Caldwell catalogue

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Montage of Caldwell Catalogue objects

The Caldwell Catalogue is an astronomical catalog of 109 star clusters, nebulae, and galaxies for observation by amateur astronomers. The list was compiled by Sir Patrick Caldwell-Moore, better known as Patrick Moore, as a complement to the Messier Catalogue.[1]

The Messier Catalogue is used by amateur astronomers as a list of deep-sky objects for observations, but Moore noted that the list did not include many of the sky's brightest deep-sky objects,[1] including the Hyades, the Double Cluster (NGC 869 and NGC 884), and NGC 253. Moreover, Moore observed that the Messier Catalogue, which was compiled based on observations in the Northern Hemisphere, excluded bright deep-sky objects visible in the Southern Hemisphere such as Omega Centauri, Centaurus A, the Jewel Box, and 47 Tucanae.[1][2] He compiled a list of 109 objects – to match the commonly accepted number of Messier objects (110 minus the duplicate 102 acknowledged by Méchain)[1] – and it was published in Sky & Telescope in December 1995.[3]

Since its publication, small compilation errors in the original 1995 version of the list have since been corrected.[1] Moore used his other surname to name the list as M for Moore was already taken by Messier, and the catalogue adopts "C" numbers to rename objects with more common designations.[4][1]

Unlike objects in the Messier catalogue, which are listed roughly in the order of discovery by Messier and his colleagues,[5] the Caldwell catalogue is ordered by declination, with C1 being the most northerly and C109 being the most southerly,[1] although two objects (NGC 4244 and the Hyades) are listed out of sequence.[1] The original list also incorrectly identified S Norma Cluster (NGC 6087) as NGC 6067 and incorrectly labelled the Lambda Centauri Cluster (IC 2944) as the Gamma Centauri Cluster.[1]

Caldwell Star Chart[edit]

Caldwell Star Chart

Number of objects by type in the Caldwell catalogue.[edit]

Dark nebulae 1
Galaxy 35
Globular clusters 18
Nebulae 9
Star Clusters 25
Star Clusters and Nebulae 6
Planetary Nebulae 13
Supernova remnant 2
Total 109

Caldwell objects[edit]

Key[edit]

Star cluster
Nebula
Galaxy

1–10[edit]

Caldwell number NGC number Common name Picture Object type Distance to object in thousands of light years Constellation Apparent magnitude
C1 NGC 188   NGC 188.jpg Open Cluster 4.8 Cepheus 8.1
C2 NGC 40 Bow-Tie Nebula Ngc40.jpg Planetary Nebula 3.5 Cepheus 11
C3 NGC 4236   NGC 4236 I FUV g2006.jpg Galaxy 7,000 Draco 9.7
C4 NGC 7023 Iris Nebula N7023.jpg Open Cluster and Nebula 1.4 Cepheus 7
C5 IC 342   IC 342.jpg Galaxy 10,000 Camelopardalis 9
C6 NGC 6543 Cat's Eye Nebula Cat's Eye Nebula.jpg Planetary Nebula 3 Draco 9
C7 NGC 2403   NGC2403-SN2004dj.jpg Galaxy 14,000 Camelopardalis 8.4
C8 NGC 559   Open Cluster 3.7 Cassiopeia 9.5
C9 Sh2-155 Cave Nebula Cave Nebula.jpg Nebula 2.8 Cepheus 7.7
C10 NGC 663   NGC663HunterWilson.jpg Open Cluster 7.2 Cassiopeia 7.1

11–20[edit]

Caldwell number NGC number Common name Picture Object type Distance to object in thousands of light years Constellation Apparent magnitude
C11 NGC 7635 Bubble Nebula NGC 7635HSTFull.jpg Nebula 7.1 Cassiopeia -
C12 NGC 6946 Fireworks Galaxy SpiralGalaxy NGC6946.jpg Galaxy 18,000 Cepheus 8.9
C13 NGC 457 Owl Cluster, E.T. Cluster NGC457.jpg Open Cluster - Cassiopeia 6.4
C14 NGC 869 & NGC 884 Double Cluster, H & χ Persei NGC869NGC884.jpg Open Cluster 7.3 Perseus 4
C15 NGC 6826 Blinking Planetary NGC 6826HSTFull.jpg Planetary Nebula 2.2 Cygnus 10
C16 NGC 7243   NGC 7243.jpg Open Cluster 2.5 Lacerta 6.4
C17 NGC 147   NGC 0147 2MASS.jpg Galaxy 2,300 Cassiopeia 9.3
C18 NGC 185   Ngc185.jpg Galaxy 2,300 Cassiopeia 9.2
C19 IC 5146 Cocoon Nebula Cocoonhunter2.jpg Open Cluster and Nebula 3.3 Cygnus 7.2
C20 NGC 7000 North America Nebula Nord america.jpg Nebula 1.8 Cygnus 4

