C. R. Rao
|C. R. Rao|
10 September 1920 |
Hadagali, Kingdom of Mysore,
|Residence||India, United Kingdom, United States|
|Fields||Mathematics and statistics|
|Institutions||Indian Statistical Institute
Penn State University
University at Buffalo, The State University of New York
|Alma mater||Andhra University
University of Calcutta
King's College, Cambridge
|Thesis||Statistical Problems of Biological Classifications (1948)|
|Doctoral advisor||Ronald Fisher|
|Known for||Cramér–Rao bound
|Notable awards||Padma Vibhushan
National Medal of Science (2001)
S. S. Bhatnagar Prize
Guy Medal (Silver 1965, Gold 2011)
Calyampudi Radhakrishna Rao, FRS known as C R Rao (born 10 September 1920) is an Indian-born, naturalized American, mathematician and statistician. He is currently professor emeritus at Penn State University and Research Professor at the University at Buffalo. Rao has been honoured by numerous colloquia, honorary degrees, and festschrifts and was awarded the US National Medal of Science in 2002. The American Statistical Association has described him as "a living legend whose work has influenced not just statistics, but has had far reaching implications for fields as varied as economics, genetics, anthropology, geology, national planning, demography, biometry, and medicine." The Times of India listed Rao as one of the top 10 Indian scientists of all time.
C R Rao was born in Hadagali, Karnataka, India into a Telugu Velama family. He received an M.Sc. in mathematics from Andhra University and an M.A. in statistics from Calcutta University in 1943. He was among the first few people in the world to hold a Master's degree in Statistics.
Rao worked at the Indian Statistical Institute and the Anthropological Museum in Cambridge before acquiring a Ph.D. degree at King's College in Cambridge University under R.A. Fisher in 1948, to which he added a Sc.D. degree, also from Cambridge, in 1965.
He held several important positions, as the Director of the Indian Statistical Institute, Jawaharlal Nehru Professor and National Professor in India, University Professor at the University of Pittsburgh and Eberly Professor and Chair of Statistics and Director of the Center for Multivariate Analysis at the Pennsylvania State University. As Head and later Director of the Research and Training School at the Indian Statistical Institute for a period of over 40 years, Rao developed research and training programs and produced several leaders in the field of Mathematics. On the basis of Dr. Rao's recommendation, the ASI (The Asian Statistical Institute) now known as Statistical Institute for Asia and Pacific was established in Tokyo to provide training to statisticians working in government and industrial organizations.
Among his best-known discoveries are the Cramér–Rao bound and the Rao–Blackwell theorem both related to the quality of estimators. Other areas he worked in include multivariate analysis, estimation theory, and differential geometry. His other contributions include the Fisher–Rao Theorem, Rao distance, and orthogonal arrays. He is the author of 14 books and has published over 400 journal publications.
Rao has received over 37 honorary doctoral degrees from universities in 19 countries around the world and numerous awards and medals for his contributions to statistics and science. He is a member of eight National Academies in India, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Italy. Rao was awarded the United States National Medal of Science, that nation's highest award for lifetime achievement in fields of scientific research, in June 2002. The latest addition to his collection of awards is the India Science Award for 2010, the highest honour conferred by the government of India in scientific domain. He has most recently been honoured with his 38th honorary doctorate by the university at Buffalo in 2013.
He has been the President of the International Statistical Institute, Institute of Mathematical Statistics (USA), and the International Biometric Society. He was inducted into the Hall of Fame of India's National Institution for Quality and Reliability (Chennai Branch) for his contribution to industrial statistics and the promotion of quality control programs in industries.
