Calophyllum inophyllum

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Not to be confused with Danae racemosa, also known as Alexandrian laurel
Calophyllum inophyllum
Starr 010309-0546 Calophyllum inophyllum.jpg
Calophyllum inophyllum flower
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Calophyllaceae
Genus: Calophyllum
Species: C. inophyllum
Binomial name
Calophyllum inophyllum
L.[1]

Calophyllum inophyllum is a large evergreen, commonly called Alexandrian laurel[1][2] balltree,[1] beach calophyllum,[1] beach touriga,[1] beautyleaf,[1] Borneo-mahogany,[1] Indian doomba oiltree,[1] Indian-laurel,[1] laurelwood,[1] red poon,[3] satin touriga,[1] and tacamahac-tree.[1] It is native from East Africa, southern coastal India to Malesia and Australia.

Foreign Names[edit]

Because it is not native to Europe, and has traditional uses in many other countries, Calophyllum inophyllum is commonly known in English by some of its many foreign names, which include (in rough order of commonality):

• Nabangura (in Vanuatu)

Description[edit]

Calophyllum inophyllum is a low-branching and slow-growing tree with a broad and irregular crown. It usually reaches 8 to 20 metres (26 to 66 ft) in height. The flower is 25 millimetres (0.98 in) wide and occurs in racemose or paniculate inflorescences consisting of 4 to 15 flowers. Flowering can occur year-round, but usually two distinct flowering periods are observed, in late spring and in late autumn. The fruit (the ballnut) is a round, green drupe reaching 2 to 4 centimetres (0.79 to 1.57 in) in diameter and having a single large seed. When ripe, the fruit is wrinkled and its color varies from yellow to brownish-red.

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Calophyllum inophyllum is native to Africa in: Comoros; Kenya; Madagascar; Mauritius; Mozambique; Seychelles; Tanzania (including Pemba Island of the Zanzibar Archipelago); south, southeast and east Asia in: Burma; Cambodia; China (on Hainan); southern India; Indonesia; Japan (Ryukyu Islands); Malaysia; Papua New Guinea; the Philippines; Sri Lanka; Taiwan; Thailand; Vietnam; the northwestern, southwestern and south central Pacific Region in: the Cook Islands; Fiji; French Polynesia (Marquesas and Society Islands); Guam; the Marshall Islands; Micronesia; the Northern Mariana Islands; Palau; and Samoa; and in Australia in: Northern Territory and Queensland.[1]

Nowadays it is widely cultivated in all tropical regions of the world.[1] Because of its decorative leaves, fragrant flowers and spreading crown, it is best known as an ornamental plant.[1]

This tree often grows in coastal regions as well as nearby lowland forests. However it has also been cultivated successfully in inland areas at moderate altitudes. It tolerates varied kinds of soil, coastal sand, clay or even degraded soil.[citation needed]

Uses[edit]

Besides being a popular ornamental plant, its wood is hard and strong and has been used in construction or boatbuilding. Traditional Pacific Islanders used Calophyllum wood to construct the keel of their canoes while the boat sides were made from breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) wood.

The seeds yield a thick, dark green tamanu oil for medicinal use or hair grease. Active ingredients in the oil are believed to regenerate tissue, so is sought after by cosmetics manufacturers as an ingredient in skin cremes. The nuts should be well dried before cracking, after which the oil-laden kernel should be further dried. The first neoflavone isolated in 1951 from natural sources was calophyllolide from Calophyllum inophyllum seeds.[4]

The leaves are also used for skin care in Papua New Guinea, New Caledonia, and Samoa. In Fiji and Lingua the leaves are also soaked in water and used for eye inflammations.

In Cambodia, the leaves are inhaled as a treatment for migraines and vertigo.

The bark can be used as a treatment for disease-affected plants. The Mavilan, a Tulu-speaking tribe in north Kerala in India, use the Calophyllum inophyllum bark to make a powder that they mix with water and apply it on plants affected by a type of plant disease caused by water that they call neeru vembu.[5]

The sap of the tree is poisonous and is used to make poison arrows in Samoa. The mature fruit is poisonous enough to use as rat bait.

The fatty acid methyl ester of Calophyllum inophyllum seed oil meets the major biodiesel requirements in the United States (ASTM D 6751), and European Union (EN 14214). The average oil yield is 11.7 kg-oil/tree or 4680 kg-oil/hectare

The tree is regarded as sacred in some Pacific islands because of its excellent growth in sandy soil as shade tree and many uses.

In the northwest coastal areas of Luzon island in Philippines, the oil was used for night lamps. It creates a relaxing aroma. This widespread use started to decline when kerosene became available, and later on electricity.

It was also used as fuel to generate electricity to provide power for radios during World War II.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o  Calophyllum inophyllum was first described and published in Species Plantarum 1:513. 1753. GRIN (March 8, 2012). "Calophyllum inophyllum information from NPGS/GRIN". Taxonomy for Plants. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland: USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Retrieved April 26, 2012. "---" 
  2. ^ Mabberley, D.J. (1997). The plant book: A portable dictionary of the vascular plants. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 
  3. ^ Kathirithamby-Wells, J. (2005). Nature and nation: Forests and Development in Peninsular Malaysia. University of Hawaii Press. p. xvi,34. 
  4. ^ Neoflavones. 1. Natural Distribution and Spectral and Biological Properties. M. M. Garazd, Ya. L. Garazd and V. P. Khilya, Chemistry of Natural Compounds, Volume 39, Number 1 / janvier 2003.
  5. ^ Suresh, K. P. (2010). Indigenous Agricultural Practices among Mavilan Tribe in North Kerala.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]