Cambridge Bay

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Cambridge Bay
Iqaluktuuttiaq
ᐃᖃᓗᒃᑑᑦᑎᐊᖅ
Hamlet
Aerial view of Cambridge Bay looking north
Aerial view of Cambridge Bay looking north
Nickname(s): Cam Bay
Cambridge Bay is located in Nunavut
Cambridge Bay
Cambridge Bay
Coordinates: 69°07′02″N 105°03′11″W / 69.11722°N 105.05306°W / 69.11722; -105.05306Coordinates: 69°07′02″N 105°03′11″W / 69.11722°N 105.05306°W / 69.11722; -105.05306
Country Canada
Territory Nunavut
Region Kitikmeot Region
Electoral district Cambridge Bay
Settled 1921
Incorporated (hamlet) 1 April 1984
Government[1][2]
 • Mayor Jeannie Ehaloak
 • Senior Administrative Officer Stephen King
 • MLA Keith Peterson
Area[3][4]
 • Hamlet 202.20 km2 (78.07 sq mi)
 • Urban 0.49 km2 (0.19 sq mi)
Elevation[5] 31 m (102 ft)
Highest elevation 183 m (600 ft)
Lowest elevation 0 m (0 ft)
Population (2006)[3][4]
 • Hamlet 1,477
 • Density 7.3/km2 (19/sq mi)
 • Urban 1,147
 • Urban density 2,300/km2 (6,100/sq mi)
Time zone MST (UTC-7)
 • Summer (DST) MDT (UTC-6)
Canadian Postal code X0B 0C0
Area code(s) 867
Telephone Exchange 983
GNBC Code CAPHL
NTS Map 77D02
Website Official site

Cambridge Bay (Inuinnaqtun: Iqaluktuuttiaq Inuktitut: ᐃᖃᓗᒃᑑᑦᑎᐊᖅ; 2006 population 1,477;[3] UA population 1,147[4]) is a hamlet located on Victoria Island in the Kitikmeot Region of Nunavut, Canada. It is named for Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, while the traditional Inuinnaqtun name for the area is Ikaluktuutiak (old orthography) or Iqaluktuttiaq (new orthography) meaning "good fishing place".

The traditional language of the area is Inuinnaqtun and is written using the Latin alphabet rather than the syllabics of the Inuktitut writing system. Like Kugluktuk, Bathurst Inlet and Umingmaktok syllabics are rarely seen and used mainly by the Government of Nunavut.[6][7]

Cambridge Bay is the largest stop for passenger and research vessels traversing the Arctic Ocean's Northwest Passage,[8] a disputed area which the Government of Canada claims are Canadian Internal Waters, while other nations state they are either territorial waters or international waters.[9][10]

Location and population[edit]

View of the bay in front of the community, 2011

Situated between Dease Strait[11] and Queen Maud Gulf[12] on the southeast coast of Victoria Island (Kitlineq[13]), part of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago,[14] Cambridge Bay is a transportation and administrative centre for the Kitikmeot Region.[15] To the north of the community is Ferguson Lake (Inuinnaqtun: Tahiryuaq or Tahikyoak)[16] which flows into Wellington Bay via the Ekalluk River. The Ekalluk River is both an important commercial fishing and archaeological area,[17] and of particular importance is the short section of the river known as Iqaluktuuq.[18]

About 37 km (23 mi) west of the community lie the Finlayson Islands which were surveyed by Sir Richard Collinson on board the Enterprise during his search for Sir John Franklin's lost expedition.[19]

The area was a traditional hunting and fishing location and archaeological sites are often found. Barren-ground Caribou, muskox, Arctic char, lake trout and Ringed Seal were the primary, and remain important food sources. Situated east of Cambridge Bay is Ovayok Territorial Park, which includes the large esker known as Ovayok (Mount Pelly).[20]

