California State Route 14

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"CA 14" redirects here. For the congressional district, see California's 14th congressional district.
For the original Sign Route 14, see California State Route 14 (1934-1964).

State Route 14 marker

State Route 14
Route information
Defined by S&HC § 314
Maintained by Caltrans
Length: 116.645 mi[1] (187.722 km)
Existed: 1964 renumbering (from US 6) – present
Major junctions
South end: I‑5 near Granada Hills
  SR 138 in Palmdale
SR 58 near Mojave
SR 178 near Indian Wells
North end: US 395 near Inyokern
Highway system
SR 13 I-15

State Route 14 (SR 14) is a north–south state highway in the U.S. state of California, largely in the Mojave Desert. The southern portion of the highway is signed as the Antelope Valley Freeway. The route connects Interstate 5, or Golden State Freeway, near Granada Hills[2] and with U.S. Route 395 near Inyokern. Legislatively, the route extends south of I-5 to State Route 1 in the Pacific Palisades area of Los Angeles, however the portion south of the junction with I-5 has not been constructed. The southern part of the constructed route is a busy commuter freeway serving and connecting the communities of Santa Clarita, Palmdale and Lancaster with the rest of the Greater Los Angeles area. The northern portion, from Vincent (south of Palmdale) to Route 395, is legislatively named the Aerospace Highway, as the highway serves Edwards Air Force Base, once one of the primary landing strips for NASA's Space Shuttle. This section is rural, following the line between the hot Mojave desert and the forming Sierra Nevada mountain range. Most of Route 14 is loosely paralleled by a main line of the Southern Pacific Railroad, used for the Antelope Valley Line of the Metrolink commuter rail system as well as a connection between Los Angeles and the Central Valley via Tehachapi Pass.

Linked with US 395, this road connects Los Angeles with such places as Mammoth Mountain, Mono Lake, Yosemite National Park and Reno, Nevada. Route 14 was part of U.S. Route 6 prior to truncation in 1964, when U.S. 6 was a coast-to-coast route from Long Beach to Provincetown, Massachusetts. The non-freeway segment of SR 14 from Silver Queen Road north of Rosamond to Mojave is known as Sierra Highway, as is the old routing between Interstate 5 and Silver Queen Road where SR 14 has been moved to a newer freeway alignment. Portions of Route 14 remain signed with names associated with US 6, including Midland Trail, Theodore Roosevelt Highway and Grand Army of the Republic Highway. This route is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System.[3]

Route description[edit]

Antelope Valley Freeway[edit]

Southbound view of Interstate 5 near its intersection with State Route 14, at the Newhall Pass Interchange, Granada Hills

The southern portion of the freeway, from Interstate 5 to the Avenue D exit near Lancaster, has been designated the Antelope Valley Freeway by the state legislature.[4] The Antelope Valley Freeway begins in the Santa Susana Mountains at the Newhall Pass interchange by splitting from the Golden State Freeway (Interstate 5). This is the busiest portion of the route with an annual average daily traffic (AADT) count of 169,000 vehicles per day.[5] The freeway forms the eastern boundary of Santa Clarita along its route. Past Santa Clarita, the road continues to the northeast and crosses the Sierra Pelona Mountains and western San Gabriel Mountains via the canyon of the seasonal Santa Clara River. The ascent is mostly rugged and rural terrain, with only two small towns along the ascent, first Agua Dulce and later Acton. Between the two towns the freeway forms the southern boundary of Vasquez Rocks Park, a county park. Just past Acton, the highway crests the San Gabriel mountains via Soledad Pass, at an elevation of 3,225 feet (983 m).[6] The route of the highway through the mountains loosely parallels that of the main line of the Southern Pacific Railroad, which is also used for the Metrolink Antelope Valley Line.[7][8]

After cresting the pass, the highway descends into the Antelope Valley, a large valley within the Mojave Desert. The highway crosses Angeles Forest Highway and the California Aqueduct in the descent. Route 14 serves as the primary north–south thoroughfare for the communities of Palmdale and Lancaster. Between Palmdale Boulevard (County Route N2) and Avenue D in Lancaster, SR 14 runs concurrently with SR 138.[8]

Aerospace Highway[edit]

