Call of Cthulhu (role-playing game)
||This article's lead section may not adequately summarize key points of its contents. (November 2012)|
Call of Cthulhu 1st edition box cover, 1981.
Illustration by Gene Day.
|System(s)||Basic Role-Playing (adaptations into other systems also available)|
Call of Cthulhu is a horror fiction role-playing game based on H. P. Lovecraft's story of the same name and the associated Cthulhu Mythos. The game, often abbreviated as CoC, is published by Chaosium. The game was first released in 1981, and eighteen editions have been published to date. The game makes use of Chaosium's Basic Role-Playing (BRP) system, with special rules for Sanity.
- 1 Gameplay
- 2 History
- 3 Licenses
- 4 Reception
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
The setting of Call of Cthulhu is a darker version of our world, based on H. P. Lovecraft's observation (from his essay, Supernatural Horror in Literature) that "The oldest and strongest emotion of mankind is fear, and the strongest kind of fear is fear of the unknown." The original game, first published in 1981, uses mechanics from Basic Role-Playing, and is set in the 1920s, the setting of many of Lovecraft's stories. Additional settings were developed in the 1890s Cthulhu by Gaslight supplement, a blend of occult and Holmesian mystery and mostly set in England, and modern/1980s conspiracy with Cthulhu Now. More recent additions include 1000 AD (Cthulhu: Dark Ages), 23rd century (Cthulhu Rising) and Ancient Roman times (Cthulhu Invictus). The protagonists may also travel to places that are not of this earth, represented in the Dreamlands (which can be accessed through dreams as well as being physically connected to the earth), to other planets, or into the voids of space.
Call of Cthulhu uses the Basic Role-Playing system used by other Chaosium games (first seen in RuneQuest). For as long as they stay functionally healthy and sane, characters grow and develop. Call of Cthulhu does not use levels, but is completely skill-based, with player characters getting better with their skills by succeeding at them. They do not, however, gain "hit points" and do not become significantly harder to kill.
Unlike Dungeons and Dragons that typically uses a d20 to determine outcomes of particular decisions and events, Call of Cthulhu uses a d100 (or d-percentile) to determine such events. Every player statistic is intended to be compatible with the notion that there is a probability of success for a particular action given what the player is capable of doing. For example, an artist may have a 75% of being able to draw something (represented by having 75 in Art), and thus rolling a number under 75 would yield a success. Rolling 1/5 or less in a skill (15 in our example) would be an "impale" and would yield some extra bonus to be determined by the keeper. For example, our artist would draw it especially well or especially fast, or catch some unapparent detail in the drawing.
The players take the roles of ordinary people drawn into the realm of the mysterious: detectives, criminals, scholars, artists, war veterans, etc. Often, happenings begin innocently enough, until more and more of the workings behind the scenes are revealed. As the characters learn more of the true horrors of the world and the irrelevance of humanity, their sanity (represented by "Sanity Points", abbreviated SAN) inevitably withers away. The game includes a mechanism for determining how damaged a character's sanity is at any given point; encountering the horrific beings usually triggers a loss of SAN points. To gain the tools they need to defeat the horrors – mystic knowledge and magic – the characters may end up losing some of their sanity, though other means such as pure firepower or simply outsmarting one's opponents also exist. Call of Cthulhu has a reputation as a game in which it is quite common for a player character to die in gruesome circumstances or end up in a mental institution. Eventual triumph of the players is not assumed.
The original conception of Call of Cthulhu was Dark Worlds, a game commissioned by the publisher Chaosium but never published. Sandy Petersen, now best known for his work on the Doom computer game, contacted them regarding writing a supplement for their popular fantasy game RuneQuest set in Lovecraft's Dreamlands. He took over the writing of Call of Cthulhu, and the game was released in 1981, using a version of the Basic Role-Playing system used in RuneQuest.
Since Petersen's departure, continuing development of Call of Cthulhu has passed to Lynn Willis, who since the fifth edition has been credited as co-author. The game is now in its sixth edition, but the rules have changed little over the years. A 7th edition in development, first announced in 2012, to ship in 2013, is reported to offer much greater changes to the rules than previous revisions.