As of the 2006 census the population was 1,477, an increase of 12.8% from the 2001 census.[3][21] The median age of the population is 26.3 and 69.3% of the people are over 15.[3] Both of these figures are slightly higher than the numbers for Nunavut as a whole (23.1 and 66.1%).[3] In 2006, 82.7% (Nunavut: 85.0%) of the population were listed as Aboriginal and 17.7% (Nunavut: 15%) as non-Aboriginal. Of the total population 78.9% (Nunavut: 84%) were Inuit, 1.7% (Nunavut: 0.4%) Métis and 1.4% (Nunavut: 0.3%) North American Indian.[22]

History[edit]

A Dorset culture stone longhouse near Cambridge Bay

The first known people to occupy the area were the Pre-Dorset people, somewhere around 1800 BCE, about 4,000 years ago, and were seal and caribou hunters.[23] The next group to enter the area were a Paleo-Eskimo peoples known as the Dorset, who arrived approximately 500 CE. They were the first known people to have fished for the Arctic char.[24] The last of the Paleo-Eskimo people, who appeared here about 800 CE, were the Tuniit, and evidence of their living quarters can be seen close to Cambridge Bay. The Tuniit, who were known to the Inuit as giants, were taller and stronger than the Inuit, but were easily scared off.[25][26]

The next group to arrive were the Thule people, ancestors of the modern Inuit, who arrived in the area around 1250 CE from present day Alaska. The Thule people built food cache and stone houses in the area and were noted for their sophisticated tools.[27] Although there is no positive evidence it is suspected that the Thule may have interacted with the Tuniit.[25]

About 500 years ago, around 1500 CE, the modern Inuit made an appearance. Like the Thule they made use of caches, hunted caribou and fished for char. They also hunted seal from the ice in winter and returned to the land in spring. They were also known to make use of inukhuk and built igluit.[28] Although they had no collective name, the various groups of Inuit that made use of native copper for tools have since become known as Copper Inuit and are the same people that Vilhjalmur Stefansson called the Blond Eskimos.[29][30] The main groups that lived or interacted in the Cambridge Bay area were the Ekalluktogmiut (Iqaluktuurmiutat[18] or Ikaluktuurmiut), Ahiagmiut (Ahiarmiut), the Killinirmuit and the Umingmuktogmiut.[31]

The first European to see it was Thomas Simpson (explorer) in 1839, followed by John Rae (explorer) in 1851. Richard Collinson wintered here in 1852/3. His ship came all the way from the Bering Strait. This was the furthest east of any large ship until Henry Larsen (explorer) in 1941. Cambridge Bay was the site of Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) and Hudson's Bay Company outposts established during the 1920s. Although at this point most Inuit would have continued the traditional lifestyle and only visited the area rather than live there permanently.[32] The HBC opened a post here in 1921, later than in most places, and built at the site now called the "old town".[12][32] In 1925 the HBC purchased the Maud, which they renamed the Baymaud, from the creditors of Arctic explorer, Roald Amundsen. The ship sailed to the Arctic in 1926 but it became stuck in the winter ice at Cambridge Bay. The ship was later anchored near the shore and used for various purposes including the first ever radio weather reports from the Arctic coast.[33] In 1930 the ship sank and, although some material was removed at the time, the ship is still visible.[33] There is a Norwegian plan to salvage the ship, possibly in 2013, and return it to Norway, which though initially denied an export permit, was granted on appeal.

In 1947 following World War II the Cambridge Bay LORAN Tower was built near the previous location of Cambridge Bay.[32] The construction of the LORAN tower involved hiring Inuit who, after the tower was complete, remained in the area.[32] In 1954 construction was completed on the Roman Catholic Church. The church, Cambridge Bay's first, was constructed from local material using seal oil and sand as mortar, and was used for services until the 1960s.[32][34] In 2006, a large portion of the church, which had been designated a heritage site by the Hamlet Council, was destroyed by a fire which the RCMP said was deliberate.[34][35]

The old stone church in 1998

A Distant Early Warning Line site was established in 1955 and about 200 Inuit were hired to help in the construction.[32] The military presence and the services and economy this represented acted as a magnet for Inuit who had previously used the area as a temporary site for meeting, hunting, fishing and trade, and a permanent community was soon established across the bay in its current location.[32] Unlike the majority of the DEW Line radar sites which were abandoned or automated, this site which changed in 1989, known as CAM-MAIN, remains a manned operation, with about 18 people, as part of the North Warning System.[36][37]

