G.R. Gray, 1840
This genus was created by George Robert Gray, who suggested taking Campephilus principalis as the type for the genus. The name Campephilus means "lover of grubs" - an allusion to the diet of these birds, many of which feed on the larvae of wood-boring beetles. Contrary to long-held opinion, their closest relatives are not the large black Dryocopus woodpeckers: instead, they are related to the Chrysocolaptes flamebacks from Southeast Asia (Benz et al., 2006).
The English names ivory-billed woodpecker or ivorybill are sometimes used to refer to members of this genus, though more these are used specifically for Campephilus principalis.
- Powerful Woodpecker, Campephilus pollens
- Crimson-bellied Woodpecker, Campephilus haematogaster
- Red-necked Woodpecker, Campephilus rubricollis
- Robust Woodpecker, Campephilus robustus
- Crimson-crested Woodpecker, Campephilus melanoleucos
- Guayaquil Woodpecker, Campephilus gayaquilensis
- Pale-billed Woodpecker, Campephilus guatemalensis
- Cream-backed Woodpecker, Campephilus leucopogon
- Magellanic Woodpecker, Campephilus magellanicus
- Ivory-billed Woodpecker, Campephilus principalis - probably extinct (late 20th century)
- Imperial Woodpecker, Campephilus imperialis - possibly extinct (late 20th century)
- Benz, Brett W.; Robbins, Mark B. & Peterson, A. Townsend (2006): Evolutionary history of woodpeckers and allies (Aves: Picidae): Placing key taxa on the phylogenetic tree. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 40: 389–399. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.02.021
- Media related to Campephilus at Wikimedia Commons