- Call of Cthulhu (1981)
- Call of Cthulhu Designer's Edition (1982)
- Call of Cthulhu 2nd Edition (1983)
- Call of Cthulhu 3rd Edition (1986)
- Call of Cthulhu 4th Edition (1989)
- Call of Cthulhu 5th Edition (1992)
- Call of Cthulhu 5.5 (1998)
- Call of Cthulhu 5.6 (1999)
- Call of Cthulhu 5.6, 20th Anniversary Edition (2001)
- Call of Cthulhu 5.6, Miskatonic University Edition (2001)
- Call of Cthulhu 6th Edition (2004)
- Call of Cthulhu 25th Anniversary Edition (2006)
- Call of Cthulhu 30th Anniversary Edition (2011)
- Call of Cthulhu 7th Edition (2014)
For those grounded in the RPG tradition, the very first release of Call of Cthulhu created a brand new framework for table-top gaming. Rather than the traditional format established by Dungeons & Dragons, which often involved the characters wandering through caves or tunnels and fighting different types of monsters, Sandy Petersen introduced the concept of the Onion Skin: Interlocking layers of information and nested clues that lead the Player Characters from seemingly minor investigations into a missing person to discovering mind-numbingly awful, global conspiracies to destroy the world. Unlike its predecessor games, CoC assumed that most investigators would not survive, alive or sane, and that the only safe way to deal with the vast majority of nasty things described in the rule books was to run away. A well-run CoC campaign should engender a sense of foreboding and inevitable doom in its players. The style and setting of the game, in a relatively modern time period, created an emphasis on real-life settings, character research, and thinking one's way around trouble.
The first book of Call of Cthulhu adventures was Shadows of Yog-Sothoth. In this work, the characters come upon a secret society's foul plot to destroy mankind, and pursue it first near to home and then in a series of exotic locations. This template was to be followed in many subsequent campaigns, including Fungi from Yuggoth (later known as Curse of Cthulhu and Day of the Beast), Spawn of Azathoth, and possibly the most highly acclaimed, Masks of Nyarlathotep. Many of these seem closer in tone to the pulp adventures of Indiana Jones than H. P. Lovecraft, but they are nonetheless beloved by many gamers.
Shadows of Yog-Sothoth is important not only because it represents the first published addition to the boxed first edition of Call of Cthulhu, but because its format defined a new way of approaching a campaign of linked RPG scenarios involving actual clues for the would-be detectives amongst the players to follow and link in order to uncover the dastardly plots afoot. Its format has been used by every other campaign-length Call of Cthulhu publication. The standard of CoC scenarios was well received by independent reviewers. The Asylum and Other Tales, a series of stand alone articles released in 1983, rated an overall 9/10 in Issue 47 of White Dwarf magazine.
The standard of the included 'clue' material varies from scenario to scenario, but reached its zenith in the original boxed versions of the Masks of Nyarlathotep and Horror on the Orient Express campaigns. Inside these one could find matchbooks and business cards apparently defaced by non-player characters, newspaper cuttings and (in the case of Orient Express) period passports to which players could attach their photographs, bringing a Live Action Role Playing feel to a tabletop game. Indeed, during the period that these supplements were produced, third party campaign publishers strove to emulate the quality of the additional materials, often offering separately-priced 'deluxe' clue packages for their campaigns.
Additional milieu were provided by Chaosium with the release of Dreamlands, a boxed supplement containing additional rules needed for playing within the Lovecraft Dreamlands, a large map and a scenario booklet, and Cthulhu By Gaslight, another boxed set which moved the action from the 1920s to the 1890s.
- Shadows of Yog-Sothoth, 1982
- Fungi from Yuggoth, 1984
- Masks of Nyarlathotep, 1984
- Spawn of Azathoth, 1986
In 1987, Chaosium issued the supplement titled Cthulhu Now, a collection of rules, supplemental source materials and scenarios for playing Call of Cthulhu in the present day. This proved to be a very popular alternative milieu, so much so that much of the supplemental material is now included in the core rule book.
Pagan Publishing has released a series of supplements in a similar vein, by the name Delta Green, that is set in the 1990s (although later supplements add support for playing closer to the present day).