21–30[edit]

Caldwell number NGC number Common name Picture Object type Distance to object in thousands of light years Constellation Apparent magnitude
C21 NGC 4449   Starburst in NGC 4449 (captured by the Hubble Space Telescope).jpg Galaxy 10,000 Canes Venatici 9.4
C22 NGC 7662 Blue Snowball Ngc7662hst.jpg Planetary Nebula 3.2 Andromeda 9
C23 NGC 891   NGC891HunterWilson.jpg Galaxy 31,000 Andromeda 10
C24 NGC 1275 Perseus A NGC1275.jpg Galaxy 230,000 Perseus 11.6
C25 NGC 2419   NGC 2419 Hubble WikiSky.jpg Globular Cluster 275 Lynx 10.4
C26 NGC 4244   NGC4244.jpg Galaxy 10,000 Canes Venatici 10.2
C27 NGC 6888 Crescent Nebula NGC 6888HSTfull.jpg Nebula 4.7 Cygnus 7.4
C28 NGC 752   Ngc 752.jpg Open Cluster 1.2 Andromeda 5.7
C29 NGC 5005   NGC5005.jpg Galaxy 69,000 Canes Venatici 9.8
C30 NGC 7331   NGC 7331 zoomed.jpg Galaxy 47,000 Pegasus 9.5

31–40[edit]

Caldwell number NGC number Common name Picture Object type Distance to object in thousands of light years Constellation Apparent magnitude
C31 IC 405 Flaming Star Nebula FlamingStarHunterWilson.jpg Nebula 1.6 Auriga -
C32 NGC 4631 Whale Galaxy Whalegalaxy.jpg Galaxy 22,000 Canes Venatici 9.3
C33 NGC 6992 East Veil Nebula Veil Nebula 800x600.jpg Supernova Remnant 2.5 Cygnus -
C34 NGC 6960 West Veil Nebula WestVeilHunterWilson.jpg Supernova Remnant 2.5 Cygnus -
C35 NGC 4889   Ssc2007-10a1.jpg Galaxy 300,000 Coma Berenices 11.4
C36 NGC 4559   NGC 4559 I FUV g2006.jpg Galaxy 32,000 Coma Berenices 9.9
C37 NGC 6885   NGC 6885.png Open Cluster 1.95 Vulpecula 6
C38 NGC 4565 Needle Galaxy Ngc 4565pg.jpg Galaxy 32,000 Coma Berenices 9.6
C39 NGC 2392 Eskimo Nebula/Clown Face Nebula Ngc2392.jpg Planetary Nebula 4 Gemini 10
C40 NGC 3626     Galaxy 86,000 Leo 10.9

41–50[edit]

Caldwell number NGC number Common name Picture Object type Distance to object in thousands of light years Constellation Apparent magnitude
C41 Mel 25 Hyades Hyades.png Open Cluster 0.151 Taurus 0.5
C42 NGC 7006   NGC7006.jpg Globular Cluster 135 Delphinus 10.6
C43 NGC 7814   NGC7814HunterWilson.jpg Galaxy 49,000 Pegasus 10.5
C44 NGC 7479   Ngc7479.jpg Galaxy 106,000 Pegasus 11
C45 NGC 5248   Ngc5248-hst-R814G547B336.jpg Galaxy 74,000 Boötes 10.2
C46 NGC 2261 Hubble's Variable Nebula Ngc2261.jpg Nebula 2.5 Monoceros -
C47 NGC 6934   NGC 6934 Hubble WikiSky.jpg Globular Cluster 57 Delphinus 8.9
C48 NGC 2775   NGC2775-hst-R814GB450.jpg Galaxy 55,000 Cancer 10.3
C49 NGC 2237 Rosette Nebula Rosette Nebula NGC 2237 - C49.png Nebula 4.9 Monoceros 9.0
C50 NGC 2244   Ngc2244.jpg Open Cluster 4.9 Monoceros 4.8

