Campanian

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System Series Stage Age (Ma)
Paleogene Paleocene Danian younger
Cretaceous Late Maastrichtian 66.0–72.1
Campanian 72.1–83.6
Santonian 83.6–86.3
Coniacian 86.3–89.8
Turonian 89.8–93.9
Cenomanian 93.9–100.5
Early Albian 100.5–~113.0
Aptian ~113.0–~125.0
Barremian ~125.0–~129.4
Hauterivian ~129.4–~132.9
Valanginian ~132.9–~139.8
Berriasian ~139.8–~145.0
Jurassic Late Tithonian older
Subdivision of the Cretaceous system
according to the IUGS, as of July 2012.

The Campanian is, in the ICS' geologic timescale, the fifth of six ages of the Late Cretaceous epoch (or, in chronostratigraphy: the fifth of six stages in the Upper Cretaceous series). The Campanian spans the time from 83.6 ± 0.7 Ma to 72.1 ± 0.6 Ma (million years ago). It is preceded by the Santonian and it is followed by the Maastrichtian.[1]

Stratigraphic definition[edit]

The Campanian was introduced in scientific literature by Henri Coquand in 1857. It is named after the French village of Champagne in the département Charente-Maritime. The original type locality was an outcrop near the village of Aubeterre-sur-Dronne in the same region. Due to changes of the stratigraphic definitions, this section is now part of the Maastrichtian stage.

The base of the Campanian stage is laid at the extinction of crinoid species Marsupites testudinarius. A GSSP had not yet been ratified in 2009. One possible candidate is in a section near a dam at Waxahachie, Texas.

The top of the Campanian is defined as the place in the stratigraphic column were the ammonite Pachydiscus neubergicus first appears.

Subdivision[edit]

The Campanian is sometimes subdivided into Lower, Middle and Upper subages. In the Tethys domain, the Campanian encompasses six ammonite biozones. They are, from young to old:

Paleontology[edit]

During the Campanian age, a radiation among dinosaur species occurred. In North America, for example, the number of known dinosaur genera rises from 4 at the base of the Campanian to 48 in the upper part. This development is sometimes referred to as the "Campanian Explosion". However, it is not yet clear if the event is artificial, i.e. the low number of genera in the lower Campanian can be caused by a lower preservation chance for fossils in deposits of that age. The generally warm climates and large continental area covered in shallow sea during the Campanian probably favoured the dinosaurs. In the following Maastrichtian stage, the number of North American dinosaur genera found is 30% less than in the upper Campanian.[2]

Animals that lived in the Campanian include:

†Ankylosaurs[edit]

Ankylosaurs of the Campanian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Aletopelta

Point Loma Formation, California, USA A medium-sized ankylosaurid, estimated to be around 6 m (20 ft) long

Antarctopelta

Santa Marta Formation, James Ross Island, Antarctica A stocky ankylosaur protected by armor plates embedded in the skin. Although a complete skeleton has not been found, the species is estimated to have reached a maximum length of 4 meters (13 ft). Displays characteristics of both ankylosaurids and nodosaurids

Edmontonia

Campanian to Maastrichtian Horseshoe Canyon Formation, Alberta, Canada A bulky nodosaurid at roughly 6.6 m (22 ft) long and 2 m (6 ft) high. It had small, ridged bony plates on its back and head and many sharp spikes along its back and tail. The four largest spikes jutted out from the shoulders on each side, two of which were split into subspines in some specimens. Its skull had a pear-like shape when viewed from above.

Euoplocephalus

Niobrarasaurus

Nodocephalosaurus

Panoplosaurus

Judith River Formation, Alberta, Canada; Montana, USA A 5.5–7 m long and 2 m tall nodosaurid

Pinacosaurus

Saichania

Shanxia

Struthiosaurus

Tarchia

Tianzhenosaurus

Birds (avian theropods)[edit]

Birds of the Campanian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Hesperornis

Neogaeornis wetzeli

A marine bird from Chile. It had the midfeet of a foot-propelled diving bird, but its relationships are enigmatic. The only known species is from the Campanian-Maastrichtian boundary.