Lovecraft Country was a line of supplements for Call of Cthulhu released in 1990. These supplements were overseen by Keith Herber and provided backgrounds and adventures set in Lovecraft's fictional towns of Arkham, Kingsport, Innsmouth, Dunwich, and their environs. The intent was to give investigators a common base, as well as to center the action on well-drawn characters with clear motivations.
In the years since the collapse of the Mythos collectible card game (production ceased in 1997), the release of CoC books has been very sporadic with up to a year between releases. Chaosium struggled with near bankruptcy for many years before finally starting their upward climb again.
2005 was Chaosium's busiest year for many years with ten releases for the game. Chaosium took to marketing "monographs"—short books by individual writers with editing and layout provided out-of-house—directly to the consumer, allowing the company to gauge market response to possible new works. The range of times and places in which the horrors of the Mythos can be encountered was also expanded in late 2005 onwards with the addition of Cthulhu Dark Ages by Stéphane Gesbert, which gives a framework for playing games set in 11th century Europe, Secrets of Japan by Michael Dziesinski for gaming in modern day Japan, and Secrets of Kenya by David Conyers for gaming in interwar period Africa.
In July 2011, Chaosium announced it would re-release a 30th anniversary edition of the CoC 6th edition role-playing game. This 320-page book features thick (3 mm) leatherette hard-covers with the front cover and spine stamped with gold foil. The interior pages are printed in black ink, on 90 gsm matte art paper. The binding is thread sewn, square backed. Chaosium offered a one-time printing of this Collector's Edition.
In May 28, 2013, a kickstarter for the 7th Edition of Call of Cthulhu was launched, it ended in June 29 of the same year and collected $561,836.
Chaosium has licensed other publishers to create supplements using their rule system, notably including Delta Green by Pagan Publishing. Other licensees have included Miskatonic River Press, Theater of the Mind Enterprises, Triad Entertainment, Games Workshop, Fantasy Flight Games, RAFM, Grenadier Models Inc. and Yog-Sothoth.com. These supplements may be set in different time frames or even different game universes from the original game.
D20 Call of Cthulhu
In 2001, a stand-alone version of Call of Cthulhu was released by Wizards of the Coast, for the d20 system. Intended to preserve the feeling of the original game, the d20 conversion of the game rules were supposed to make the game more accessible to the large D&D player base. The d20 system also made it possible to use Dungeons & Dragons characters in Call of Cthulhu, as well as to introduce the Cthulhu Mythos into Dungeons & Dragons games. The d20 version of the game is no longer supported by Wizards as per their contract with Chaosium. Chaosium included d20 stats as an appendix in three releases (see Lovecraft Country), but have since dropped the "dual stat" idea.
Dark Corners of the Earth
A licensed first-person shooter adventure game by Headfirst Productions, based on Call of Cthulhu campaign Escape from Innsmouth and released by Bethesda Softworks in 2005/2006 for the PC and Xbox.
Trail of Cthulhu
In February 2008, Pelgrane Press published Trail of Cthulhu, a stand-alone game created by Kenneth Hite using the GUMSHOE System developed by Robin Laws. Trail of Cthulhu 's system is more mystery oriented and focuses mostly on interpreting clues.
Shadows of Cthulhu
Realms of Cthulhu
In 2010, Cubicle 7 published an official role-playing game, The Laundry (2010, ISBN 1-907204-93-8, Gareth Hanrahan) and a number of supplements, all based on Charles Stross's "Bob Howard – Laundry" series.
The Wasted Land
In April 2011, Chaosium and new developer Red Wasp Design announced a joint project to produce a mobile video game based on the Call of Cthulhu RPG, entitled Call of Cthulhu: The Wasted Land. The game was released on 30 January 2012.
Mythos was a collectible card game (CCG) based on the Cthulhu Mythos that Chaosium produced and marketed during the mid-1990s. While generally praised for its fast gameplay and unique mechanics, it ultimately failed to gain a very large market presence. It bears mention because its eventual failure brought the company to hard times that affected its ability to produce material for Call of Cthulhu. Call of Cthulhu: The Card Game is a second collectible card game, produced by Fantasy Flight Games.