From the Pearblossom Highway exit south of Palmdale to its northern terminus at Route 395 near Inyokern, SR 14 has been designated the Aerospace Highway.[9] Between Pearblossom Highway and Avenue S, there is a vista point overlooking Lake Palmdale, which features a historic plaque that honors aviation accomplishments including the space shuttle, breaking the sound barrier and the speed record.[9] The freeway passes the Los Angeles/Kern County line at Avenue A, and continues to run north through Rosamond and Mojave. In Rosamond, the highway passes close to Edwards Air Force Base, which was often used as one of the main landing strips for NASA's Space Shuttle, and as the base for the X-15 and many other air and spacecraft.[10]

The freeway portion terminates just south of Mojave, where SR 14 serves as the main street and runs through the downtown area. To the east of the route is Mojave Air & Space Port, home to the National Test Pilot School and SpaceShipOne, the first privately funded human spaceflight,[11] as well as a vast airplane graveyard; all are visible from Route 14.[8]

State Route 58 was formerly routed concurrent with SR 14 through Mojave, before it was rerouted onto a bypass running north and east of the town.[8]

The northern terminus of Route 14 near Inyokern

The character of the highway changes as it leaves Mojave. The road, now a divided highway with at-grade intersections, departs the corridor of the main Southern Pacific Line, to follow the crest of the forming Sierra Nevada mountains. The route continues to follow a branch line of the Southern Pacific used as a connector for the Trona Railway. The main line of the railroad proceeds towards the Central Valley via Tehachapi Pass. Though Route 14 heads away from the pass, the highway has views of the mountains and the Tehachapi Pass Wind Farm. The scenery also changes, as the highway departs the Mojave Desert and crosses Red Rock Canyon State Park. Traffic counts drop dramatically as the highway becomes more rural, with an AADT of 3200 vehicles at the northern terminus.[5] SR 14 continues north toward U.S. Route 395 in Inyokern, much of its routing as an expressway. Towards its northern terminus, SR 14 runs briefly concurrent with State Route 178. At its northern terminus, SR 14 merges with US 395 as it turns into an expressway heading north to Bishop. As US 395 the route continues to follow the crest of the Sierra Nevada, serving Owens Valley, Mammoth Mountain, Yosemite National Park and Mono Lake.[8]

History[edit]

Trails[edit]

Looking south at the corner of Sierra Highway and Lancaster Blvd. in Lancaster in 1913

The first road to use the general alignment of modern Route 14 was called the El Camino Sierra, or Sierra Highway, which extended from Los Angeles to Lake Tahoe. A dirt road was completed in the 1910s from what had been a pack trail. The Los Angeles Times declared El Camino Sierra complete in 1931, when the portion from Mojave to the Owens Valley, along modern US 395, was paved.[12]

During the late 19th century, the corridor of modern Route 14 was also in used by the Southern Pacific Railroad for two lines. The first is a line to connect Los Angeles with the Central Valley, via Tehachapi Pass. While significantly longer than the more direct Ridge Route (modern Interstate 5), Tehachapi Pass is lower than Tejon Pass along the Ridge Route, with a longer, less steep grade on the descent into the Central Valley.[8] This rail line remains the primary rail line to connect southern and northern California in use today, now owned and operated by the Union Pacific Railroad.[13] The second resulted when the Southern Pacific acquired the un-finished Carson and Colorado Railroad in 1900.[14] The Southern Pacific built a standard gauge connector to the narrow gauge Carson and Colorado line from their main at Mojave. Although plans were to eventually convert this acquired line to standard gauge, most of the line was abandoned before the conversion was complete. However, the southern portion of this line is still active and used for connections to the Trona Railway.[8][15]

The Midland Trail was one of the first organized coast-to-coast trails in the United States.[16] In the trail's infancy, its routing changed numerous times. By 1925, the Midland Trail was established along what is modern State Route 168, joining El Camino Sierra in Big Pine.[17] Other named trails that would eventually follow this route included the Theodore Roosevelt highway,[17] and Grand Army of the Republic Highway.[18] Parts of modern Route 14 continue to be signed with these names,[19] and north of Los Angeles County is still officially designated "El Camino Sierra / Midland Trail" as well as the aforementioned "Aerospace Highway".[20]

U.S. Route 6[edit]

U.S. Route 6 was extended from Greeley, Colorado to Long Beach, California on June 21, 1937.[18] Most of this extension used the Midland Trail, although the route entered California from Nevada slightly north of the previous route of the Midland Trail, instead passing through Bishop. While being designated US 6, parts of modern Route 14 began to be upgraded to freeway standards.

