|Calophyllum inophyllum flower|
Calophyllum inophyllum is a large evergreen, commonly called Alexandrian laurel balltree, beach calophyllum, beach touriga, beautyleaf, Borneo-mahogany, Indian doomba oiltree, Indian-laurel, laurelwood, red poon, satin touriga, and tacamahac-tree. It is native from East Africa, southern coastal India to Malesia and Australia.
Because it is not native to Europe, and has traditional uses in many other countries, Calophyllum inophyllum is commonly known in English by some of its many foreign names, which include:
- beauty leaf in Australia
- bitangor or penaga (in Malaysia)
- bitangor or nyamplung (in Indonesia)
- bitaog or palo maria (in The Philippines)
- btaches (in Palau), biyuch (in Yap), rekich (in Chuuk)
- canoe tree in Andaman Islands
- daok or daog (in Guam)
- dilo or dimanu (in Fiji)
- domba (in Sri Lanka)
- fetau (in Samoa), or fetaʻu (in Tonga)
- foraha or vintanina (in Madagascar)
- funa (in Maldives)
- galaba or galba in West Indies
- gwarogwaro, guoria, oleole, or ba'ula in Solomon Islands
- island cedar, kalofilium, or bush calophyllum in Papua New Guinea
- kamani or kamanu (in Hawaii)
- mtondoo (in Tanzania))
- mù u or cong (in Vietnam)
- nabangura (in Vanuatu)
- ph’ông, ponnyet (in Burma)
- pinnai, pinnay, punnai, punna, punnaga, or punnang (in India)
- poon (in English, from India, see punna above)
- poon in Myanmar
- sura honne (in India) - shortened (confusingly) to honne when using the plant for biodiesel
- takamaka (in France, Seychelles, and Mascarene Islands), takamaka bord de mer (in Réunion), tacamahac - originally a Mexican word, ambiguously used to refer to this and other medicinal trees
- tamanu (tāmanu) (in Tahiti and Cook Islands)
- undi (in India)
Calophyllum inophyllum is a low-branching and slow-growing tree with a broad and irregular crown. It usually reaches 8 to 20 metres (26 to 66 ft) in height. The flower is 25 millimetres (0.98 in) wide and occurs in racemose or paniculate inflorescences consisting of 4 to 15 flowers. Flowering can occur year-round, but usually two distinct flowering periods are observed, in late spring and in late autumn. The fruit (the ballnut) is a round, green drupe reaching 2 to 4 centimetres (0.79 to 1.57 in) in diameter and having a single large seed. When ripe, the fruit is wrinkled and its color varies from yellow to brownish-red.
Distribution and habitat
Calophyllum inophyllum is native to Africa in: Comoros; Kenya; Madagascar; Mauritius; Mozambique; Seychelles; Tanzania (including Pemba Island of the Zanzibar Archipelago); south, southeast and east Asia in: Burma; Cambodia; China (on Hainan); southern India; Indonesia; Japan (Ryukyu Islands); Malaysia; Papua New Guinea; the Philippines; Sri Lanka; Taiwan; Thailand; Vietnam; the northwestern, southwestern and south central Pacific Region in: the Cook Islands; Fiji; French Polynesia (Marquesas and Society Islands); Guam; the Marshall Islands; Micronesia; the Northern Mariana Islands; Palau; and Samoa; and in Australia in: Northern Territory and Queensland.
This tree often grows in coastal regions as well as nearby lowland forests. However it has also been cultivated successfully in inland areas at moderate altitudes. It tolerates varied kinds of soil, coastal sand, clay or even degraded soil.
Besides being a popular ornamental plant, its wood is hard and strong and has been used in construction or boatbuilding. Traditional Pacific Islanders used Calophyllum wood to construct the keel of their canoes while the boat sides were made from breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) wood.
The seeds yield a thick, dark green tamanu oil for medicinal use or hair grease. Active ingredients in the oil are believed to regenerate tissue, so is sought after by cosmetics manufacturers as an ingredient in skin cremes. The nuts should be well dried before cracking, after which the oil-laden kernel should be further dried. The first neoflavone isolated in 1951 from natural sources was calophyllolide from Calophyllum inophyllum seeds.
The bark can be used as a treatment for disease-affected plants. The Mavilan, a Tulu-speaking tribe in north Kerala in India, use the Calophyllum inophyllum bark to make a powder that they mix with water and apply it on plants affected by a type of plant disease caused by water that they call neeru vembu.
The sap of the tree is poisonous and is used to make poison arrows in Samoa. The mature fruit is poisonous enough to use as rat bait.
The fatty acid methyl ester of Calophyllum inophyllum seed oil meets the major biodiesel requirements in the United States (ASTM D 6751), and European Union (EN 14214). The average oil yield is 11.7 kg-oil/tree or 4680 kg-oil/hectare
The tree is regarded as sacred in some Pacific islands because of its excellent growth in sandy soil as shade tree and many uses.
In the northwest coastal areas of Luzon island in Philippines, the oil was used for night lamps. It creates a relaxing aroma. This widespread use started to decline when kerosene became available, and later on electricity.
It was also used as fuel to generate electricity to provide power for radios during World War II.
- Calophyllum inophyllum was first described and published in Species Plantarum 1:513. 1753. GRIN (March 8, 2012). "Calophyllum inophyllum information from NPGS/GRIN". Taxonomy for Plants. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland: USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Retrieved April 26, 2012.
- Mabberley, D.J. (1997). The plant book: A portable dictionary of the vascular plants. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Kathirithamby-Wells, J. (2005). Nature and nation: Forests and Development in Peninsular Malaysia. University of Hawaii Press. p. xvi,34.
- Royston Ellis (2005). Maldives: The Bradt Travel Guide. Bradt Travel Guides. pp. 11–. ISBN 978-1-84162-143-2.
- Neoflavones. 1. Natural Distribution and Spectral and Biological Properties. M. M. Garazd, Ya. L. Garazd and V. P. Khilya, Chemistry of Natural Compounds, Volume 39, Number 1 / janvier 2003.
- Suresh, K. P. (2010). Indigenous Agricultural Practices among Mavilan Tribe in North Kerala.
- Stevens (1998). Calophyllum inophyllum. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 12 May 2006.
- Prospects and potential of fatty acid methyl esters of some non-traditional seed oils for use as biodiesel in India
- Dressler, S.; Schmidt, M. & Zizka, G. (2014). "Calophyllum inophyllum". African plants – a Photo Guide. Frankfurt/Main: Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg.
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