Cambridge Union Society
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|Cambridge Union Society|
The new coat of arms for the Cambridge Union Society.
|Type||Student debating union|
|Location||9A Bridge St Cambridge, CB2 1UB|
|President||Mr J.G. Fenster, Selwyn|
The Cambridge Union Society, commonly referred to as simply "the Cambridge Union" or "the Union," is a debating society in Cambridge, England and the largest society at the University of Cambridge. Founded in 1815, the Union is the 2nd oldest student debate society in Britain, after the St Andrews Union Debating Society and has developed a worldwide reputation as a noted symbol of free speech and open debate. Additionally, the Cambridge Union has served as a model for the subsequent foundation of similar societies at several other prominent universities, including the Oxford Union and the Yale Political Union. The Union is a private society, and is distinct from the Cambridge University Students' Union.
The Union has a long and distinguished history of hosting leading state and international political and other figures in its chamber, from Presidents to Prime Ministers and Oscar winners to Olympic legends. Over its history, these have included the Dalai Lama, President Ronald Reagan, Professor Germaine Greer, Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Clint Eastwood. Recent speakers include academic Richard Dawkins, former British Prime Minister John Major, former President of Pakistan Pervez Musharraf, comedian Dara Ó Briain, civil rights leader Jesse Jackson, Olympic legend Lord Coe, violinist and songwriter Diana Yukawa, and actor Sir Ian McKellen.
History of the Society 
The Cambridge Union was founded on 13 February 1815 at the conclusion of a drunken brawl between members of two or three debating societies. The 'Union', as it has become known by Cambridge students, quickly rose to prominence in University life. Early officers included historian and essayist Thomas Macaulay, and many subsequent officers have gone on to become influential leaders in a wide variety of fields and professions. Just a few years after it was founded, on 24 March 1817, the Union was temporarily shut down by the University for being too contentious. In 1821 the Society was allowed to reform, under strict guidelines. In its effort to uphold the right to free speech, the Union disregarded them and continued to debate contentious topics in disguised form.
Its current Bridge Street premises (Alfred Waterhouse (who went on to design the Oxford Union Society's building) and formally opened on 30 October 1866. An additional wing to the building was added several decades later. The future radical Liberal politician, Sir Charles Dilke, was the President chiefly responsible for construction. Included among the building's many rooms are the famous debating chamber, a dining room, bar, snooker room, the Keynes Library and various offices.) were designed by
Although Cambridge escaped virtually undamaged from the widespread bombing destruction of World War II, the Union's building was hit by a bomb dropped during one attack. The explosion caused extensive damage to the Society's library. Some older books still show shrapnel damage.
The Union is legally a self-funded private members' club which owns and has full control over its private property and buildings in the Cambridge city centre. It enjoys strong relations with the university, and allows other societies to hire rooms out. It often admits guests to its events and sometimes opens event to all students. Recently, the Society's building has proved to be a popular filming location; scenes for several British television programs and an upcoming feature-length film have been shot on the premises.
After nearly 200 years, the Cambridge Union is still best known for its debates, which often receive national and international media attention. The top members of its debating team compete internationally against other top debating societies. Cambridge regularly fields one of the most successful teams at the World Universities Debating Championships. The union also organises talks by visiting speakers and a wide array of entertainments throughout the academic year.
The Cambridge Union is sometimes confused with the Cambridge University Students' Union, the student representative body set up in 1971. Consequently, the term 'President of the Union' may cause confusion. Despite the Cambridge Union Society's never having been a students' union in the modern sense, it did briefly affiliate to the UK's National Union of Students in 1924.
Membership of the Society 
The Cambridge Union receives no formal funding from the University and raises funds for event expenses and building maintenance through membership fees. Membership is open to students at the University of Cambridge and Anglia Ruskin University. Members are able to bring guests to certain functions. Some events are open to the public free of charge, others through the purchase of a ticket.
The society awards honorary memberships to particularly distinguished individuals and maintains reciprocal membership policies with similar societies such as the College Historical Society and the Oxford Union Society. Recently, Sir Ian McKellen was awarded honorary membership when he addressed the Union Society in January 2011, as were Lord Coe in May 2010 and former British Prime Minister John Major in April 2010.
