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 9, 2014.
  64. ^ Leonard M. Luciano, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 9, 2014.
  65. ^ Brendan W. Gill, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 9, 2014.
  66. ^ The Board of Chosen Freeholders, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 9, 2014.
  67. ^ Breakdown of Freeholder Districts, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 9, 2014.
  68. ^ About Christopher J. Durkin, Essex County Clerk. Accessed July 9, 2014.
  69. ^ Armando B. Fontoura - Essex County Sheriff, Essex County Sheriff's Office. Accessed July 9, 2014.
  70. ^ Office of Surrogate, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 9, 2014.
  71. ^ County Directory, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed July 9, 2014.
  72. ^ Voter Registration Summary - Essex, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, March 23, 2011. Accessed November 5, 2012.
  73. ^ 2008 Presidential General Election Results: Essex County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 23, 2008. Accessed November 5, 2012.
  74. ^ 2004 Presidential Election: Essex County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 13, 2004. Accessed November 5, 2012.
  75. ^ 2009 Governor: Essex County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 31, 2009. Accessed November 5, 2012.
  76. ^ A Brief History, Caldwell-West Caldwell Public Schools. Accessed November 6, 2012. "The Borough of Caldwell and the Township of West Caldwell have played a prominent role in the development of the Caldwell-West Caldwell school system and the quality of education it provides. Cooperation of the two communities began in 1872 when state laws governing school districts permitted the villages of Caldwell, Franklin and Westville to consolidate into a 'School Borough.' ... West Caldwell became a borough February 24, 1904. On March 30, 1904, a special school meeting was held to vote on the consolidation of Caldwell and West Caldwell into one school district. The vote was in favor of consolidation."
  77. ^ District information for Caldwell-West Caldwell School District, National Center for Education Statistics. Accessed August 20, 2014.
  78. ^ School Data for the Caldwell-West Caldwell Public Schools, National Center for Education Statistics. Accessed August 20, 2014.
  79. ^ Jefferson Elementary School, Caldwell-West Caldwell Public Schools. Accessed October 17, 2013.
  80. ^ Lincoln Elementary School, Caldwell-West Caldwell Public Schools. Accessed October 17, 2013.
  81. ^ Washington Elementary School, Caldwell-West Caldwell Public Schools. Accessed October 17, 2013.
  82. ^ Wilson Elementary School, Caldwell-West Caldwell Public Schools. Accessed October 17, 2013.
  83. ^ Grover Cleveland Middle School, Caldwell-West Caldwell Public Schools. Accessed October 17, 2013.
  84. ^ James Caldwell High School, Caldwell-West Caldwell Public Schools. Accessed October 17, 2013.
  85. ^ New Jersey School Directory for the Caldwell-West Caldwell Public Schools, New Jersey Department of Education. Accessed August 20, 2014.
  86. ^ About Us, Essex County Vocational Technical Schools. Accessed July 2, 2011.
  87. ^ Essex County High Schools, Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Newark. Accessed August 30, 2011.
  88. ^ About Us, Caldwell College. Accessed July 5, 2012.
  89. ^ Essex County Mileage by Municipality and Jurisdiction, New Jersey Department of Transportation, May 2010. Accessed July 18, 2014.
  90. ^ Essex County bus / train connections, New Jersey Transit, backed up by the Internet Archive as of May 22, 2009. Accessed June 30, 2011.
  91. ^ Wright, George Cable. "JERSEY AROUSED BY REFERENDUMS; Some Ballots on Tuesday to List Nine Questions", The New York Times, November 3, 1963. Accessed July 5, 2012. "The voters of Caldwell Township wilt be asked to substitute the name of Fairfield, which the township bore 100 years ago when it stretched east to Newark. The name change was recommended because of confusion of mail distribution in Caldwell, West Caldwll and North Caldwell. There is presently a Fairfield Township in Cumberland County."
  92. ^ Staff. "HOOVER IN APPEAL TO LABOR WARNS AGAINST TARIFF CUT; ACCLAIMED IN JERSEY TOUR; 10,000 IN NEWARK HEAR HIM Tells Workers They Owe Welfare to Policies of the Republicans. STRESSES IMMIGRATION BAR Products and Wages Protected by Curb on Influx of Low-Paid Labor, Says Nominee. HAILED IN TOUR OF TOWNS Edisons Greet Candidate and His Wife in Essex County Ride --75,000 Cheer Them.", The New York Times, September 18, 1928. Accessed July 31, 2013. "Another bright spot in the motor trip was a visit paid by Mr. and Mrs. Hoover to the birthplace of Grover Cleveland at Caldwell."
