Callose

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Callose is a plant polysaccharide. It is composed of glucose residues linked together through β-1,3-linkages, and is termed a β-glucan. It is thought to be manufactured at the cell wall by callose synthases and is degraded by β-1,3-glucanases. It is laid down at plasmodesmata, at the cell plate during cytokinesis and during pollen development. It is produced in response to wounding, infection by pathogens.,[1] aluminium and abscisic acid. Deposits often appear on the sieve plates at the end of the growing season.[2] Callose also forms immediately around the developing meiocytes and tetrads of sexually reproducing angiosperms but is not found in related apomictic taxa.[3] Callose deposition at the cell wall has been suggested as an early marker for direct somatic embryogenesis from cortical and epidermal cells of Cichorium hybrids.[4]

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  1. ^ Nowicki, Marcin et al. (15 May 2013), A simple dual stain for detailed investigations of plant-fungal pathogen interactions, Vegetable Crops Research bulleting, InHort & Versita, doi:10.2478/v10032-012-0016-z, retrieved 2013-08-05 
  2. ^ Bell, Peter and Hemsley, Alan (2000) Green Plants: Their Origin and Diversity(2nd ed.) ISBN 0-521-64109-8
  3. ^ Carman J.G., Crane C.F., Riera-Lizarazu O. 1991. Comparative Histology of Cell Walls during Meiotic and Apomeiotic Megasporogenesis in Two Hexaploid Australasian Elymus Species. Crop Science 31:1527-1532
  4. ^ Dubois et al. (1990) Direct Somatic Embryogenesis in Roots of Cichorium: Is Callose and Early Marker? Annals of Botany 65:539-545