Macronaria

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Macronarians
Temporal range: Middle JurassicLate Cretaceous
Macronaria scrubbed enh.jpg
Several macronarian sauropods
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Dinosauria
Suborder: Sauropodomorpha
Clade: Neosauropoda
Clade: Macronaria
Wilson & Sereno, 1998

Macronaria is a clade of sauropod dinosaurs from the Middle Jurassic (Bathonian) to Late Cretaceous Periods of what are now North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa and Australia. The name means 'large nostrils' (from Greek makros 'big' + Latin nares 'nostrils'), in reference to the large nasal openings high on the head that probably supported fleshy resonating chambers. Macronaria consists of a single main group, Titanosauriformes, along with several more basal taxa. Titanosauriformes in turn contains the brachiosaurids and the titanosaurians and is one of the largest sauropod groups, which also contains some of the longest, tallest and most massive dinosaurs of all time.

Systematics[edit]

Taxonomy after Mannion et al. (2013)[1] and D'Emic (2012)[2] unless otherwise noted.

Phylogeny[edit]

The cladogram below follows José Luis Barco Rodríguez (2010).[8]

Macronaria 

Camarasaurus



Laurasiformes 

Galvesaurus




Phuwiangosaurus




Aragosaurus




Tastavinsaurus



Venenosaurus






Titanosauriformes 

Brachiosaurus




Euhelopus



Titanosauria






The cladogram below follows José L. Carballido, Oliver W. M. Rauhut, Diego Pol and Leonardo Salgado (2011).[9]

Camarasauromorpha 

Camarasaurus




Europasaurus





Galvesaurus



Tehuelchesaurus






Janenschia



Tastavinsaurus





Euhelopus





Chubutisaurus



Wintonotitan



Titanosauriformes 

Brachiosauridae




Phuwiangosaurus



Titanosauria










Simplified cladogram of Macronaria after D'Emic (2012).[2]

Macronaria 

Camarasaurus




Tehuelchesaurus


Titanosauriformes 

Brachiosauridae


Somphospondyli 

Euhelopodidae



Chubutisaurus



Titanosauria






For alternative cladogramas see also Mateus et al. (2011),[10] Mannion et al. (2013).[11]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b P. D. Mannion, P. Upchurch, R. N. Barnes and O. Mateus. 2013. Osteology of the Late Jurassic Portuguese sauropod dinosaur Lusotitan atalaiensis (Macronaria) and the evolutionary history of basal titanosauriforms. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 168:98-206
  2. ^ a b D'Emic, M. D. (2012). "The early evolution of titanosauriform sauropod dinosaurs". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 166 (3): 624–671. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2012.00853.x. 
  3. ^ P. Upchurch, P. M. Barrett, and P. Dodson. 2004. Sauropoda. In D. B. Weishampel, H. Osmolska, and P. Dodson (eds.), The Dinosauria (2nd edition). University of California Press, Berkeley 259-322
  4. ^ Mocho, P., Royo‐Torres, R., & Ortega, F. (2014). Phylogenetic reassessment of Lourinhasaurus alenquerensis, a basal Macronaria (Sauropoda) from the Upper Jurassic of Portugal. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 170(4), 875-916.
  5. ^ Paul M. Barrett, Roger B.J. Benson and Paul Upchurch (2010). "Dinosaurs of Dorset: Part II, the sauropod dinosaurs (Saurischia, Sauropoda) with additional comments on the theropods". Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society 131: 113–126. 
  6. ^ P. D. Mannion. 2010. A revision of the sauropod dinosaur genus 'Bothriospondylus' with a redescription of the type material of the Middle Jurassic form 'B. madagascariensis. Palaeontology 53(2):277-296
  7. ^ a b c d Lü, J.; Xu, L.; Pu, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Jia, S.; Chang, H.; Zhang, J. et al. (2013). "A new sauropod dinosaur (Dinosauria, Sauropoda) from the late Early Cretaceous of the Ruyang Basin (central China)". Cretaceous Research.
  8. ^ José Luis Barco Rodríguez (2010). "Implicaciones filogenéticas y paleobiogeográficas del saurópodo Galvesaurus herreroi Barco, Canudo, Cuenca-Bescós y Ruiz-Omeñaca 2005". 
  9. ^ José L. Carballido, Oliver W. M. Rauhut, Diego Pol and Leonardo Salgado (2011). "Osteology and phylogenetic relationships of Tehuelchesaurus benitezii (Dinosauria, Sauropoda) from the Upper Jurassic of Patagonia". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 163 (2): 605–662. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2011.00723.x. 
  10. ^ Mateus, O., Jacobs, L. L., Schulp, A. S., Polcyn, M. J., Tavares, T. S., Buta Neto, A., ... & Antunes, M. T. (2011). Angolatitan adamastor, a new sauropod dinosaur and the first record from Angola. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 83(1), 221-233.
  11. ^ Mannion, P. D., Upchurch, P., Barnes, R. N., & Mateus, O. (2013). Osteology of the Late Jurassic Portuguese sauropod dinosaur Lusotitan atalaiensis (Macronaria) and the evolutionary history of basal titanosauriforms. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 168(1), 98-206.