Ichthyornis

Bony Fish[edit]

Bony fish of the Campanian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Xiphactinus

Cartilaginous Fish[edit]

Cartilaginous fish of the Campanian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Chlamydoselachus

Schizorhiza

†Ceratopsians[edit]

Ceratopsians of the Campanian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Achelousaurus

74.2 million years ago

Agujaceratops

Albertaceratops

Anchiceratops

Avaceratops

Bagaceratops

Bainoceratops

Brachyceratops

Breviceratops

Centrosaurus

Cerasinops

Chasmosaurus

?Dysganus

Einiosaurus

Graciliceratops

Lamaceratops

Magnirostris

Medusaceratops

Monoclonius

Pachyrhinosaurus

Prenoceratops

Platyceratops

Protoceratops

Styracosaurus

Udanoceratops

Crocodylomorphs[edit]

Crocodylomorphs of the Campanian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Mammals[edit]

Mammals of the Campanian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Alphadon

Didelphodon

Kamptobaatar

Kennalestes

Zalambdalestes

†Ornithopods[edit]

Ornithopods of the Campanian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Aralosaurus

85.8 mya Asia Aralosaurus was about the size of an elephant. Although very little is known about Aralosaurus (only one near complete skull has been found); it was identified by a beak with nearly 1,000 small teeth in 30 rows. These teeth were used for breaking up plant matter by chewing, a feature common in herbivorous dinosaurs, but unusual for reptiles.The back of an Aralosaurus skull was wide, a feature suggestive of large jaw muscles used to power its chewing apparatus.

Brachylophosaurus

76.5 mya Montana, USA; Alberta, Canada Brachylophosaurus was a typical hadrosaur which reached an adult length of 9 meters (30 ft).

Corythosaurus

77-76.5 mya Alberta, Canada Corythosaurus weighed in at 4 tonnes and measured roughly 10 metres (33 ft) from nose to tail. Like other hadrosaurs it had a toothless beak, the back of the jaws contained a dental battery composed of hundreds of small, interlocking teeth. These were used to crush and grind plant matter and were continually replaced as they wore away.

Diclonius

75 mya Montana, USA

Edmontosaurus

73.0-76.5 mya Canada Edmontosaurus included some of the largest hadrosaurid species, measuring up to 12 metres (39 ft) long and weighing around 4.0 metric tons (4.4 short tons).

Gasparinisaura

85 mya Argentina Gasparinisaura was a small bipedal herbivore. In 2010 Gregory S. Paul estimated the length at 1.7 metres, the weight at thirteen kilogrammes.

Gilmoreosaurus

70 mya Mongolia

Gryposaurus

83-75.5 mya Alberta, Canada Gryposaurus was a hadrosaurid of typical size and shape.

Hadrosaurus

79.5 mya New Jersey, USA It was likely bipedal for the purposes of running, but could use its forelegs to support itself while feeding.

Hypacrosaurus

75-67 mya Alberta, Canada Hypacrosaurus is most easily distinguished from other hollow-crested duckbills by its tall neural spines and the form of its crest. The neural spines, which project from the top of the vertebrae, are 5 to 7 times the height of the body of their respective vertebrae in the back,[4] which would have given it a tall back in profile. The skull's hollow crest is like that of Corythosaurus, but is more pointed along its top, not as tall, wider side to side, and has a small bony point at the rear

Hypsibema

North Carolina and Missouri, USA

Kritosaurus

73 mya North America The type specimen of Kritosaurus navajovius is only represented by a partial skull and lower jaws, and associated postcranial remains.

Lambeosaurus

76-75 mya Alberta, Canada

Lophorhothon

80 mya Alabama, USA

Maiasaura

76.7 mya Montana, USA Maiasaura was large, attaining an adult length of about 9 metres (30 ft) and had the typical hadrosaurid flat beak and a thick nose. It had a small, spiky crest in front of its eyes. The crest may have been used in headbutting contests between males during the breeding season.

Mandschurosaurus

Asia

Microhadrosaurus

China

Mochlodon

Austria A rhabdodontid

Naashoibitosaurus

73 mya New Mexico, USA Naashoibitosaurus, based as it is on a single partial skeleton, is not well known in terms of anatomy. Its skull, the most thoroughly described portion, has a low nasal crest that peaks in front of the eyes, but does not strongly arch as in Gryposaurus.