Originally part of the Fort Smith Region, Northwest Territories, Cambridge Bay became the administrative centre for the Kitikmeot Region, Northwest Territories, and remained so after the 1999 division of the Northwest Territories. In 1982 a division plebiscite was held. Although about 80% of the population then living in what is now Nunavut voted in favour of division, Cambridge Bay was one of only two communities to vote against division. Kugluktuk, then called Coppermine, was the other.[38]

High Arctic Research Station[edit]

Cambridge Bay will be the location of Canada's new High Arctic Research Station, as was announced by Prime Minister Harper on 24 August 2010. This station will be built as an integral part of Canada's Northern Strategy and serves political purposes, such as asserting Canada's sovereignty in the high north, as much as concrete research objectives. Cambridge Bay was chosen after a feasibility study that also included Pond Inlet and Resolute Bay as potential locations. It will be a year-round, multidisciplinary facility exploring the cutting-edge of Arctic science and technology issues; opening is foreseen in 2017. Total costs are as yet unknown, but pre-construction design alone is budgeted at 18 million (Canadian) dollars.[39][40]

Education[edit]

On the road to Mt Pelly, 2011
Cambridge Bay 1998

Several educational services are available, including daycare,[41] preschool, Kullik Elementary School, Killinik High School, and a public library[12] and museum located in the high school.[42] The community is also the regional centre for the Kitikmeot Campus of Nunavut Arctic College who oversee the Cambridge Bay Community Learning Centre. Courses range from Adult Basic Education to the Nunavut Teacher Education Program (NETP), which, in partnership with the University of Regina, is able to offer a Bachelor of Education.[43][44][45]

Land claims[edit]

The Kitikmeot Inuit Association, Nunavut Impact Review Board, and Nunavut Planning Commission have offices in Cambridge Bay, as well as the Lands and Resources Department of Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated.[46][47][48][49]

Religion[edit]

There are three churches in Cambridge Bay, St. George's Anglican Church, which is part of the Diocese of Arctic, Our Lady of the Arctic Roman Catholic Church, which is part of the Diocese of Mackenzie-Fort Smith and the Glad Tidings Pentecostal Church.[50][51][52]

Economy and infrastructure[edit]

There are several businesses in the community and these include a Northern Store which includes a Quick Stop, selling KFC and Pizza Hut products,[53] the Ikaluktutiak Co-operative, part of the Arctic Co-operatives Limited,[54] a branch of the Royal Bank of Canada[55] and a Canada Post postal service.[56] Other community businesses include Jago Services, plumbing and electrical,[57] Kitnuna, construction, mechanics shop, heating fuel and Kitikmeot Supplies, a hardware store,[58] Kalvik Enterprises and Nanook Woodworking, both construction companies[59][60] and Inukshuk Enterprises, a general contractor, who also operate a service garage[61]

There are three taxi services, one run by the Co-op, Go Cargo Taxi and Wolf Tracks Taxi.[62] There is a modern health centre in the community that opened in 2005 and in 2010 the birthing centre was opened.[63] There is a RCMP detachment in Cambridge Bay and the Kitikmeot Law Centre has its offices in the community.[64][65] There are two hotels, the Arctic Islands Lodge, run by the Co-op and the Green Row operated by Inukshuk Enterprises.[66][67]

Phone service is provided by Northwestel and with their subsidiary Latitude Wireless they also handle cell phone coverage.[68][69] Buildings in Cambridge Bay, like in most Nunavut communities, have water and sewage tanks that require regular services by truck. These services along with garbage pick-up are done by the Hamlet.[70]

Media[edit]

Radio[edit]

In addition to a community radio station, Cambridge Bay is served by two CBC Radio One transmitters, rebroadcasting the stations from both Iqaluit and Inuvik, Northwest Territories.

Television[edit]

  • Channel 9 – CBENT, CBC North went dark 31 July 2012[74]
  • Channel 51 is a local channel run by the Kitikmeot Inuit Association featuring local and territorial films, videos and documentaries.

