California Air Resources Board

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California Air Resources Board
Arblogow.png
Logo of the Air Resources Board
Agency overview
Formed 1967
Preceding agencies Bureau of Air Sanitation
Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Board
Headquarters 1001 I Street Sacramento, California
Employees 1,225[1]
Annual budget $651.9 million[1]
Agency executive Mary D. Nichols, Chairman
Parent agency California Environmental Protection Agency
Website http://www.arb.ca.gov

The California Air Resources Board, also known as CARB or ARB, is the "clean air agency" in the government of California. Established in 1967 when then-governor Ronald Reagan signed the Mulford-Carrell Act, combining the Bureau of Air Sanitation and the Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Board, CARB is a department within the cabinet-level California Environmental Protection Agency. California is the only state that is permitted to have such a regulatory agency, since it is the only state that had one before the passage of the federal Clean Air Act. Other states are permitted to follow CARB standards, or use the federal ones, but not set their own.

The stated goals of CARB include attaining and maintaining healthy air quality; protecting the public from exposure to toxic air contaminants; and providing innovative approaches for complying with air pollution rules and regulations.

The governing board is made up of eleven members appointed by the state's governor. Half of the appointees are experts in professional and science fields such as medicine, chemistry, physics, meteorology, engineering, business, and law. Others represent the pollution control agencies of regional districts within California - Los Angeles region, San Francisco Bay area, San Diego, the San Joaquin Valley, and other districts.

CARB's organizational structure[edit]

CARB has nine major divisions:[2]

  • Administrative Services Division
  • Enforcement Division
  • Mobile Source Control Division
  • Emissions Compliance, Automotive Regulations and Science Division
  • Monitoring and Laboratory Division
  • Office of Information Services
  • Air Quality Planning and Science Division
  • Research Division
  • Stationary Source Division

Air Quality Planning and Science Division[edit]

California Air Resources Board Laboratory, Los Angeles, in 1973

The division assesses the extent of California's air quality problems and the progress being made to abate them, coordinates statewide development of clean air plans and maintains databases pertinent to air quality and emissions. The division's technical support work provides a basis for clean air plans and CARB's regulatory programs. This support includes management and interpretation of emission inventories, air quality data, meteorological data and of air quality modeling.[3]

The Air Quality Planning and Science Division has five branches:

Atmospheric Modeling & Support Section[edit]

The Atmospheric Modeling & Support Section is one of three sections within the Modeling & Meteorology Branch. The other two sections are the Regional Air Quality Modeling Section and the Meteorology Section.[3]

The air quality and atmospheric pollution dispersion models[4][5] routinely used by this Section include a number of the models recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The Section also uses models which were either developed by CARB or whose development was funded by CARB, such as:

  • CALPUFF – Originally developed by the Sigma Research Company (SRC) under contract to CARB. Currently maintained by the TRC Solution Company under contract to the U.S. EPA.
  • CALGRID – Developed by CARB and currently maintained by CARB.[6]
  • SARMAP – Developed by CARB and currently maintained by CARB.[7]

Role in reducing greenhouse gases[edit]

Alternative Fuel Vehicle Incentive Program[edit]

Alternative Fuel Vehicle Incentive Program (also known as Fueling Alternatives) is funded by the California Air Resources Board (CARB), offered throughout the State of California and administered by the California Center for Sustainable Energy (CCSE).[8]

California zero-emissions vehicle[edit]

The CARB ZEV program was enacted by the Californian government to promote the use of zero emission vehicles.[9] The program goal is to reduce the pervasive air pollution affecting the main metropolitan areas in the state, particularly in Los Angeles, where prolonged pollution episodes are frequent.[10] The first ruling was the 1990 Low-Emission Vehicle (LEV I) Program.[10][11]

The first definition has its origin in the California ZEV rule, adopted as part of the 1990 Low-Emission Vehicle (LEV I) Program mandated by CARB.[10][11] The ZEV regulation has evolved and been modified several times since 1990, and several new partial or low-emission categories were created and defined as follows:[11][12][13][14]

  • LEV (Low Emission Vehicle): The least stringent emission standard for all new cars sold in California beyond 2004.
  • ULEV (Ultra Low Emission Vehicle): 50% cleaner than the average new 2003 model year vehicle.
  • SULEV (Super Ultra Low Emission Vehicle): These vehicles emit substantially lower levels of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter than conventional vehicles. They are 90% cleaner than the average new 2003 model year vehicle.
  • PZEV (Partial Zero Emission Vehicle): Meets SULEV tailpipe standards, has a 15-year / 150,000 mile warranty, and zero evaporative emissions. These vehicles are 80% cleaner than the average 2002 model year car.
  • AT PZEV (Advanced Technology PZEV): These are advanced technology vehicles that meet PZEV standards and include ZEV enabling technology. They are 80% cleaner than the average 2002 model year car.
  • ZEV (Zero Emission Vehicle): Zero tailpipe emissions, and 98% cleaner than the average new 2003 model year vehicle.

