A fried calzone from Apulia in southern Italy
|Place of origin||Italy|
|Main ingredient(s)||ricotta, mozzarella, salami/ham, parmesan/pecorino|
|Variations||tomato, provolone, anchovies, olives, onions, chards, minced meat, sausage, fish, cabbage|
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A calzone (//, US //, or //, UK //; Italian: [kalˈtsoːne], "stocking" or "trouser") is an Italian filled oven bread, originating in Naples, and shaped as a folded pizza.  It resembles a half-moon and is made of salted bread dough. A typical calzone is baked in oven and stuffed with salami or ham, mozzarella, ricotta and Parmesan or pecorino cheese, amalgamated with an egg.  Its regional variations include other ingredients that are normally associated with pizza toppings. Calzones of smaller dimension can also be fried in olive oil. 
Sandwich-sized calzones are often sold at Italian lunch counters or by street vendors because they are easy to eat while standing or walking. Fried versions typically filled with tomato and mozzarella, are made in Puglia and are called Panzerotti.
Somewhat related is the Sicilian cuddiruni or cudduruni pizza. This is stuffed with onions (or sometimes other vegetables such as potatoes or broccoli), anchovies, olives, cheese, mortadella: the rolled pizza dough is folded in two over the stuffing and the edge is braided, prior to frying.
In the United States
In the United States, calzones are characteristically made from pizza dough and stuffed with meats, cheeses, and vegetables. Traditional calzone dough consists of flour, yeast, olive oil, water, and salt. Calzones are similar to stromboli, but traditionally the two are distinct dishes.
As a rule, calzones are usually stuffed with cheeses such as ricotta, mozzarella, Parmesan, Provolone or a type of regional cheese. The dough is folded into a half-moon shape then sealed with an egg wash mixture, or formed into a spherical shape and baked or fried. After cooking, calzones might (depending on region) be served with marinara sauce or topped with a combination of garlic, olive oil, and parsley.
Scacciata is similar to a calzone but is filled with either broccoli, spinach, potatoes or onions, and sometimes sausage.
In Sweden, a Calzone is a folded pizza stuffed with tomato sauce, cheese and ham, while other names are used for ones with different stuffing.
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- Gosetti (1967), p.785
- "calzone | Jamie Oliver | Food | Recipes (UK)". Jamie Oliver. Retrieved 2012-11-07.
- MacKenzie, Shea (1995). The Pizza Gourmet. Garden City Park, N.Y.: Avery Pub. Group. pp. Preface iv. ISBN 089529656X.
- Annamaria Settanni McDonald. "Puglia panzarotti". Justapinch.com. Retrieved 2012-11-07.
- Gosetti Della Salda, Anna (1967). Le ricette regionali italiane (in Italian). Milano: Solares.