Cable television is available from the local Co-op[54] and satellite television from either Shaw Direct or Bell TV.

Google Trike in Cambridge Bay, Nunavut, August 2012

Internet services[edit]

Transportation[edit]

DAL Aviation de Havilland Beaver

Although Cambridge Bay lies on the Northwest Passage there are no passenger ships other than tourist cruises. Northern Transportation Company Limited, owned by NorTerra, and Nunavut Sealink and Supply, owned by Arctic Co-operatives Limited, provide annual sealift to the community.[77][78]

The only passenger services are through the Cambridge Bay Airport from which daily air service to Yellowknife, and to the other Kitikmeot Region communities with Canadian North or First Air.[79][80]

Charter and MEDIVAC (air ambulance) services are provided by Aqsaqniq Airways of Taloyoak. Aqsaqniq Airways is a joint venture between Aqsaqniq Limited, an Inuit company and majority shareholder, and Yellowknife based company Air Tindi, the minority shareholder.[81][82][83] Former MEDIVAC operator Adlair Aviation still operates charters in the region. In the summer floatplane charters are provided by DAL Aviation from the Cambridge Bay Water Aerodrome.[84]

In 2012, the roads of Cambridge Bay were imaged for Google Street View by a tricycle fitted with a camera system.[85] While Cambridge Bay has no cars (only snowmobiles, ATVs and trucks), Google responded to a proposal by Cambridge Bay resident Chris Kalluk to include Arctic communities in Street View in order to educate the rest of the world.[85] Through Google Street View, one can even enter the indoor swimming pool and have a look around.

Climate[edit]

Main article: Climate of the Arctic

Cambridge Bay has a Polar climate, no month having an average temperature of 10 °C (50 °F) or higher, and is listed as Group E on the Köppen climate classification.[86]

Climate data for Cambridge Bay Airport
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high Humidex −5.0 −9.7 −4.1 3.9 10.5 25.3 30.8 28.6 16.3 5.8 −1.4 −3.5 30.8
Record high °C (°F) −4.9
(23.2)
−9.4
(15.1)
−4.0
(24.8)
6.1
(43)
11.5
(52.7)
23.3
(73.9)
28.9
(84)
26.1
(79)
16.4
(61.5)
6.9
(44.4)
0.0
(32)
−3.4
(25.9)
28.9
(84)
Average high °C (°F) −28.5
(−19.3)
−28.9
(−20)
−25.3
(−13.5)
−16.3
(2.7)
−5.6
(21.9)
5.8
(42.4)
12.8
(55)
9.8
(49.6)
2.5
(36.5)
−7.3
(18.9)
−18.8
(−1.8)
−24.9
(−12.8)
−10.4
(13.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) −32.0
(−25.6)
−32.5
(−26.5)
−29.3
(−20.7)
−20.8
(−5.4)
−9.3
(15.3)
2.7
(36.9)
8.9
(48)
6.8
(44.2)
0.3
(32.5)
−10.4
(13.3)
−22.3
(−8.1)
−28.3
(−18.9)
−13.9
(7)
Average low °C (°F) −35.4
(−31.7)
−36.1
(−33)
−33.2
(−27.8)
−25.3
(−13.5)
−13.0
(8.6)
−0.3
(31.5)
4.9
(40.8)
3.8
(38.8)
−1.9
(28.6)
−13.5
(7.7)
−25.7
(−14.3)
−31.8
(−25.2)
−17.3
(0.9)
Record low °C (°F) −52.8
(−63)
−50.6
(−59.1)
−48.3
(−54.9)
−42.8
(−45)
−35.0
(−31)
−17.8
(0)
−1.7
(28.9)
−8.9
(16)
−17.2
(1)
−33.0
(−27.4)
−43.9
(−47)
−49.4
(−56.9)
−52.8
(−63)
Wind chill −73.4 −72.6 −69.8 −60.1 −43.2 −29.2 −7.9 −13.1 −28.6 −49.4 −60.7 −66.3 −73.4
Precipitation mm (inches) 5.8
(0.228)
4.9
(0.193)
7.1
(0.28)
5.7
(0.224)
7.0
(0.276)
13.6
(0.535)
24.1
(0.949)
25.7
(1.012)
19.1
(0.752)
14.7
(0.579)
8.0
(0.315)
6.1
(0.24)
141.7
(5.579)
Rainfall mm (inches) 0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
1.0
(0.039)
10.0
(0.394)
23.9
(0.941)
23.9
(0.941)
12.7
(0.5)
0.6
(0.024)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
72.1
(2.839)
Snowfall cm (inches) 6.7
(2.64)
5.9
(2.32)
8.4
(3.31)
6.9
(2.72)
7.2
(2.83)
3.8
(1.5)
0.1
(0.04)
1.8
(0.71)
6.8
(2.68)
15.9
(6.26)
9.8
(3.86)
6.8
(2.68)
80.2
(31.57)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 7.3 6.8 9.2 6.8 7.1 8.0 10.7 13.1 11.9 12.1 9.0 7.9 109.8
Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.9 5.9 10.7 12.5 7.1 0.6 0.0 0.0 37.8
Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 7.4 6.9 9.8 7.1 7.3 3.4 0.1 1.2 6.3 12.5 9.5 8.3 79.8
 % humidity 65.3 66.4 70.5 76.2 83.8 77.2 68.2 73.6 82.3 86.2 76.5 70.0 74.7
Mean monthly sunshine hours 7.3 73.7 169.6 275.9 245.1 291.6 333.8 186.6 71.7 56.8 17.6 0.0 1,729.7
Percent possible sunshine 11.7 35.4 47.1 57.7 36.6 40.5 45.9 33.6 17.8 20.0 13.5 0.0 30.0
Source: Environment Canada Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010[86]