The Journal of Quantitative Economics published a special issue in Rao's honour in 1991. "Dr Rao is a very distinguished scientist and a highly eminent statistician of our time. His contributions to statistical theory and applications are well known, and many of his results, which bear his name, are included in the curriculum of courses in statistics at bachelor's and master's level all over the world. He is an inspiring teacher and has guided the research work of numerous students in all areas of statistics. His early work had greatly influenced the course of statistical research during the last four decades. One of the purposes of this special issue is to recognize Dr Rao's own contributions to econometrics and acknowledge his major role in the developmentof econometric researchin India."
Areas of research contributions
- Estimation theory
- Statistical inference and linear models
- Multivariate analysis
- Combinatorial design
- Orthogonal arrays
- Statistical genetics
- Generalized matrix inverses
- Functional equations
Awards and medals
- Guy Medal in Gold (2011) of the Royal Statistical Society
- India Science Award 2010 (the highest award in a scientific field presented by government of India)
- International Mahalanobis Prize (2003) of the International Statistical Institute
- Srinivasa Ramanujan Medal (2003) of the Indian National Science Academy
- President George W. Bush, on June 12, 2002, honoured him with the National Medal of Science, the highest award in U.S. in the scientific field, as a "prophet of new age" with the citation, "for his pioneering contributions to the foundations of statistical theory and multivariate statistical methodology and their applications, enriching the physical, biological, mathematical, economic and engineering sciences."
- Padma Vibhushan (2001) by the Government of India
- Mahalanobis Centenary Gold Medal (1993?) of the Indian Science Congress
- Wilks Memorial Award (1989) of the American Statistical Association
- Megnadh Saha Medal (1969) of the Indian National Science Academy
- Guy Medal in Silver (1965) of the Royal Statistical Society
- S. S. Bhatnagar Award (1963) of Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
- JC Bose Gold Medal of the Bose Institute
- Gold Medal of the University of Calcutta
- He was also awarded an honorary Doctor of Science by the University of Calcutta in 2003. Also honorary doctorates from a number of universities and institutes around the world.
In his honor
- The Pennsylvania State University has established C. R. and Bhargavi Rao Prize in Statistics,
- CR Rao Advanced Institute of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science
- National Award in Statistics established by Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI), Government of India.
- The road from IIIT Hyderabad passing along Central University of Hyderabad crossroads to Alind Factory, Lingampally is named as "Prof. C.R. Rao Road".
- "The Numberdars". The Times of India. 1 October 2011.
- "Statisticians in History: Calyampudi R. Rao". American Statistical Association.
- "C.R.Rao in News". C.R.Rao Advanced Institute of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science.
- "Profile". C.R.Rao Advanced Institute of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science.
- "Indian American C.R. Rao receives the RSS Guy Medal Award". Silicon India. 2 August 2011.
- "C.R. Rao Receives the India Science Award". Eberly College of Science, Penn State University. 19 October 2010.
- "The previous winners of the Award are Professor C.R. Rao (India) in 2003..." http://www.isi-web.org/component/content/article/43-about/about/588-2013-mahalanobis-international-award-in-statistics-announcement
- "Recipients of Honorary Degrees". University of Calcutta.
- "Road to be named after Prof. C.R. Rao". The Hindu. 10 September 2009. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
- Calyampudi Radhakrishnan Rao. University of Minnesota Morris
- Statisticians in History: Calyampudi R. Rao". American Statistical Association
- "Prof. C R Rao : An Eminent Statistician" By Bibhuprasad Mohapatra.Govt. of Odisha.
- C. R. Rao Advanced Institute of Mathematics, India
- Prof. Rao's page at Penn State
- Prof. Rao's page at the University at Buffalo
- ET Interviews: Professor C. R. Rao on the Econometric Theory page.
- Royal Society citation 1967
- Rao was awarded the Samuel S. Wilks Award in 1989
- C.R. Rao at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
For the Cramér–Rao inequality and the Rao–Blackwell theorem see the relevant entries on
Photograph of Rao with Harald Cramér in 1978
- C. R. Rao from the PORTRAITS OF STATISTICIANS
- President George Bush awarding Rao the National Medal of Science