Past Speakers and Debates 
The Union puts on a wide variety of events for its members, but is best known for its Thursday night debates and individual speaker events. In both of these, leading figures from public life are invited to discuss something of interest to the membership.
Individual speakers have included British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, Clement Attlee and John Major. US Presidents Theodore Roosevelt and Ronald Reagan, the first Prime Minister of India Jawaharlal Nehru, German Chancellor Helmut Kohl, Australian Prime Minister John Howard, the first democratically elected President of Iraq Jalal Talabani, Libyan dictator Muammar al-Gaddafi, the last President of apartheid-era South Africa, F. W. de Klerk, spiritual leader of Tibet the Dalai Lama, evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins, theoretical physicist Stephen Hawking, Wikileaks founder Julian Assange, actress Judi Dench, former head of the IMF Dominique Strauss-Kahn, chat show host Jerry Springer, actress and model Pamela Anderson, magician David Blaine, and actors Bill Nighy, Clint Eastwood and Roger Moore.
Debates in the past year have seen such figures as Andrew Mitchell, David Blunkett and Nigel Farage discussing the merits of the coalition government, Max Mosley debating whether the British press have too much freedom, Max Clifford discussing reality TV and Wikipedia founder Jimmy Wales debating the possibility of a gift economy. The motion for a week's debate varies widely, and often touch on politics, science, the arts, religion, the economy and comedy. Generally, the proposition and opposition sides of a debate each have three speakers, with speeches alternating between the two sides. Before the last speech on each side, the debate is opened up to the floor, where any member can have their say and question either side. Those watching then vote by exiting the chamber through one of three doors: "Ayes", "Noes" or "Abstentions", with the result announced moments later in the bar.
The Union also puts on a wide range of social entertainments for its members, including yoga & pilates, comedy evenings, an annual Valentine's Ball, a summertime 'Garden Party', cocktail workshops, a weekly pub quiz and much more.
Winston Churchill, former British Prime Minster.
Stephen Hawking, theoretical physicist.
Stephen Fry, actor, author and comedian.
Judi Dench, actress.
Former Libyan dictator Muammar al-Gaddafi.
US President Ronald Reagan.
Jerry Springer, American television presenter.
Pamela Anderson, Canadian actress and model.
Evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins.
Archbishop Desmond Tutu.
Former Archbishop of Canterbury Rowan Williams.
The Standing Committee, the Union’s primary day-to-day managing body, consists of the current President, Vice-President and Officers, the President-Elect and Officers-Elect. The Standing Committee also appoints several positions in the society including the Secretary, Head of Event Management, Head of Publicity and Press Officer, some of whom are entitled to attend the committee without voting rights, along with the most senior paid employee, the Bursar.
Major positions 
President – The President serves as the Chairman of Standing Committee, Debates, and Members' Business Meetings (the Union's governing body). They are responsible for organising a programme of debates and overseeing planning for the other events during their term in office. Term in office is one academic term plus its preceding vacation (about 14–23 weeks).
Vice President – The VP has general control of the business and premises of the Society. The VP is also responsible for overseeing longer-term planning within the Society, and is essentially a permanent secretary. Term in office is one calendar year (July–June), appointed by vote of the Standing Committee the preceding March.
Executive Officer – The Executive Officer is responsible for implementing the decisions of Standing Committee, particularly if they do not fall clearly under a specific officer's role. The EO also receives feedback from members and chairs certain sub-committees, including the team of College Representatives and the Invitations Committee. Term in office is one academic term plus its preceding vacation (about 14–23 weeks).
Treasurer – The Treasurer is responsible for raising sponsorship funds, maintaining relations with corporations and local businesses (creating 'Treasurer's Treats' which provide discounts for members in local shops and restaurants), running merchandising operations and investigating the financial implications of decisions made by committees. However, the Bursar is the officer primarily responsible for monitoring the finances. Term in office is one academic term plus its preceding vacation (about 14–23 weeks).