Sun below the horizon, polar night, from 30 November to 11 January and above the horizon, midnight sun, 19 May to 22 July.[87]

Notable residents[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nunavummiut elect new municipal leaders
  2. ^ Results for the constituency of Cambridge Bay at Elections Nunavut
  3. ^ a b c d e f "2006 Community Profiles". Retrieved 8 June 2007. 
  4. ^ a b c "Population and dwelling counts for Urban Area (2006 Census)". Statistics Canada. March 2007. Retrieved 17 February 2008. 
  5. ^ Elevation at airport. Canada Flight Supplement. Effective 0901Z 24 July 2014 to 0901Z 18 September 2014
  6. ^ Office of the Languages Commissioner of Nunavut – PDF Dialect Map[dead link]
  7. ^ Office of the Languages Commissioner of Nunavut – Writing systems[dead link]
  8. ^ "Cambridge Bay hosts 4 Northwest Passage-bound yachts". Canada: CBC. 18 August 2009. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  9. ^ "TP 14202 E: Interpretation". Transport Canada. 27 November 2007. Retrieved 18 January 2008. 
  10. ^ Rob Huebert (Winter 2001). Climate Change and Canadian Sovereignty in the Northwest Passage. ISUMA. pp. 86–94. Archived from the original on 31 January 2002. Retrieved 13 January 2008. 
  11. ^ Pharand, D.; Legault, L.H. (1984). The Northwest Passage: Arctic Straits. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 14. ISBN 90-247-2979-3. 
  12. ^ a b c "Cambridge bay, Nunavut". Kitikmeot School Operations. Archived from the original on 13 January 2010. 
  13. ^ "Society-COPPER-ESKIMO". ukc.ac.uk. Retrieved 1 November 2008. 
  14. ^ M.J. Dunbar, Peter Adams. "Arctic Archipelago". Thecanadianencyclopedia.com. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  15. ^ Cambridge Bay at the Nunavut Planning Commission
  16. ^ Tologanak, Navalik (20 August 2007). "Traditional names still remain". Northern News Services Online. Retrieved 24 January 2008. 
  17. ^ "Cambridge Bay Arctic Char" (PDF). Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  18. ^ a b "Iqaluktuurmiutat: Life at Iqaluktuuq" (PDF). Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  19. ^ Collinson, Richard; Collinson, T.B. (1889). Journal of H.M.S. Enterprise, on the expedition in search of Sir John Franklin's ships by Behring Strait, 1850–55. London: Low, Marston, Searle, & Rivington. pp. 286–288. OCLC 22079420. 
  20. ^ Ovayok at Nunavut Parks
  21. ^ "2001 Community Profiles". Retrieved 5 July 2010. 
  22. ^ "2006 Aboriginal Population Profile". 2.statcan.ca. 6 December 2010. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  23. ^ "Pre-Dorset – 1800 to 500 BC". Kitikmeotheritage.ca. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  24. ^ "Early/Middle Dorset – 500 BC to 800 AD". Kitikmeotheritage.ca. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  25. ^ a b "Late Dorset – 800 AD to 1250 AD". Kitikmeotheritage.ca. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  26. ^ 101. Nunavut Handbook, Qaummaarviit Historic Park
  27. ^ "Thule Inuit – 1250 AD to 1500 AD". Kitikmeotheritage.ca. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  28. ^ "Modern Inuit – 1500 AD to Today". Kitikmeotheritage.ca. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  29. ^ "The Copper Inuit (Ulukhaktokmiut) of Holman". The Ohio State University. 26 November 2007. Retrieved 24 August 2008. 
  30. ^ "DNA tests debunk blond Inuit legend". Canada: CBC. 28 October 2003. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  31. ^ "Kitikmeot Regional Groups". Kitikmeotheritage.ca. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  32. ^ a b c d e f g "Bringing our Past into the Future". Museevirtuel.ca. 10 September 1954. Retrieved 11 December 2011. 
