Cambria is the classical name for Wales, being the Latinised form of the Welsh name Cymru (Wales). The etymology of Cymry "the Welsh", Cimbri, and Cwmry "Cumbria", improbably connected to the Biblical Gomer and the "Cimmerians" by 17th-century celticists, is now known to come from Old Welsh combrog "compatriot; Welshman", from the root *brogi "country"; "territory" (cf. Welsh, Cornish, Breton bro "territory"; "country"), itself from *mrogi (cf. Old Irish mruig, gen. mroga "country"), deriving from an old Brythonic word *com-brogi or Proto-Brythonic *kom-brogos, meaning "fellow countryman"; "compatriots", (as a result of the struggle with the Anglo-Saxons) possibly therefore related to its sister language Breton's keñvroad, keñvroiz, "comrade", "compatriot".
Cambria in legend
According to Geoffrey of Monmouth in the first part of his pseudohistory Historia Regum Britanniae, the Trojan Brutus had three sons among whom (having subdued Gogmagog) he divided his lands after landing in Britain. His elder son, Locrinus, received the land between the rivers Humber and Severn, which he called Loegria (a Latinization of the Welsh name Lloegr, "England"). His second son, Albanactus, got the lands beyond the Humber, which took from him the name of Albany (Yr Alban in Welsh: Scotland). The younger son, Camber, was bequeathed everything beyond the Severn, which was called after him "Cambria".
This legend was widely prevalent throughout the 12th–16th centuries.
The name "Cambria" lives on in much contemporary literature. It is also used in geology to denote the geologic period between around 542 million years and 488.3 million years ago; in 1835 the geologist Adam Sedgwick named this geological period the Cambrian, after studying rocks of that age in Wales.
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