51–60[edit]

Caldwell number NGC number Common name Picture Object type Distance to object in thousands of light years Constellation Apparent magnitude
C51 IC 1613   IC1613-3.jpg Galaxy 2,300 Cetus 9.3
C52 NGC 4697     Galaxy 76,000 Virgo 9.3
C53 NGC 3115 Spindle Galaxy NGC 3115 2MASS.jpg Galaxy 22,000 Sextans 9.2
C54 NGC 2506     Open Cluster 10 Monoceros 7.6
C55 NGC 7009 Saturn Nebula Ngc7009 hst big.jpg Planetary Nebula 1.4 Aquarius 8
C56 NGC 246   NGC 246.jpg Planetary Nebula 1.6 Cetus 8
C57 NGC 6822 Barnard's Galaxy NGC6822.jpg Galaxy 2,300 Sagittarius 9
C58 NGC 2360   NGC 2360 in CMa.jpg Open Cluster 3.7 Canis Major 7.2
C59 NGC 3242 Ghost of Jupiter Ngc3242a.jpg Planetary Nebula 1.4 Hydra 9
C60 NGC 4038 Antennae Galaxies Antennae.jpeg Galaxy 83,000 Corvus 10.7

61–70[edit]

Caldwell number NGC number Common name Picture Object type Distance to object in thousands of light years Constellation Apparent magnitude
C61 NGC 4039 Antennae Galaxies Antennae galaxies xl.jpg Galaxy 83,000 Corvus 13
C62 NGC 247   Ngc247.jpg Galaxy 6,800 Cetus 8.9
C63 NGC 7293 Helix Nebula NGC 7293.jpg Planetary Nebula 0.522 Aquarius 7.3
C64 NGC 2362   NGC 2362 NASA.jpg Open Cluster and Nebula 5.1 Canis Major 4.1
C65 NGC 253 Sculptor Galaxy Ngc253 2mass barred spiral.jpg Galaxy 9,800 Sculptor 7.1
C66 NGC 5694     Globular Cluster 113 Hydra 10.2
C67 NGC 1097   Ngc1097atlas.jpg Galaxy 47,000 Fornax 9.3
C68 NGC 6729 R CrA Nebula NGC 6729.jpg Nebula 0.424 Corona Australis -
C69 NGC 6302 Bug Nebula NGC 6302 Hubble 2009.full.jpg Planetary Nebula 5.2 Scorpius 13
C70 NGC 300   Composite Image of NGC 300.jpg Galaxy 3,900 Sculptor 9

71–80[edit]

Caldwell number NGC number Common name Picture Object type Distance to object in thousands of light years Constellation Apparent magnitude
C71 NGC 2477   NGC2477.jpg Open Cluster 3.7 Puppis 5.8
C72 NGC 55   Spiral Galaxy NGC 55.jpg Galaxy 4,200 Sculptor 8
C73 NGC 1851   PIA07908.jpg Globular Cluster 39.4 Columba 7.3
C74 NGC 3132 Eight Burst Nebula NGC 3132.jpg Planetary Nebula 2 Vela 8
C75 NGC 6124   NGC 6124.jpg Open Cluster 1.5 Scorpius 5.8
C76 NGC 6231   NGC 6231.jpg Open Cluster and Nebula 6 Scorpius 2.6
C77 NGC 5128 Centaurus A Centaurus A.jpg Galaxy 16,000 Centaurus 7
C78 NGC 6541   NGC 6541.jpg Globular Cluster 22.3 Corona Australis 6.6
C79 NGC 3201   NGC 3201 Hubble WikiSky.jpg Globular Cluster 17 Vela 6.8
C80 NGC 5139 Omega Centauri STSci-PRC01-33 omega centauri.jpg Globular Cluster 17.3 Centaurus 3.7

81–90[edit]

