Calea ternifolia

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Calea ternifolia
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Genus: Calea
Species: C. ternifolia
Binomial name
Calea ternifolia
Kunth
Synonyms

Calea zacatechichi

Calea ternifolia (syn. Calea zacatechichi)[1] is a species of flowering plant in the aster family, Asteraceae. It is native to Mexico and Central America.[1] Its English language common names include bitter-grass, dog-grass, Mexican calea,[1] and dream herb.[2]

It is used in traditional medicine and ritual in its native range.[3]

Uses[edit]

In Mexico the plant is used as an herbal remedy for dysentery and fever.[3] The Zoque Popoluca people call the plant tam huñi ("bitter gum") and use it to treat diarrhea and asthma, and the Mixe people know it as poop taam ujts ("white bitter herb") and use it for stomachache and fever.[4]

The Chontal people of Oaxaca reportedly use the plant, known locally as thle-pela-kano, during divination. Isolated reports describe rituals that involve smoking a plant believed to be this species, drinking it as a tea, and placing it under a pillow to induce divinatory dreams. Zacatechichi, the former species name, is a Nahuatl word meaning "bitter grass".[5] Users take the plant to help them remember their dreams; side effects include hallucinations, nausea, and vomiting.[2]

Chemical composition[edit]

Cultivated specimen

Chemical compounds isolated from this species include flavones[6] such as acacetin[7] and sesquiterpene lactones such as germacranolides.[8] The sesquiterpenes known as caleicines and caleochromenes may be active in its effects on sleep.[2]

Law[edit]

The plant is not a controlled substance in Australia.[9]

While it is not a controlled substance under federal law in the United States, some states have considered it individually. Louisiana State Act 159 specifies that it is illegal to possess 40 or more plants if they are intended for consumption, but not if they are intended for ornamental or landscaping use. Tennessee proposed a bill that would have made illegal this and many other plants classified as hallucinogenic, but when the bill was passed only Salvia divinorum was banned.[9]

This plant was banned in Poland in March 2009.[2][10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Calea ternifolia. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).
  2. ^ a b c d Simonienko, K., et al. (2013). Psychoactive plant species – actual list of plants prohibited in Poland. Psychiatria Polska XLVII(3), 499–508.
  3. ^ a b Ferraz, A., et al. (2009). Pharmacological and genotoxic evaluation of Calea clematidea and Calea uniflora. Latin American Journal of Pharmacy 28(6), 858-62.
  4. ^ Leonti, M., et al. (2003). Antiquity of medicinal plant usage in two Macro-Mayan ethnic groups (Mexico). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 88(2), 119-24.
  5. ^ Díaz, J. L. (1979). Ethnopharmacology and taxonomy of Mexican psychodysleptic plants. J Psychedelic Drugs 11(1-2), 71–101.
  6. ^ Mariano, M. V., et al. (1987). Thymol derivatives from Calea nelsonii. Phytochemistry 26(9), 2577-79.
  7. ^ Mayagoitia, L., et al. (1986). Psychopharmacologic analysis of an alleged oneirogenic plant: Calea zacatechichi. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 18(3), 229–43.
  8. ^ Lee, I. Y., et al. (1982). New germacranolides from Calea ternifolia and the molecular structure of 9α-Hydroxy-11, 13-Dihydro-11α, 13-Epoxyatripliciolide-8β-O-(2-Methylacrylate). Journal of Natural Products 45(3), 311-16.
  9. ^ a b Calea zacatechichi Legal Status Erowid.org. Jun 20 2006.
  10. ^ (Polish) Dz.U. 2009 nr 63 poz. 520, Internetowy System Aktów Prawnych.