  93. ^ a b Collins, John J. Remembering the Caldwells, p. 120. Arcadia Publishing, 1998. ISBN 0738545430. Accessed July 31, 2013. "The cannon on the green is a replica of the original cannon presented to Caldwell by Colonel Peter Decatur in 1824. The original mounted cannon was stolen in in 1968."
  94. ^ The Park Theater Fire,The Caldwell Green — an online exhibit of items from the Gene Collerd Local History Collection at the Caldwell Public Library, December 23, 2013. Accessed August 20, 2014.
  95. ^ About the Founder of A.M. Best, A.M. Best. Accessed October 16, 2007. "Alfred M. Best was born in Caldwell, NJ, in 1876."
  96. ^ "Historical Sites in New Jersey", The New York Times, September 30, 2007. Accessed October 16, 2007. "GROVER CLEVELAND BIRTHPLACE Caldwell. Grover Cleveland was born in this house in 1837 while his father, the Rev. Richard Falley Cleveland, was the minister to the First Presbyterian Church of Caldwell."
  97. ^ Staff. "Herbert O. Fisher, 81, Test Pilot and Official." The New York Times, August 3, 1990. Accessed June 14, 2013. "Mr. Fisher was also a councilman and police commissioner in Caldwell, N.J., and was on the New Jersey Civil Air Defense Advisory Council."
  98. ^ Kachka, Boris. "War Born: Growing up in New Jersey, Janine di Giovanni had to get out. So she went to Chechnya and the Balkans.", New York (magazine), December 8, 2003. Accessed October 2, 2011. "But the Times of London correspondent plans to continue her travels—baby in tow—giving her child an upbringing worlds away from her own in Caldwell, New Jersey."
  99. ^ BIOGRAPHY for Frank Handlen, AskART. Accessed October 24, 2007. "Born September 27, 1916 in Caldwell, New Jersey, he lived and painted in Biddeford Pool, Maine from 1940-1970. "
  100. ^ Shaughnessy, Dan. "Son is in forecast: Duke's Henderson has bright future", The Boston Globe, March 26, 2009. Accessed July 2, 2011. "Young Gerald was born in December 1987 in Caldwell, N.J., while his dad was playing for the 76ers."
  101. ^ Thomas, Bob via Associated Press. "Camryn Mannheim plays 'fairest one of all'", Ocala Star-Banner, February 27, 2000. Accessed July 2, 2011. "Born in Caldwell, N.J., Manheim spent her early years in New Jersey, Illinois and Michigan as her math-professor father changed universities."
  102. ^ Kareem McKenzie player profile, National Football League Players Association. Accessed July 23, 2007. "Despite playing only 2 years of football at Willingboro High School in New Jersey, he earned USA Today and Schutt All-America honors… Was rated the nation’s best offensive lineman by SuperPrep… Resides in Caldwell, N.J"
  103. ^ Marathon County, Wisconsin Historical Society-George DeGraw Moore
  104. ^ Corzine Nominates Stuart Rabner to Serve as Attorney General, Governor of New Jersey press release dated August 24, 2006, backed up the Internet Archive as of December 14, 2006. Accessed July 1, 2011. "The Passaic County native graduated summa cum laude from Princeton University and cum laude from Harvard Law School. He currently lives in Caldwell with his wife and three children."
  105. ^ Staff. "Babe Ruth documentary wins award ", The Progress, April 19, 2013. Accessed July 31, 2013. "Sylvester was Lilley’s great-uncle. He was born in 1915 in Caldwell where he lived before moving with his family to a large house in Essex Fells in 1921."
  106. ^ Poekel, Charlie. Babe and the Kid: The Legendary Story of Babe Ruth and Johnny Sylvester, p. 34. The History Press, 2011. ISBN 9781614230960. Accessed July 31, 2013. "Home of Horace C. Sylvester Jr. and his family located between Roseland Avenue and Wootton Road in Essex Fells, New Jersey. The Sylvester family had moved to this home in 1921 from Caldwell, New Jersey, and on October 11, 1926, Babe Ruth came to the house to pay a visit to the recovering eleven-year-old Johnny Sylvester."
  107. ^ Staff. "Calvin L. Thomas, Actor, Dies at 79", The New York Times, September 27, 1964. Accessed July 2, 2011.
  108. ^ Staff. "Claude Thornhill Is Dead at 56; Pianist Led Band in 'Swing Era; Arranger for Judy Garland Films Set Up Group. in '39 -- Won 2 Billboard Polls", The New York Times, July 2, 1965. Accessed July 3, 2011. "CALDWELL, N. J., July 1 - Claude Thornhill, whose big band was one of the most popular in the swing era, died today at his home here after having suffered two heart attacks. He was 56 years old."
  109. ^ Racioppi, Joseph. "Caldwell resident has big Beatles connection", The Progress, September 17, 2009. Accessed January 31, 2011.

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