Cambodian general election, 2003

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Cambodian general election, 2003
Cambodia
1998 ←
27 July 2003 → 2008

All 123 seats to the National Assembly
62 seats were needed for a majority
  First party Second party Third party
  Hun Sen 2012.jpg Sam Rainsy holding CNRP flag.jpg Norodom Ranariddh (2014).jpg
Leader Hun Sen Sam Rainsy Norodom Ranariddh
Party CPP SRP FUNCINPEC
Last election 64 15 43
Seats won 73 24 26
Seat change Increase9 Increase9 Decrease17
Popular vote 2,447,259 1,130,423 1,072,313
Percentage 47.3% 21.9% 20.8%

Cambodian National Assembly composition, 2003-2008.svg

Composition of the third National Assembly of Cambodia.

Prime Minister before election

Hun Sen
CPP

Elected Prime Minister

Hun Sen
CPP

Coat of arms of Cambodia.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Cambodia
Foreign relations

General elections were held in Cambodia on 27 July 2003 to elect members of the National Assembly. The election was won by the incumbent Prime Minister Hun Sen's Cambodian People's Party, who claimed a majority of 73 seats in the 123-seat parliament. However due to the requirement for a two-thirds majority to elect a Prime Minister, a new government was not formed until July 2004 when a deal was reached with the Funcinpec party.

Background[edit]

Cambodia became a democracy in the early 1990s with the first democratic election held in 1993.[1] After both elections during the 1990s the Cambodian People's Party formed coalition governments with the royalist Funcinpec party.[1] The last election in 1998 saw significant amounts of violence and intimidation of opposition supporters.[2] It took place a year after Funcinpec had been violently ousted from the coalition government by the Cambodian People's Party.[3] However following the election they once more formed a coalition with Hun Sen as Prime Minister and Funcinpec's leader Prince Norodom Ranarridh, the son of King Norodom Sihanouk, as his deputy.[1]

In local elections in 2002 the Cambodian People's Party performed strongly leading in 1,597 of the 1,621 communes of Cambodia.[4] Meanwhile the Funcinpec party suffered a setback dropping to only 22% of the vote.[4]

Campaign[edit]

The run-up to the election saw some violence including the killing of a judge and a royalist politician,[5] however it was much reduced from previous elections.[6] During the campaign the United States Secretary of State Colin Powell visited Cambodia, met all three main party leaders and called on all parties to have fair coverage in the media.[1] The opposition were able to get some time on television during the campaign,[4] but there were many reports in rural areas of voters being intimidated by the Cambodian People's Party.[7] In total 22 parties contested the election but only three were seen as real contenders in the election.[8]

The Cambodian People's Party had control of much of the media in Cambodia, the most money and a superior party machine.[2] The party campaigned on the economic development they said that they were bringing to Camdodia and in the March before the election they announced a 1.5 billion dollar program to counter poverty.[2] The party and their leader Hun Sen won support from voters due to their presiding over the most peaceful period in the countries recent history after ending the rule of the Khmer Rouge.[4] The party had the strongest support in rural areas of Cambodia, but younger voters in urban areas were more desirous of change and therefore supportive of the opposition.[9]

The two main opposition parties criticised the government of Hun Sen for its corruption and pledged to improve health and education in Cambodia.[8] Funcinpec called for reform of the economy and for more foreign investment, but their leader, Norodom Ranariddh, was seen as being ineffective and his party's popularity was in decline.[2][8] Meanwhile the Sam Rainsy Party criticised corruption, pledged more money for health, education and civil servant pay and attempted to attract the poor.[8] The party had grown in strength since the previous election but their leader Sam Rainsy was seen as being authoritarian.[2]

Results[edit]

Voter turnout in the election was high with over 80% casting ballots.[10] The results saw the Cambodian People's Party win a clear majority of seats but fell short of the two-thirds majority required in order to elect a Prime Minister on their own.[11] Funcinpec lost ground dropping from the 31% they had won in 1998 to only just over 20% this time, while the Sam Rainsy Party rose to 22% from 14% in 1998.[12]

e • d Summary of the 27 July 2003 National Assembly election results
Party Votes % Seats
Cambodian People's Party 2,447,259 47.3%
 
