Calvin Graham

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Calvin Leon Graham
Calvin Graham.jpg
Seaman First Class Calvin Graham in 1942
Born (1930-04-03)April 3, 1930
Canton, Texas
Died November 6, 1992(1992-11-06) (aged 62)
Fort Worth, Texas
Allegiance United States of America
Service/branch United States Navy
United States Marine Corps
Years of service 1942-1943, 1948-1951
Rank Seaman First Class - USN
Corporal - USMC[1]
Unit USS South Dakota
Battles/wars

World War II

Awards Bronze Star Medal with Combat "V"
Purple Heart Medal

Calvin Leon Graham (April 3, 1930–November 6, 1992) was the youngest U.S. serviceman to serve and fight during World War II.[2] Following the attack on Pearl Harbor, he enlisted in the United States Navy from Houston, Texas on August 15, 1942, at the age of 12.[3]

Biography[edit]

Graham was born in Fort Worth, Texas and was attending elementary school in Houston before he decided to join the Navy, after his father had died and his mother had remarried.[4]

US Navy, WWII[edit]

He enlisted in the Navy on August 15, 1942 (was sworn into the Navy) and was sent to "boot camp" in San Diego, California for three weeks, and afterwards was sent to Pearl Harbor at Oahu, Hawaii where he was assigned to the USS South Dakota in September.[5]

USS South Dakota[edit]

The South Dakota left Pearl harbor on October 16. On October 26, 1942, he participated in the Battle of Santa Cruz. The South Dakota and its crew received a Navy Unit Commendation for the action. On the night of November 14-15, 1942, Graham was wounded during the Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, he served as a loader for a 40 mm anti-aircraft gun and was hit by shrapnel while taking a hand message to an officer.[6][7]Though he received fragmentation wounds, he helped in "rescue duty", by aiding and pulling the wounded aboard ship to safety.[8] He was awarded the Bronze Star Medal, the Purple Heart Medal, and he and his crewmates were awarded another Navy Unit Commendation.

The South Dakota returned to the east coast on December 18, 1942 for an overhaul and battle damage repairs (it had taken 42 hits from at least 3 enemy ships) in New York, and since then, was named "Battleship X" in order to make the Japanese think she had been sunk. Graham's mother revealed his age after he attended his grandmother's funeral (he arrived the day after the funeral) in Texas without permission from the Navy, for which afterwards he spent three months in a brig in Texas (he was not released until after his sister threatened to contact the newspapers). Although he had tried to return to his ship, he was released from the Navy on April 1, 1943, and without any awards or benefits.[9][10][11] The South Dakota's gunnery officer, who was involved in handling his case, was Sargent Shriver.

He then worked in a defense plant as a welder instead of going back to school.[12]

US Marine Corps, 1948-51[edit]

Graham joined the United States Marine Corps in 1948 at age 17, but his enlistment in the Marines also ended early when he fell from a pier and broke his back in 1951.[13]Although serving in the Marine Corps qualified him as a veteran, he would spend the rest of his life fighting for full medical benefits and clearing his military service record.

Post military service[edit]

In 1978, he was finally given a honorable discharge for his service in the Navy, and after writing to Congress and with the approval of President Jimmy Carter, all medals except his Purple Heart Medal were reinstated. His story came to public attention in 1988, when his story was told in the TV movie, Too Young the Hero. He was played by Rick Schroder.[14]

In 1988, he received disability benefits and back pay for his service in the Navy after President Ronald Reagan signed legislation that granted Graham full disability benefits, increased his back pay to $4917 and allowed him $18,000 for past medical bills, contingent on receipts for the medical services.[14][15] By this time, some of the doctors who treated him had died and many medical bills were lost. He received only $2,100 of the possible $18,000. While the money for the rights to his story for the movie, Too Young The Hero amounted to $50,000, 50% went to two agents and 20% went to a writer of an unpublished book about Graham. He and his wife received just $15,000 before taxes.[16]

Death[edit]

His Purple Heart Medal was finally reinstated, and presented to his widow, Mary, on June 21, 1994, by Secretary of the Navy John Dalton in Arlington, Texas, nearly two years after his death from heart failure.[13][17]He was buried at Laurel Land Memorial Park in Fort Worth, Texas.[18]

Military awards[edit]

Graham's decorations and military awards —as finally settled circa 1994 after intervention by Presidents Jimmy Carter and Bill Clinton:

Bronze Star ribbon.svg

Purple Heart BAR.svg Navy Unit Commendation ribbon.svg American Campaign Medal ribbon.svg

Asiatic-Pacific Campaign ribbon.svg World War II Victory Medal ribbon.svg National Defense Service Medal ribbon.svg

1st row: Bronze Star Medal with Combat "V"
2nd row: Purple Heart Medal, Navy Unit Commendation, and American Campaign Medal
3rd row: Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal with two service stars, World War II Victory Medal, and National Defense Service Medal

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Veteran Tributes". Veteran Tributes. Retrieved 2012-03-10. 
  2. ^ Fontaine, Scott (November 18, 2008). "Meet the youngest surviving WWII veteran". Scripps News. Retrieved June 19, 2011. 
  3. ^ Veterans of Underage Military Service site [1] Retrieved Nov. 13, 2014
  4. ^ Grossman, Ron (June 17, 1994), Chicago Tribune article [2] Retrieved Nov. 15, 2014
  5. ^ Grossman, Ron (June 17, 1994), Chicago Tribune article [3] Retrieved Nov. 15, 2014
  6. ^ USS South Dakota Battleship, Stories, "At 12, I Fought The Japs" [4] Retrieved Nov. 13, 2014
  7. ^ King, Gilbert (December 19, 2012), "The Boy Who Became A World War II Veteran at 13 Years Old" [5] Smithsonian.com. Retrieved Nov. 11, 2014
  8. ^ USS South Dakota Battleship, Stories, "At 12, I Fought The Japs" [6] Retrieved Nov. 13, 2014
  9. ^ USS South Dakota Battleship, Stories, "At 12, I Fought The Japs" [7] Retrieved Nov. 13, 2014
  10. ^ Breyer, Rick (2005). The Greatest War Stories Never Told. New York: Collins. pp. 160–161. ISBN 0-06-076017-6. OCLC 58985926. 
  11. ^ Veteran of Underage Military Service [8] Retrieved Nov. 13, 2014
  12. ^ Grossman, Ron (June 17, 1994), Chicago Tribune article [9] Retrieved Nov. 15, 2014
  13. ^ a b Saxton, Michelle (November 3, 2003). "Decades later, military veterans admit being underage when they enlisted". Northwest Indiana Times. Retrieved 2011-04-03. 
  14. ^ a b Diane Diekman (November 1, 1995). "Navy Memorial". Clear Lake Courier. Retrieved 2011-04-03. 
  15. ^ Ronald Reagan (November 10, 1988). "Statement on Signing a Bill for the Relief of Calvin L. Graham". Retrieved 2011-04-03.  H.R. 610, "An Act Graham is a veteran of Navy and Marine for the relief of Calvin L. Graham, " assigned Private Law No. 100-44.
  16. ^ Veterans of Underage Military Service
  17. ^ Veterans of underage Military Service [10] Retrieved Nov. 13, 2014
  18. ^ Find A Grave [11]

External links[edit]