As part of the 1964 state highway renumbering, US 6 was truncated at Bishop. The portion of US 6 from Inyokern to Los Angeles was designated State Route 14. Previously the Route 14 designation was used for Artesia Boulevard and Lincoln Avenue, in the Los Angeles area, a portion of modern State Route 91.[21]

Between 1963 and 1975 significant portions of US 6/SR 14 were moved to a freeway alignment. The former routing south of Mojave (and the current routing to the north) is still known as Sierra Highway. The first freeway section, from just east of Solemint Junction to Red Rover Mine Road, was completed in 1963. Further portions in the intercanyon areas of Acton to Soledad Pass were completed by 1965. By 1966 the freeway was complete as far north as Avenue P-8 in Palmdale. The freeway was completed to Mojave by 1972.[22]

Incidents[edit]

The Newhall Pass interchange, where I-5, Sierra Highway, Foothill Boulevard, San Fernando Road and the southern terminus of Route 14 meet, has been the site of a number of catastrophic incidents. The interchange has partially collapsed twice due to earthquakes; the 1971 Sylmar earthquake and the 1994 Northridge earthquake. As a result of the 1994 collapse this intersection was renamed the "Clarence Wayne Dean Memorial Interchange", honoring a Los Angeles Police Department motorcycle officer killed when he was unable to stop in time and drove off the collapsed flyover ramp from SR 14 south to I-5 south.[23] After both earthquakes, the collapsed portions were rebuilt and surviving portions reinforced.[24]

In 2007, two tractor-trailer trucks collided in a tunnel along the truck lanes for southbound I-5 at the interchange. A resulting fire started, soon encompassing the entire tunnel along with 30 other trucks and one passenger vehicle that were in the tunnel at the time. The truck tunnel was closed for several days for structural damage inspections and repairs.[25]

Cancelled plans[edit]

Route 14 inside Red Rock Canyon

Route 14 is an unfinished route, as the definition in the California Streets and Highways Code states that the route begins at State Route 1 (Pacific Coast Highway), near Sunset Blvd. in the Pacific Palisades area of Los Angeles.[26] Between the constructed end and legislative end of Route 14 is the area of Los Angeles called Reseda and Topanga State Park. There is no paved road that directly connects these two points, with State Route 27 or Interstate 405 being the nearest through roads in this area.[27]

The intersection of Route 14 with Via Princessa in Santa Clarita is an unusual design, with long flyover ramps for the connections. This is the result of a freeway revolt by the residents of Santa Clarita, that canceled plans for a freeway extension of Route 126.[28] While the Via Princessa alignment of Route 126 was canceled, a different alignment is being constructed with proposed connections to Route 14.[29]

Future[edit]

Rapid exurban growth in Santa Clarita, Lancaster, and Palmdale has made the Antelope Valley Freeway one of the most congested in southern California, with average rush hour speeds well below 20 miles per hour (30 km/h). Future predictions call for continued growth along the Route 14 corridor, including predictions of a tripling of the population of Palmdale by 2030. In response, multiple government agencies have proposed adding more transportation arteries between Los Angeles and the Antelope Valley, as well expanding the capacity of the existing Route 14 and rail corridors.[30]

Several proposals have been made to bypass the Antelope Valley Freeway by boring a tunnel under the San Gabriel Mountains and extending the Glendale Freeway through it to the Antelope Valley. In 2003, Caltrans published a map showing potential improvements to the transportation infrastructure of southern California. The proposal showed both the unconstructed portion of Route 14 and new routes over or under the mountains to Antelope Valley.[31] In 2005, the idea was advanced as a combination toll tunnel and surface highway. Preliminary studies estimated costs around $3 billion and suggested charging a varying toll, adjusted for the time of day, averaging around $8 for one-way passage.[32]

Major intersections[edit]

Except where prefixed with a letter, postmiles were measured on the road as it was in 1964, and do not necessarily reflect current mileage. R reflects a realignment in the route since then.[1] The numbers reset at county lines; the start and end postmiles in each county are given in the county column.