73
Sam Rainsy Party 1,130,423 21.9%
 
24
FUNCINPEC 1,072,313 20.8%
 
26
Khmer Democratic Party 95,927 1.9%
 
The Rice Party 76,086 1.5%
 
Indra Buddra Party 62,338 1.2%
 
Proloung Khmer Party 56,010 1.1%
 
Total (turnout 81.5%) 5,168,837 123
Sources:www.necelect.org.kh

Elected Members of Parliament[edit]

Province Representative Party
Banteay Meanchey Province Yim Chhaily Cambodian People's Party
Banteay Meanchey Province Vong Kan Cambodian People's Party
Banteay Meanchey Province Pal Sam Oeun Cambodian People's Party
Banteay Meanchey Province Try Chheang Huot Cambodian People's Party
Banteay Meanchey Province Kimsour Phirith Sam Rainsy Party
Banteay Meanchey Province Nheb Bunchin Funcinpec
Battambang Province Sar Kheng Cambodian People's Party
Battambang Province Nim Thot Cambodian People's Party
Battambang Province Ngin Khorn Cambodian People's Party
Battambang Province Ly Kim Leang Cambodian People's Party
Battambang Province Dul Koeun Cambodian People's Party
Battambang Province Eng Chhai Eang Sam Rainsy Party
Battambang Province Toan Vanthara Sam Rainsy Party
Battambang Province Nhek Bunchhai Funcinpec
Kampong Cham Province Heng Samrin Cambodian People's Party
Kampong Cham Province Math Ly Cambodian People's Party
Kampong Cham Province Hor Nam Hong Cambodian People's Party
Kampong Cham Province Chhor Leang Huot Cambodian People's Party
Kampong Cham Province Khiev Kanharith Cambodian People's Party
Kampong Cham Province Im Sothy Cambodian People's Party
Kampong Cham Province Yos Son Cambodian People's Party
Kampong Cham Province Ith Prang Cambodian People's Party
Kampong Cham Province N. Ranariddh Funcinpec
Kampong Cham Province You Hokry Funcinpec
Kampong Cham Province Chhim Siek Leng Funcinpec
Kampong Cham Province Kong Vibol Funcinpec
Kampong Cham Province Monh Saphan Funcinpec
Kampong Cham Province Sam Rainsy Sam Rainsy Party
Kampong Cham Province Mao Monyvann Sam Rainsy Party
Kampong Cham Province Thak Lany Sam Rainsy Party
Kampong Cham Province Cheam Channy Sam Rainsy Party
Kampong Cham Province Amath Yashya Sam Rainsy Party
Kampong Chhnang Province Kong Sam Ol Cambodian People's Party
Kampong Chhnang Province Uk Rabun Cambodian People's Party
Kampong Chhnang Province Tram Iv Teuk Cambodian People's Party
Kampong Chhnang Province Sok San Funcinpec
Kampong Speu Province Say Chhum Cambodian People's Party
Kampong Speu Province Hem Khorn Cambodian People's Party
Kampong Speu Province Ly Son Cambodian People's Party
Kampong Speu Province Samrith Pech Cambodian People's Party
Kampong Speu Province Nuth Rumdoul Sam Rainsy Party
Kampong Speu Province Leu Laysreng Funcinpec
Kampong Thom Province Nguon Nhel Cambodian People's Party
Kampong Thom Province Un Neung Cambodian People's Party
Kampong Thom Province Thong Khon Cambodian People's Party
Kampong Thom Province Poa Try Cambodian People's Party
Kampong Thom Province Sok Pheng Sam Rainsy Party
Kampong Thom Province Poa Bun Sreu Funcinpec
Kampot Province Ney Pena Cambodian People's Party
Kampot Province Chay Saing Yun Cambodian People's Party
Kampot Province Som Kimsuor Cambodian People's Party
Kampot Province Than Sina Funcinpec
Kampot Province Mam Bun Neang Funcinpec
Kampot Province Kieng Vang Sam Rainsy Party
Kandal Province Hun Sen Cambodian People's Party
Kandal Province Tep Ngorn Cambodian People's Party
Kandal Province Chhay Than Cambodian People's Party
Kandal Province Mom Chim Huy Cambodian People's Party