The first licensed Call of Cthulhu 25mm gaming miniatures were sculpted by Andrew Chernack and released by Grenadier Models in boxed sets and blister packs in 1983. The license was later transferred to RAFM. As of 2011, RAFM still produce licensed Call of Cthulhu models sculpted by Bob Murch. Both lines include investigator player character models and the iconic monsters of the Cthulhu mythos.
The game won several major awards in the following years:
- 1982, Origins Awards, Best Role Playing Game
- 1981, Game Designer's Guild, Select Award
- 1985, Games Day Award, Best Role Playing Game
- 1986, Games Day Award, Best Contemporary Role Playing Game
- 1987, Games Day Award, Best Other Role Playing Game
- 1993, Leeds Wargame Club, Best Role Playing Game
- 1994, Gamer's Choice Award, Hall of Fame
- 1995, Origins Award, Hall of Fame
- 2001, Origins Award, Best Graphic Presentation of a Book Product (Call of Cthulhu 20th anniversary edition)
- 2003, GamingReport.com readers voted it as Number One Gothic/Horror RPG
- Arkham Horror - a cooperative board game based on the Mythos.
- Call of Cthulhu: Dark Corners of the Earth - a video game adaptation of the CoC campaign "Escape from Innsmouth".
- Cthulhu Live - a live action role-playing game version of Call of Cthulhu.
- CthulhuTech - another role-playing game, conceived for a "Cthulhu science-fiction setting".
- Cook, Monte (2007). "Call of Cthulhu". In Lowder, James. Hobby Games: The 100 Best. Green Ronin Publishing. pp. 42–45. ISBN 978-1-932442-96-0.
- Petersen, Sandy; Willis, Lynn. "Game Info: Call of Cthulhu". RPG.net. Skotos Tech, Inc. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
- Turnbull, Don (August 1982). "Open Box: Call of Cthulhu". White Dwarf (Games Workshop) (32): 18. ISSN 0265-8712.
- Ivey, Shane (2012-07-24). "Inside Call of Cthulhu 7th Edition". The Unspeakable Oath. Retrieved 2013-01-25.
- Frances, Phil (November 1985). "Open Box: Dungeon Modules". White Dwarf (Games Workshop) (71): 7–8. ISSN 0265-8712.
- Sutherland, Jon (November 1983). "Open Box: Dungeon Modules". White Dwarf (Games Workshop) (47): 14. ISSN 0265-8712.
- "Taking Preorders: Call of Cthulhu 30th Anniversary Edition". Chaosium.com. Retrieved 16 July 2011.
- Games Workshop was active with Chaosium from 1983-1987 - mostly publishing the BRP games in hardback bookform but producing some material, notably Green and Pleasant Land (1987) by Marc Gascoigne, Bryan Ansell and others
- "Wizards' d20 Cthulhu Forum to Close". Yog-Sothoth.com. 2003-11-18. Retrieved 2015-03-29.
- Call of Cthulhu: Dark Corners of the Earth Interview, IGN, February 8, 2000
- "The Trail of Cthulhu". Retrieved 2007-08-17.
- david jarvis (2008-09-15). "Shadows of Cthulhu is now on sale!". Retrieved 2008-09-16.
- "Realms of Cthulhu". Retrieved 2010-01-30.
- Stross, Charles (12 December 2010). "A message from our sponsors". Charlie's Diary. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
- UK Roleplayers (10 March 2010). "Charles Stross' "The Laundry Files" RPG Announced". Retrieved 13 June 2011.
- Cubicle 7. "The Laundry – Cubicle 7 Entertainment Web Store". Retrieved 13 June 2011.
- "Call of Cthulhu Coming to Mobile".
- "Call of Cthulhu The Wasted Land". Retrieved 2011-06-05.
- "Call of Cthulhu The Wasted Land Launches". Retrieved 2012-02-07.
- "Chaosium Awards". Chaosium. Retrieved 20 August 2011.
- Lhomme, Tristan (July–August 1992). "Call of Cthulhu, la 5e édition américaine". Casus Belli (70): 26. Review (French)