  33. ^ a b Cambridge Bay at the Prince of Wales Northern Heritage Centre
  34. ^ a b "Landmark church burns in Nunavut". Sikunews.com. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  35. ^ "Hamlet of Cambridge Bay By-Law No. 96" (PDF). Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  36. ^ "The DEW Line". Lswilson.ca. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  37. ^ Arctic Trip – North Warning System[dead link]
  38. ^ "The 1982 Plebiscite on Division of the Northwest Territories: Regional Government and Federal Policy" (PDF). Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  39. ^ [1][dead link]
  40. ^ "CTV News – Cambridge Bay to host High Arctic Research Station". Ctv.ca. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  41. ^ "Daycare". Cambridgebay.ca. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  42. ^ "Kitikmeot Heritage Society". Kitikmeotheritage.ca. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  43. ^ "Kitikmeot Campus". Arcticcollege.ca. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  44. ^ "Programs and Courses". Arcticcollege.ca. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  45. ^ "Nunavut Teacher Education Program". Arcticcollege.ca. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  46. ^ "Kitikmeot Inuit Association". Polarnet.ca. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  47. ^ "Nunavut Impact Review Board". Nirb.ca. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  48. ^ "Nunavut Planning Commission". Nunavut.ca. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  49. ^ NTI – Lands and Resources Department[dead link]
  50. ^ "St. George's Cambridge Bay (Ikaluktutiak), NU Diocese of the Arctic". Arcticnet.org. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  51. ^ Parishes and Missions under the Roman Catholic Diocese of Mackenzie – Fort Smith[dead link]
  52. ^ "Churches & Religious". Cambridgebay.ca. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  53. ^ "Restaurants". Cambridgebay.ca. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  54. ^ a b "Ikaluktutiak Co-operative Limited". Arcticco-op.com. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  55. ^ "Bank". Cambridgebay.ca. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  56. ^ "Post Office". Cambridgebay.ca. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  57. ^ "Jago Services Incorporated". Ic.gc.ca. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  58. ^ "Kitnuna". Kitikmeotcorp.ca. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  59. ^ "Kalvik Enterprises". Phonepages.ca. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  60. ^ "Nanook Woodworking". Manta.com. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  61. ^ "Inukshuk Enterprises". Nni.gov.nu.ca. 17 January 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  62. ^ Northwestel phone book
  63. ^ "Cambridge Bay celebrates birth, closer to home". Nunatsiaqonline.ca. 22 April 2010. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  64. ^ "Police". Cambridgebay.ca. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  65. ^ "Legal". Cambridgebay.ca. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  66. ^ "Arctic Islands Lodge Inns North Hotel". Cambridgebayhotel.com. 10 August 2007. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  67. ^ "Green Row Executive Suites". Nunavuttourism.com. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  68. ^ "Northwestel". Nwtel.ca. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  69. ^ "Latitude Wireless". Nwtel.ca. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  70. ^ "Municipal services". Cambridgebay.ca. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  71. ^ Query the REC's Canadian station database for CFBI-FM