Kandal Province Ho Non Cambodian People's Party
Kandal Province Chan Cheng Sam Rainsy Party
Kandal Province Chrea Sochenda Sam Rainsy Party
Kandal Province Ngor Sovann Sam Rainsy Party
Kandal Province N. Sereyvouth Funcinpec
Kandal Province Hong Sun Huot Funcinpec
Kandal Province Sun Chan Thol Funcinpec
Koh Kong Province Ay Khorn Cambodian People's Party
Kratie Province Im Chhun Lim Cambodian People's Party
Kratie Province Chhan Saphan Cambodian People's Party
Kratie Province Princess N. Ratanatevy Funcinpec
Mondulkiri Province Rath Sarem Cambodian People's Party
Phnom Penh Municipality Choulong Somora Sam Rainsy Party
Phnom Penh Municipality Yim Sovann Sam Rainsy Party
Phnom Penh Municipality Son Chhay Sam Rainsy Party
Phnom Penh Municipality Keo Remy Sam Rainsy Party
Phnom Penh Municipality Ho Vann Sam Rainsy Party
Phnom Penh Municipality Sok Soty Sam Rainsy Party
Phnom Penh Municipality Chea Sim Cambodian People's Party
Phnom Penh Municipality Sim Ka Cambodian People's Party
Phnom Penh Municipality Keat Chhon Cambodian People's Party
Phnom Penh Municipality Um Nhanh Cambodian People's Party
Phnom Penh Municipality N. Vichora Funcinpec
Phnom Penh Municipality Khy Taing Lim Funcinpec
Preah Vihear Province Suk Sam Eng Cambodian People's Party
Prey Veng Province Chea Soth Cambodian People's Party
Prey Veng Province Nhim Vanda Cambodian People's Party
Prey Veng Province Cheam Yeab Cambodian People's Party
Prey Veng Province Ek Sam Ol Cambodian People's Party
Prey Veng Province Pen Panha Cambodian People's Party
Prey Veng Province Min Sean Cambodian People's Party
Prey Veng Province Veng Sereyvuth Funcinpec
Prey Veng Province Kuoch Ky Funcinpec
Prey Veng Province Princess Sisowath Santha Funcinpec
Prey Veng Province Chea Poch Sam Rainsy Party
Prey Veng Province Khim Veasna Sam Rainsy Party
Pursat Province Suy Sem Cambodian People's Party
Pursat Province Chin Bun Sean Cambodian People's Party
Pursat Province Mey Norn Cambodian People's Party
Pursat Province Ly Thuch Funcinpec
Ratanakiri Province Bou Thang Cambodian People's Party
Siem Reap Province Tea Banh Cambodian People's Party
Siem Reap Province Cham Prasith Cambodian People's Party
Siem Reap Province Sieng Nam Cambodian People's Party
Siem Reap Province Keo Saphal Cambodian People's Party
Siem Reap Province Pou Sohtireak Funcinpec
Siem Reap Province Ker Sonarorth Sam Rainsy Party
Sihanoukville Municipality Suos Kanan Cambodian People's Party
Stung Treng Province Sorn Inthor Cambodian People's Party
Svay Rieng Province Men Sam Orn Cambodian People's Party
Svay Rieng Province Him Chhem Cambodian People's Party
Svay Rieng Province Hul Savorn Cambodian People's Party
Svay Rieng Province Duong Vanna Cambodian People's Party
Svay Rieng Province Khun Haing Funcinpec
Takeo Province Sok An Cambodian People's Party
Takeo Province So Khun Cambodian People's Party
Takeo Province Mok Mareth Cambodian People's Party
Takeo Province Chan Sarun Cambodian People's Party
Takeo Province Nin Saphon Cambodian People's Party
Takeo Province Keo Saphal Funcinpec
Takeo Province Khek Vandy Funcinpec
Takeo Province Kuoy Bun Reun Sam Rainsy Party
Keb Municipality Kea Sahorn Cambodian People's Party
Pailin Municipality Y Chhean Cambodian People's Party
Uddar Meanchey Province Nou Sam Cambodian People's Party

Source: "Election results". Cambodia National Election Committee. Accessed June 18, 2008.