Nipponosaurus

Russia

Orodromeus

76.7 mya Montana, USA Orodromeus was a small fast bipedal herbivore that probably coexisted with dinosaurs such as Daspletosaurus and Einiosaurus. Its length was estimated by Horner & Weishampel at 2.5 metres.

Parasaurolophus

76.5-73 mya Alberta, Canada; New Mexico and Utah, USA

Prosaurolophus

76-75 mya Alberta, Canada Prosaurolophus was a large-headed duckbill; the most complete described specimen has a skull around 0.9 meters long (2.9 ft) on a ~8.5 meter long skeleton (~28 ft).[2] It had a small, stout, triangular crest in front of the eyes; the sides of this crest were concave, forming depressions. The upper arm was relatively short.

Pteropelyx

Montana, USA

Rhabdodon

70 mya France; Spain; Haţeg Island, Romania It is unclear whether it was an iguanodont or a hypsilophodont, and may be a "missing link" between the two. Current evidence indicates it is an iguanodont similar to Tenontosaurus.

Saurolophus

69.5-68.5 mya North America, Asia Saurolophus is known from material including nearly complete skeletons, giving researchers a clear picture of its bony anatomy. S. osborni, the rarer Albertan species, was around 9.8 meters long (32 feet), with its skull a meter long (3.3 feet). Its weight is estimated at 1.9 tonnes (2.1 tons). S. angustirostris, the Mongolian species, was larger; the type skeleton is roughly 12 meters long (39.4 ft), and larger remains are reported.

Shantungosaurus

70 mya China It is one of the longest and largest known hadrosaurids; the composite skeleton of a medium-sized individual mounted at the Geological Institute of China in Beijing measures 14.72 metres (48.3 ft) in length

Tanius

China

Trachodon

77 mya Montana, USA

Tsintaosaurus

70 mya Southern China

Velafrons

72 mya Mexico

†Pachycephalosaurs[edit]

Pachycephalosaurs of the Campanian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Alaskacephale

Prince Creek Formation, Alaska, USA
Alaskacephale
Homalocephale

Colepiocephale

Alberta, Canada The oldest known pachycephalosaurid

Goyocephale

Mongolia

Gravitholus

Hanssuesia

Alberta, Canada; Montana, USA Distinguished from other pachycephalosaurs by having a depressed parietal region, wide frontoparietal dome, broad nasal characteristics, reduced prefontal lobes, and a reduced parietosquamosal shelf.

?Heishansaurus

Homalocephale

Mongolia Sporting a flat, wedge-shaped skull roof, Homalocephale was different from other pachycephalosaurs.

?Micropachycephalosaurus

Ornatotholus

Prenocephale

Sphaerotholus

Stegoceras

Tylocephale

Wannanosaurus

†Plesiosaurs[edit]

Plesiosaurs of the Campanian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Elasmosaurus

80.5 mya Pierre Shale, Kansas, USA Elasmosaurus is a genus of plesiosaur with an extremely long neck.

Styxosaurus

83.5-80.5 mya Logan County, Kansas Styxosaurus is a genus of plesiosaur of the family Elasmosauridae.

†Pterosaurs[edit]

Pterosaurs of the Campanian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Geosternbergia

USA, North America Geosternbergia was originally a species of Pteranodon and is famous for its oddly shaped crest.

Nyctosaurus

mid-western United States Nyctosaurus is a genus of pterodactyloid pterosaur

Pteranodon

Kansas, USA, North America Pteranodon is a genus of pterosaurs which included some of the largest known flying reptiles, with wingspans over 6 metres

Quetzalcoatlus

Texas, USA Quetzalcoatlus was a pterodactyloid pterosaur known from the Late Cretaceous of North America and one of the largest known flying animals of all time.

Piksi

Montana, USA Piksi is a genus of pterosaurs containing the single species Piksi barbarulna.

Navajodactylus

New Mexico, USA, and Alberta, Canada Known primarily from forearm elements; tentatively assigned to Azhdarchidae, though most likely not part of it.

Montanazhdarcho

Montana, USA Small azhdarchid pterosaur.