  72. ^ Query the REC's Canadian station database for CFFB
  73. ^ Query the REC's Canadian station database for CHAK
  74. ^ Query the REC's Canadian station database for CFFB-TV
  75. ^ "Netkaster". Netkaster. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  76. ^ "Polarnet". Polarnet.ca. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  77. ^ Northern Transportation Company Limited
  78. ^ "Nunavut Sealink and Supply". Arcticco-op.com. 4 June 2001. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  79. ^ Canadian North[dead link]
  80. ^ "First Air". Firstair.ca. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  81. ^ Aqsaqniq Airways Ltd.
  82. ^ Inuit Firm Registry Database – Aqsaqniq Ltd.
  83. ^ Inuit Firm Registry Database – Aqsaqniq Airways Ltd.
  84. ^ "DAL Aviation at the High Arctic Lodge". Higharctic.com. 13 January 2011. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  85. ^ a b Ian Austen (22 August 2012). "Coming Soon, Google Street View of a Canadian Village You’ll Never Drive To". New York Times. Retrieved 24 August 2012. 
  86. ^ a b "Cambridge Bay A *". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment Canada. Climate ID: 2400600. Retrieved 2014-04-30. 
  87. ^ Sunrise/Sunset/Sun Angle Calculator at the National Research Council (Canada)
  88. ^ "Introducing Stephen Angulalik". Kitikmeotheritage.ca. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  89. ^ "William L. Lyall, C.M". Archive.gg.ca. 30 April 2009. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  90. ^ "The Lyalls of Taloyoak". Nnsl.com. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  91. ^ "Helen Mamayaok Maksagak, C.M., LL.D". Archive.gg.ca. 30 April 2009. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  92. ^ a b "Nunavut Votes 2004 Cambridge Bay Profile". Canada: CBC. 16 February 2004. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  93. ^ "Red Pedersen". Kitikmeotheritage.ca. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  94. ^ "Cambridge Bay". Elections.nu.ca. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  95. ^ [2]
  96. ^ "Tanya Tagaq Gillis". Centre for Contemporary Canadian Art-Centre de l'art contemporain canadien. Retrieved 13 October 2009. 
  97. ^ "Nunavut – 2003". Nwtel.ca. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  98. ^ "Photos from the 2005 Folk on the Rocks Festival". Folkontherocks.com. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  99. ^ Folk on the Rocks 2010 lineup[dead link]
  100. ^ "Tanya ‘Tagaq’ Gillis & Celina Kalluk". Thepuredrop.com.au. Retrieved 20 November 2011. 

Further reading[edit]

  • 2007. "Mosaic – Snow Sprints in Cambridge Bay, Nunavut – Photography by Finn O'Hara". Canadian Geographic. 127, no. 2: 100.
  • Barlishen, W. J., and T. N. Webber. A History of the Development of Commercial Fishing in the Cambridge Bay Area of the Northwest Territories. 1973.
  • Canada. Cambridge Bay. Ottawa: Environment Canada, Atmospheric Environment Service, 1984. ISBN 0-660-52564-X
  • Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology, and Resource Ventures Incorporated. Cambridge Bay Wind Farm. [Ottawa]: The Branch, 1997.
  • Gajda, Roman. Terrain and Site Analysis of Cambridge Bay, N.W.T. Ottawa: Dept. of Mines and Technical Surveys, Geographical Branch, 1962.
  • Hill, Steven Grant. Ethnography of Inuit Elderly in a Present Day Arctic Settlement, Cambridge Bay, N.W.T. Ottawa: National Library of Canada, 1990. ISBN 0-315-51565-1.

External links[edit]