|Red bottlebrush flower|
Callistemon // is a genus of shrubs in the family Myrtaceae, first described as a genus in 1814. The entire genus is endemic to Australia but widely cultivated in many other regions and naturalized in scattered locations.
Callistemon is sometimes considered a synonym of Melaleuca, and four Callistemon species from New Caledonia were moved to that genus by Lyndley Craven and John Dawson in 1998. Callistemon species are commonly referred to as bottlebrushes because of their cylindrical, brush like flowers resembling a traditional bottle brush. They are found in the more temperate regions of Australia, mostly along the east coast and south-west, and typically favour moist conditions so when planted in gardens thrive on regular watering. However, at least some of the species are drought-resistant. Several species are used in ornamental landscaping elsewhere in the world.
Callistemons can be propagated either by cuttings (some species more easily than others), or from the seeds. Flowering is normally in spring and early summer (October–December), but conditions may cause flowering at other times of the year. The obvious parts of the flower masses are stamens, with the pollen at the tip of the filament; the petals are inconspicuous (see picture). Flower heads vary in colour with species; most are red, but some are yellow, green, orange or white. Each flower head produces a profusion of triple-celled seed capsules around a stem (see picture) which remain on the plant with the seeds enclosed until stimulated to open when the plant dies or fire causes the release of the seeds. A few species release the seeds annually.
They are relatively slow growing though in time the larger species can grow up to 15 m (49 ft). Some are ground-hugging, and grow to only 0.5 m (1.6 ft). The leaves are linear to lanceolate and they are not deciduous.
In Australia, Callistemon species are sometimes used as food plants by the larvae of hepialid moths of the genus Aenetus including A. ligniveren. These burrow horizontally into the trunk then vertically down.
In India, bottlebrush plants/trees are grown in gardens. Their leaves have a lovely fragrance which gets released on crushing the leaves with hands.
One of the sources was the Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.
- Callistemon acuminatus Cheel – Tapering-leaved Bottlebrush
- Callistemon brachyandrus Lindl. – Prickly Bottlebrush
- Callistemon chisholmii Cheel
- Callistemon citrinus (Curtis) Skeels – Crimson Bottlebrush
- Callistemon coccineus F.Muell.
- Callistemon comboynensis Cheel – Cliff Bottlebrush
- Callistemon flavovirens (Cheel) Cheel – Green Bottlebrush
- Callistemon formosus S.T.Blake
- Callistemon forresterae Molyneux
- Callistemon genofluvialis Molyneux
- Callistemon kenmorrisonii Molyneux – Betka Bottlebrush
- Callistemon lanceolatus (Sm.) Sweet
- Callistemon lazaridis (Craven) Udovicic & R.D.Spencer
- Callistemon linearifolius (Link) DC.
- Callistemon linearis Sweet
- Callistemon macropunctatus (Dum.Cours.) Court
- Callistemon megalongensis (Craven & S.M.Douglas) Udovicic & R.D.Spencer
- Callistemon montanus C.T.White ex S.T.Blake – Mountain Bottlebrush
- Callistemon montis-zamiae (Craven) Udovicic & R.D.Spencer
- Callistemon nyallingensis Molyneux
- Callistemon pachyphyllus Cheel – Wallum Bottlebrush
- Callistemon pallidus (Bonpl.) DC. – Lemon Bottlebrush
- Callistemon pauciflorus R.D.Spencer & Lumley
- Callistemon pearsonii R.D.Spencer & Lumley
- Callistemon phoeniceus Lindl. – Lesser Bottlebrush
- Callistemon pinifolius (Wendl.) Sweet – Pine-leaved Bottlebrush
- Callistemon pityoides F.Muell. – Alpine Bottlebrush
- Callistemon polandii F.M.Bailey
- Callistemon pungens Lumley & R.D.Spencer
- Callistemon pyramidalis (Craven) Udovicic & R.D.Spencer
- Callistemon quercinus (Craven) Udovicic & R.D.Spencer
- Callistemon recurvus R.D.Spencer & Lumley
- Callistemon rigidus R.Br. – Stiff Bottlebrush
- Callistemon rugulosus (Schltdl. ex Link) DC. – Scarlet Bottlebrush
- Callistemon sabrina (Craven) Udovicic & R.D.Spencer
- Callistemon salignus (Sm.) Sweet – Willow Bottlebrush, White Bottlebrush
- Callistemon serpentinus (Craven) Udovicic & R.D.Spencer
- Callistemon shiressii Blakely
- Callistemon sieberi DC.
- Callistemon speciosus (Sims) Sweet
- Callistemon subulatus Cheel
- Callistemon teretifolius F.Muell. – Needle Bottlebrush, Flinders Ranges Bottlebrush
- Callistemon viminalis (Sol. ex Gaertn.) G.Don – Weeping Bottlebrush
- Callistemon viridiflorus (Sims) Sweet
- Callistemon wimmerensis Marriott & G.W.Carr
Formerly placed here
- Melaleuca brevisepala (J.W. Dawson) Craven & J.W.Dawson (as C. brevisepalus J.W.Dawson)
- Melaleuca buseana (Guillaumin) Craven & J.W.Dawson (as C. buseanus Guillaumin)
- Melaleuca dawsonii Craven (as C. suberosum Pancher ex Brongn. & Gris)
- Melaleuca pancheri (Brongn. & Gris) Craven & J.W.Dawson (as C. pancheri Brongn. & Gris)
- Melaleuca sphaerodendra Craven & J.W.Dawson (as C. gnidioides (Brongn. & Gris) Guillaumin)
Tree in bloom in Florida.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Callistemon.|
|Wikispecies has information related to: Callistemon|
- "Genus: Callistemon R. Br.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2009-01-27. Retrieved 2010-04-21.
- Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
- Brown, Robert. 1814. Voyage to Terra Australis 2(App. 3): 547
- Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
- "Callistemon brevisepalus". Australian Plant Name Index (APNI), IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government.
- "Callistemon buseanus". Australian Plant Name Index (APNI), IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government.
- "Callistemon suberosus". Australian Plant Name Index (APNI), IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government.
- "Callistemon pancheri". Australian Plant Name Index (APNI), IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government.
- "Callistemon gnidioides". Australian Plant Name Index (APNI), IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government.