County Location Postmile
[1][33][34]
Exit
[35]
Destinations Notes
Los Angeles
LA R24.79-R77.01
Los Angeles R24.79 1 I‑5 (Golden State Freeway) – Los Angeles, Sacramento Southbound exit and northbound entrance; signed as exits 1A (south) and 1B (north); south end of SR 14
  The Old Road Southbound exit and northbound entrance; former US 99
Santa Clarita R27.05 2 Newhall Avenue Former SR 126 west
R28.08 3 Placerita Canyon Road
R29.68 5 Golden Valley Road Connects to SR 126 to Ventura
R30.80 6A Sierra HighwayCanyon Country Northbound exit and southbound entrance; former US 6
R30.92 6B Via Princessa Signed as exit 6 southbound
33.42 9 Sand Canyon Road
35.71 11 Soledad Canyon Road Signed as Shadow Pines Blvd. prior to construction of HOV lanes
  39.85 15 Agua Dulce Canyon Road
  43.29 19 Escondido Canyon Road
Acton 46.76 22 Red Rover Mine Road, Sierra Highway Sierra Highway was former US 6
R48.61 24 Crown Valley Road – Acton
R50.75 26 Santiago Road
R52.17 27 Soledad Canyon Road
  R54.54 30 Angeles Forest Highway (CR N3), Pearblossom Highway
Palmdale R58.17 33 Avenue S
R59.80 35 SR 138 east (Palmdale Boulevard, CR N2) – Palmdale South end of SR 138 overlap
R61.37 37 Rancho Vista Boulevard (Avenue P) Northbound exit and southbound entrance; serves LA/Palmdale Regional Airport
R61.77 37 10th Street West Southbound exit and northbound entrance; serves LA/Palmdale Regional Airport
R63.67 39 Avenue N
PalmdaleLancaster line R64.68 40 Avenue M Also known as Columbia Way
Lancaster R65.68 41 Avenue L
R66.73 42 Avenue K
R67.39 43 20th Street West Northbound exit and southbound entrance
R67.96 43 Avenue J (CR N5) Southbound exit and northbound entrance
R68.97 44 Avenue I
R69.99 45 Avenue H
R70.99 46 Avenue G
  R72.00 47 Avenue F
  R74.00 49 SR 138 west (Avenue D) – Gorman North end of SR 138 overlap
Los AngelesKern
county line
  R77.01 52 Avenue A
Kern
KER R0.00-64.56
Rosamond R3.02 55 Rosamond Boulevard – Rosamond, Edwards AFB
R6.12 58 Dawn Road
  R9.15 61 Backus Road
  R12.15 64 Silver Queen Road, Sierra Highway
    North end of freeway
Mojave 16.06
SR 58 Bus. east to SR 58 east – Barstow, Las Vegas
South end of SR 58 Bus. overlap; former US 466 east / SR 58 east
L17.38
16.07