Aftermath[edit]

Following the election Funcinpec and the Sam Rainsy Party refused to attend parliament and formed an "Alliance of Democrats" in order to block Hun Sen from being elected Prime Minister again.[13] They rejected the official results and said that they had been manipulated by the Cambodian People's Party.[11] After initially boycotting parliament the two parties were persuaded by the King to attend the swearing in at the end of September, but remained firm in rejecting joining a government led by Hun Sen.[14] However despite no government being formed, a caretaker administration run by Hun Sen and the Cambodian People's Party was able to continue.[14]

A provisional agreement was said to have been reached in November on a three party government led by Hun Sen but the opposition later denied this.[13] Personal dislike between the three parties and the opposition of the Cambodia People's Party to a three party government meant negotiations on forming a government dragged on into 2004.[13] Eventually, 11 months after the election,[15] towards the end of June 2004 the Cambodia People's Party and Funcinpec reached an agreement under which ministerial seats would be divided up 60-40 between them and Hun Sen would remain Prime Minister.[16] On the 15 July 2004 the Cambodian parliament finally approved the new government with 96 of the 123 members voting in favour.[17] There was a significant increase in the number of ministers to 207, including 7 deputy prime ministers and 180 cabinet ministers, in order to reach agreement on the new government.[15]

Literature[edit]

  • Sorpong Peou (2006), Consolidation or Crisis of Democracy?: Cambodia's Parliamentary Elections in 2003 and Beyond, Between Consolidation and Crisis: Elections and Democracy in Five Nations in Southeast Asia (Berlin: Lit): 41–83 

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Kazmin, Amy (2003-06-20). "Powell call over Cambodian poll media US OFFICIAL'S VISIT:". Financial Times. p. 10. 
  2. ^ a b c d e "Asia: Limousines and poverty; Cambodia". The Economist. 2003-06-07. p. 62. 
  3. ^ Spillius, Alex (2003-07-28). "Hun Sen on his way to poll win in Cambodia". The Daily Telegraph. p. 12. 
  4. ^ a b c d "Asia: Stronger and stronger; Cambodia's election". The Economist. 2003-07-26. p. 59. 
  5. ^ Madra, Ek (2003-04-24). "Senior Cambodian judge assassinated". The Independent. p. 16. 
  6. ^ Aglionby, John (2003-07-26). "Cambodia edges towards change". The Guardian. p. 17. 
  7. ^ Kazmin, Amy (2003-07-26). "Dark threats likely to keep Cambodia's ruling party in power". Financial Times. p. 5. 
  8. ^ a b c d "Cambodia Election Guide". BBC Online. 2003-07-25. Retrieved 2009-05-27. 
  9. ^ Kazmin, Amy (2003-07-22). "Cambodia's disenchanted young grow restless for a brighter future: Many are fervently hoping for a new government when this Sunday the country goes to its first poll since 1998, Amy Kazmin reports". Financial Times. p. 9. 
  10. ^ Aglionby, John (2003-07-28). "80% turnout for Cambodian vote". The Guardian. p. 10. 
  11. ^ a b Kazmin, Amy (2003-07-30). "Opposition rejects Hun Sen victory claim CAMBODIAN ELECTIONS:". Financial Times. p. 9. 
  12. ^ Kazmin, Amy (2003-07-31). "Cambodian prime minister rejects calls to step down". Financial Times. p. 9. 
  13. ^ a b c "Asia: Deadlock; Cambodia;". The Economist. 2004-02-21. p. 66. 
  14. ^ a b Kazmin, Amy (2003-09-29). "Cambodian parties boycott parliament over resignation call". Financial Times. p. 2. 
  15. ^ a b "Cambodian government faces uphill task". BBC Online. 2004-07-15. Retrieved 2009-05-27. 
  16. ^ Kazmin, Amy (2004-06-28). "Coalition deal in Cambodia ends 11-month post-election standoff". Financial Times. p. 2. 
  17. ^ "Cambodian parliament ends deadlock". BBC Online. 2004-07-15. Retrieved 2009-05-26.