Volgadraco

Saratov, Russia Azhdarchid pterosaur

†Sauropods[edit]

Sauropods of the Campanian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Alamosaurus

Southwestern United States Alamosaurus is a genus of titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous Period of what is now North America. It was a large quadrupedal herbivore.

Andesaurus

Neuquén Province, Argentina Andesaurus is a genus of basal titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur

Bruhathkayosaurus

Tamil Nadu, India Bruhathkayosaurus might have been the largest dinosaur that ever lived.

Huabeisaurus

North East, China A member of the Euhelopodidae sauropods.

Overosaurus

Neuquén Province, Argentina Small-sized titanosaur.

Quaesitosaurus

Shar Tsav, Mongolia Quaesitosaurus is a genus of titanosaurian sauropod.

Saltasaurus

north-west Argentina; Uruguay Saltasaurus is a genus of titanosaurid sauropod dinosaur. An estimated length of 12 metres (39 feet) and a mass of 7 tonnes (8 tons)

Squamates[edit]

Squamates of the Campanian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Halisaurus

Mosasaurus

Plotosaurus

Taniwhasaurus

New Zealand, Japan, Antarctica

Tylosaurus

Testudines[edit]

Testudines of the Campanian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images

Archelon

Reconstruction of Archelon

†Theropods (non-avian)[edit]

David J. Varrichio observes that during the late Campanian Alberta and Montana had very similar theropods despite significant differences in the types of herbivorous dinosaur faunas.[3]

Non-avian theropods of the Campanian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
  1. Abelisaurus comahuensis
Allen Formation?, Anacleto Formation?, Argentina Bipedal carnivore that probably reached 7 to 9 meters in length; known from only one partial skull.
Portrait of Saurornithoides

Albertosaurus

Appalachiosaurus

Archaeornithomimus

Bambiraptor

Byronosaurus

Citipati

Carnotaurus

Daspletosaurus

Dromaeosaurus

Dromiceiomimus

Dryptosaurus

Gorgosaurus

Harpymimus

Khaan

Lythronax

Campanian Wahweap Formation, Utah A 7-meter tyrannosaurid known from a partially complete skull, some vertebrae and a complete pubis

Luanchuanraptor

Mononykus

Noasaurus

Ornithomimus

Oviraptor

Mongolia

Pyroraptor

Var, France

Saurornithoides

Saurornitholestes

Shuvuuia

Struthiomimus

Troodon

Variraptor

Var, France

Velociraptor

Mongolia and China

Xenotarsosaurus

"Zhuchengtyrannus

Campanian Wangshi Group, Zhucheng, China One of the largest tyrannosaurids at between 10–12 meters. Known from a lower jaw and maxilla slightly smaller than those of the later Tyrannosaurus

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ See Gradstein et al. (2004) for a detailed version of the geological timescale
  2. ^ See Weishampel et al. (2004)
  3. ^ "Abstract," in Varricchio (2001). Page 42.

References[edit]

  • Gradstein, F.M.; Ogg, J.G. & Smith, A.G.; 2004: A Geologic Time Scale 2004, Cambridge University Press.
  • Varricchio, D. J. 2001. Late Cretaceous oviraptorosaur (Theropoda) dinosaurs from Montana. pp. 42–57 in D. H. Tanke and K. Carpenter (eds.), Mesozoic Vertebrate Life. Indiana University Press, Indianapolis, Indiana.
  • Weishampel, D.B.; Barrett, P.M.; Coria, R.A.; Le Loueff, J.; Xu, X.; Zhao, X.; Sahni, A.; Gomani, E.M.P. & Noto, C.N.; 2004: Dinosaur distribution, in: Weishampel, D.B.; Dodson, P. & Osmólska, H. (eds.): The Dinosauria, University of California Press, Berkeley (2nd ed.), ISBN 0-520-24209-2, pp 517–606.

External links[edit]

Cretaceous Period
Lower/Early Cretaceous Upper/Late Cretaceous
Berriasian | Valanginian | Hauterivian
Barremian| Aptian | Albian
Cenomanian | Turonian | Coniacian
Santonian |Campanian | Maastrichtian