Speakers Officer – The Speakers Officer is responsible for organising the term's series of speaker events. Term in office is one academic term plus its preceding vacation (about 14–23 weeks).
Social Events Officer – The Social Events (known as 'Ents') Officer is responsible for organising the term's line-up of social events such as club nights, food/drink tastings, aerobics sessions or speed dating. Term in office is one academic term plus its preceding vacation (about 14–23 weeks).
Debating Officers – This position is jointly held by two individuals who are responsible for organising the Society's activities in relation to competitive debating. The Debating Officers are considered members of Standing Committee and maintain a full vote each. Term in office is one calendar year (March–March).
Secretary – The Secretary is responsible for minuting debates, meetings of the Standing Committee and Members' Business Meetings (the Union's governing body). They are also technically responsible for the Society's records. Term of office is one academic term, appointed by vote of the Standing Committee, and the Secretary may serve multiple terms.
Head of Events Management – The Head of Events Management (HoEM) is in charge of running the Society's events by managing and encouraging stewards to work on events. The HoEM is a permanent invitee of the Standing Committee, where they advise on the logistics of event running. Term of office is one academic term, appointed by vote of the Standing Committee.
The Senior Officers – No more senior officers remains in the Constitution: these used to be The Senior Librarian, who was responsible for the administration of the Society's extensive library, and The Steward, responsible for advising the Society on legal and other matters. The role of the Senior Treasurer has been reconstituted as the Bursar. Each of the Senior Officers were elected for one year terms, but it is common for the same individual to serve many successive terms.
The Trustees – The Board of Trustees, currently chaired by Sir Richard Dearlove, is responsible for overseeing the long-term development of the Union's finances and property. Whilst the Trustees are not intimately involved with the day-to-day running of the Society, they maintain ultimate legal responsibility for the organization, its assets and status as a registered charity.
Termly elected officers serve a term (and its preceding vacation) as "officer-elect", prior to entering office, during which time they are voting members of the Standing Committee. This time is to be used to plan their term in office.
In addition to these posts the Society also maintains an employed staff consisting of a Bursar, responsible for overseeing the long-term health of the Society, Office Managers and a Bar Manager. The Society also holds contracts for catering, cleaning, building maintenance, property management, IT services and legal advice.
Past officers 
Notable past Presidents and Officers include:
In addition to the long list of real life distinguished individuals that served as officers of the Cambridge Union during their time in Cambridge, Will Bailey, a fictional character on The West Wing, a US television drama series, claimed to have been a "former president of Cambridge Union on a Marshall Scholarship".
The Cambridge Union is famous within the University for having a very long and complicated constitution; it is a common rumour that the constitution is longer than the entire Constitution of Canada. With the introduction of a new constitution from 2010, this is no longer the case. This was in fact untrue of the old constitution, but only just: a quick count puts the old Union constitution at 31,309 words while the complete Constitution of Canada is 31,575 words long. If the University's rules on Single Transferable Voting are included, then it is indeed longer than that of Canada. These rules are referenced within the constitution, but are not contained. The Rules of the Oxford Union Society total over 45,000 words, not including the Standing Orders and Schedules
During the 1970s and 1980s, many debates were recorded on audio tape. These tapes have been subsequently transferred to the National Sound Archive for safekeeping. As of Michaelmas 2006, the practice of recording debates and speaker meetings has resumed.
On 9 May 2011, the Union launched its online public video service CUS-Connect, with recordings of past events and interviews with speakers uploaded for free viewing. The first ever Union debate live-streamed from the Chamber was held on the 12th May 2011, in which Stephen Fry debated Radio 1 DJ Kissy Sell Out on the motion "This House believes that classical music is irrelevant to today's youth".
See also 
- Cradock, Percy (1953). Recollections of the Cambridge Union 1815-1939. Cambridge: Bowes & Bowes.
- Parkinson, Stephen (2009). Arena of Ambition: A History of the Cambridge Union. London: Icon Books.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Cambridge Union Society|
- Cambridge Union Society, cambridge-union.org
- Cambridge Union Society Constitution, cambridge-union.org