The Low-Emission Vehicle Program is currently under revision to define modified ZEV regulations for 2015 models.[11][15][16]

Low-carbon fuel standard[edit]

The Low-Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) requires oil refineries and distributors to ensure that the mix of fuel they sell in the Californian market meets the established declining targets for greenhouse gas emissions measured in CO2-equivalent grams per unit of fuel energy sold for transport purposes. The 2007 Governor's LCFS directive calls for a reduction of at least 10% in the carbon intensity of California's transportation fuels by 2020. These reductions include not only tailpipe emissions but also all other associated emissions from production, distribution and use of transport fuels within the state. Therefore, California LCFS considers the fuel's full life cycle, also known as the "well to wheels" or "seed to wheels" efficiency of transport fuels.[10][17] The standard is also aimed to reduce the state’s dependence on petroleum, create a market for clean transportation technology, and stimulate the production and use of alternative, low-carbon fuels in California.[18]

On April 23, 2009, CARB approved the specific rules for the LCFS that will go into effect in January 2011.[19][20] The rule proposal prepared by its technical staff was approved by a 9-1 vote, to set the 2020 maximum carbon intensity reference value to 86 grams of carbon dioxide released per megajoule of energy produced.[18][21]

PHEV Research Center[edit]

Main article: PHEV Research Center

The PHEV Research Center was launched with fundings from the California Air Resources Board.

See also[edit]

California Air Resources Board
Other

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b California Department of Finance. "3900 Air Resources Board". State of California. Retrieved July 30, 2011. 
  2. ^ CARB's Divisions
  3. ^ a b ARB's Planning and Technical Support Division
  4. ^ Turner, D.B. (1994). Workbook of atmospheric dispersion estimates: an introduction to dispersion modeling (2nd ed.). CRC Press. ISBN 1-56670-023-X.  www.crcpress.com
  5. ^ Beychok, Milton R. (2005). Fundamentals of Stack Gas Dispersion (4th ed.). author-published. ISBN 0-9644588-0-2. 
  6. ^ CALGRID Model
  7. ^ CARB's SARMAP Model
  8. ^ "Incentive Program for Alternative Fuels and Vehicles". California Air Resources Board. 2010-09-30. Retrieved 2011-11-07. 
  9. ^ "California's Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Program". Union of Concerned Scientists. 2009-01-30. Retrieved 2009-04-21. 
  10. ^ a b c d Sperling, Daniel and Deborah Gordon (2009). "Two billion cars: driving toward sustainability". Oxford University Press, New York. pp. 24 and 189–191. ISBN 978-0-19-537664-7. 
  11. ^ a b c d "Zero-Emission Vehicle Legal and Regulatory Activities: The ZEV Program Timeline". California Air Resources Board. 2011-10-14. Retrieved 2014-09-22. 
  12. ^ "Fact Sheet: California Vehicle Emissions" (pdf). California Air Resources Board. 2004-04-08. Retrieved 2009-04-21. 
  13. ^ Sherry Boschert (2006). "Plug-in Hybrids: The Cars that will Recharge America". New Society Publishers, Gabriola Island, Canada. pp. 15–28. ISBN 978-0-86571-571-4.  See the box "Zero-Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Mandate Timeline", pp. 23-28
  14. ^ Christine & Scott Gable. "What is a ZEV - Zero Emissions Vehicle?". About.com: Hybrid Carts & Alt Fuels. Retrieved 2008-04-21. 
  15. ^ "California Air Resources Board Votes to Modify ZEV Program in Short-Term; Complete Overhaul to Begin for New ZEV II". Green Car Congress. 2008-03-27. Retrieved 2009-04-21. 
  16. ^ "Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Program". California Air Resources Board. 2009-02-27. Retrieved 2009-04-21. 
  17. ^ "Low-Carbon Fuel Standard Program". California Air Resources Board. 2009-04-14. Retrieved 2009-04-23. 
  18. ^ a b "Proposed Regulation to Implement the Low Carbon Fuel Standard. Volume I: Staff Report: Initial Statement of Reasons" (PDF). California Air Resources Board. 2009-03-05. Retrieved 2009-04-26. 
  19. ^ Wyatt Buchanan (2009-04-24). "Air Resources Board moves to cut carbon use". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2009-04-25. 
  20. ^ The Associated Press (2009-04-24). "Calif. Approves Nation's 1st Low-Carbon Fuel Rule". New York Times. Retrieved 2009-04-25. 
  21. ^ UNICA Press release (2009-04-24). "Sugarcane Ethanol Passes Critical Test in California". World-Wire. Retrieved 2009-04-25. 

External links[edit]

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