Caldwell number NGC number Common name Picture Object type Distance to object in thousands of light years Constellation Apparent magnitude
C81 NGC 6352   NGC 6352.jpg Globular Cluster 18.6 Ara 8.2
C82 NGC 6193   Rgb-ngc6193.jpg Open Cluster 4.3 Ara 5.2
C83 NGC 4945   NGC 4945.jpg Galaxy 17,000 Centaurus 9
C84 NGC 5286   NGC 5286.jpg Globular Cluster 36 Centaurus 7.6
C85 IC 2391 Omicron Velorum Cluster Open Cluster 0.5 Vela 2.5
C86 NGC 6397   P0321a.jpg Globular Cluster 7.5 Ara 5.7
C87 NGC 1261   Ngc1261eso.jpg Globular Cluster 55.5 Horologium 8.4
C88 NGC 5823   NGC 5823 in Cir.jpg Open Cluster 3.4 Circinus 7.9
C89 NGC 6087[note 1] S Norma Cluster NGC 6087.jpg Open Cluster 3.3 Norma 5.4
C90 NGC 2867   NGC 2867HST.jpg Planetary Nebula 5.5 Carina 10
  1. ^ C89 was mistakenly written as NGC 6067 in the original, but its description is that of NGC 6087.

91–100[edit]

Caldwell number NGC number Common name Picture Object type Distance to object in thousands of light years Constellation Apparent magnitude
C91 NGC 3532 Wishing Well Cluster NGC 3532 in Carina.jpg Open Cluster 1.6 Carina 3
C92 NGC 3372 Eta Carinae Nebula Carina Nebula.jpg Nebula 7.5 Carina 3
C93 NGC 6752   NGC 6752 Hubble WikiSky.jpg Globular Cluster 13 Pavo 5.4
C94 NGC 4755 Jewel Box A Snapshot of the Jewel Box cluster with the ESO VLT.jpg Open Cluster 4.9 Crux 4.2
C95 NGC 6025   NGC 6025.jpg Open Cluster 2.5 Triangulum Australe 5.1
C96 NGC 2516 NGC 2516 in Carina.jpg Open Cluster 1.3 Carina 3.8
C97 NGC 3766 Pearl Cluster NGC 3766 in Cen.jpg Open Cluster 5.8 Centaurus 5.3
C98 NGC 4609   NGC 4609.jpg Open Cluster 4.2 Crux 6.9
C99 - Coalsack Nebula Coal.sack.nebula.arp.300pix.jpg Dark Nebula 0.61 Crux -
C100 IC 2944 Lambda Centauri Nebula Bok globules in IC2944.jpg Open Cluster and Nebula 6 Centaurus 4.5

101–109[edit]

Caldwell number NGC number Common name Picture Object type Distance to object in thousands of light years Constellation Apparent magnitude
C101 NGC 6744   Ngc 6744.jpg Galaxy 34,000 Pavo 9
C102 IC 2602 Theta Car Cluster IC 2602.jpg Open Cluster 0.492 Carina 1.9
C103 NGC 2070 Tarantula Nebula Spitzer-TarantulaNebula.jpg Open Cluster and Nebula 170 Dorado 8.2
C104 NGC 362   GALEX image of NGC 362.jpg Globular Cluster 27.7 Tucana 6.6
C105 NGC 4833   NGC 4833 Hubble WikiSky.jpg Globular Cluster 19.6 Musca 7.4
C106 NGC 104 47 Tucanae 47tuc.jpg Globular Cluster 14.7 Tucana 4
C107 NGC 6101   NGC 6101.jpg Globular Cluster 49.9 Apus 9.3
C108 NGC 4372   NGC 4372 in Musca.jpg Globular Cluster 18.9 Musca 7.8
C109 NGC 3195   Ngc3195.jpg Planetary Nebula 5.4 Chamaeleon 11.6

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i O'Meara, Stephen James (2002). The Caldwell Objects. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-82796-6. 
  2. ^ "Caldwell Club Introduction". Retrieved 2006-09-08. 
  3. ^ Moore, Patrick (December 1995). Beyond Messier: The Caldwell Catalog (subscription required). Sky & Telescope. p. 38. Retrieved 2006-08-29. [dead link]
  4. ^ Mobberley, Martin (2009). The Caldwell Objects and How to Observe Them. Springer. ISBN 978-1-4419-0325-9. 
  5. ^ Glyn Jones, Kenneth (1991). "Introduction". Messier's Nebulae & Star Clusters. Cambridge University Press. p. 1–8. ISBN 0-521-37079-5. 

External links[edit]