SR 58 Bus. west to SR 58 west – Bakersfield
North end of SR 58 Bus. overlap; former US 466 west / SR 58 west
  19.24 71 SR 58 – Bakersfield, Barstow Interchange
California City 21.29 73 California City Boulevard, Randsburg Cutoff Road Interchange
  35.56 Redrock Randsburg Road – California City, Randsburg, Johannesburg
Freeman Junction 57.77 SR 178 west – Weldon, Lake Isabella South end of SR 178 overlap
  60.57 SR 178 east to US 395 south – Inyokern, China Lake, Ridgecrest, San Bernardino North end of SR 178 overlap
  64.56 US 395 north – Bishop, Reno Interchange; northbound exit and southbound entrance; north end of SR 14; former US 6 north
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Staff. "State Truck Route List" (XLS file). California Department of Transportation. Retrieved August 21, 2012. 
  2. ^ [1] "Granada Hills," Mapping L.A., Los Angeles Times
  3. ^ "CA Codes (shc:250-257)". State of California. Retrieved 2009-01-18. 
  4. ^ 2008 Named Freeways, Highways, Structures and Other Appurtenances in California. Caltrans. p. 159. Retrieved 2011-01-20. 
  5. ^ a b "Caltrans Traffic Operations Program – Traffic and Vehicle Data Systems". Caltrans. 2007. Retrieved 2009-01-31. 
  6. ^ United State Geological Survey (hosted by ACME Mapper). Topographical Map (Map). http://mapper.acme.com/?ll=34.50037,-118.11912&z=15&t=T&marker0=34.57978%2C-118.12953%2CPalmdale\%2C%20California. Retrieved 2008-12-24.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Benchmark Maps (2002). California Road and Recreation Atlas (Map). 1:300000 (Third Edition ed.). p. 94,103. ISBN 0-929591-80-1.
  8. ^ a b 2008 Named Freeways, Highways, Structures and Other Appurtenances in California. Caltrans. p. 153. Retrieved 2011-01-20. 
  9. ^ "Edwards Air Force Base 2007 Guide" (PDF). Marcoa Publishing under contract of the United States Air Force. Retrieved 2008-12-24. 
  10. ^ "SpaceShipOne wins X Prize for spaceflight". New Scientist. 2004-10-04. Retrieved 2008-12-24. 
  11. ^ "Camino Sierra, Newest Highway, Opens on Sunday". Los Angeles Times (Los Angeles). 1931-02-19. p. 12. 
  12. ^ "UPRR System Map". Union Pacific Railroad. Retrieved 2008-02-12. 
  13. ^ Myrick, David F. (1992). "Carson and Colorado". Railroads of Nevada and Eastern California. University of Nevada Press. p. 166. ISBN 0-87417-193-8. Retrieved 2011-11-28. 
  14. ^ "Laws Museum - The Story of Laws". Laws Museum. Retrieved 2008-10-05. 
  15. ^ Westgard, A.L. (March 1915). "Motor Routes to the California Expositions". Motor Magazine, Re-published by the Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved 2009-01-16. 
  16. ^ a b The CM Co (1925). Clason's Touring Atlas – Milage Map of the Best Roads in California and Nevada (Map). p. 46.
  17. ^ a b Weingroff, Richard F. "U.S. 6 - The Grand Army of the Republic Highway". Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved 2009-01-16. 
  18. ^ 2008 Named Freeways, Highways, Structures and Other Appurtenances in California. Caltrans. p. 174. Retrieved 2011-01-20. 
  19. ^ 2008 Named Freeways, Highways, Structures and Other Appurtenances in California. Caltrans. p. 169. Retrieved 2011-01-20. 
  20. ^ California State Division of Highways (hosted by S. Varner of Americanroads.us) (1944). Los Angeles and Vicinity (Map). http://www.americanroads.us/citymaps/1944CaStateMapLosAngeles.png. Retrieved 2009-01-10.
  21. ^ "California Log of Bridges on State Highways - District 7" (PDF). Caltrans. April 2008. p. 33. Retrieved 2008-12-30. 
  22. ^ "THE EARTHQUAKE; 38 Deaths in the Earthquake". The New York Times (New York, NY). Associated Press. 1994-01-19. Retrieved 2008-04-06. 
  23. ^ Volpe, John A. (2002-04-22). "Effects of Catastrophic Events on Transportation System Management and Operations". U.S. Department of Transportation. Archived from the original on 2009-01-12. Retrieved 2009-01-18. 
  24. ^ Weikel, Dan; Tami Abdollah; Ann M. Simmons (2007-10-16). "At least nine I-5 crash survivors unaccounted for, officials say". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2008-01-18. 
  25. ^ "CA Codes (shc:300-635)". State of California. Retrieved 2010-01-05. 
  26. ^ Google. Google Maps (Map). Cartography by Tele Atlas. http://maps.google.com/maps?f=q&source=s_q&hl=en&geocode=&q=Reseda,+Los+Angeles,+California&sll=34.071502,-118.512697&sspn=0.05446,0.063601&ie=UTF8&ll=34.087497,-118.567028&spn=0.1089,0.192432&z=13. Retrieved 2008-01-18.
  27. ^ Martin, Hugo (1992-07-27). "Expressway Plan Raises Controversy Santa Clarita: One proposed route for the freeway connector would be more injurious to wetlands; another would be less favorable to development.". Los Angeles Times. p. Metro 3. 
  28. ^ Geyer, Katherine (2008-08-17). "One last bridge - Final phase of cross-valley connector project scheduled to begin within four months". The Signal. Retrieved 2009-01-31. 
  29. ^ Chong, Jia-Rui; Caitlin Liu (2004-01-19). "MTA Outlines Traffic Plan for Antelope Valley". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2009-01-18. 
  30. ^ Caltrans (hosted by cahighways.org) (2003-11-12). District 7 – Master System Plan Status (Map). http://www.cahighways.org/maps/2003scstatus.pdf. Retrieved 2009-01-18.
  31. ^ Sheppard, Harrison (2005-01-20). "$3 Billion San Gabriel Mountains Toll Tunnel Urged". Los Angeles Daily News. Archived from the original on 2006-09-26. Retrieved 2009-01-18. 
  32. ^ California Department of Transportation, Log of Bridges on State Highways, July 2007
  33. ^ California Department of Transportation, All Traffic Volumes on CSHS, 2004, 2005, and 2006
  34. ^ California Department of Transportation, California Numbered Exit Uniform System, State Route 14 Freeway Interchanges, Retrieved on 2009-02-05.
  • David, Brodsly (1981). LA Freeway: An Appreciative Essay. University of California Press. 

External links[edit]

Route map: Google / Bing