Campos do Jordão

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Município de Campos do Jordão
View over Campos do Jordão
View over Campos do Jordão
Flag of Município de Campos do Jordão
Flag
Official seal of Município de Campos do Jordão
Seal
Nickname(s): Suíça Brasileira (Brazilian Switzerland)
Location of Campos do Jordão
Location of Campos do Jordão
Country  Brazil
Region Southeast
State  São Paulo
Founded April 29, 1874
Government
 • Mayor Frederico Guidoni (PSDB)
Area
 • Total 289.512 km2 (111.781 sq mi)
Elevation[1] 1,639.2 m (5,378.0 ft)
Population (2006)
 • Total 49,512
 • Density 171/km2 (440/sq mi)
Time zone UTC-3 (UTC-3)
 • Summer (DST) UTC-2 (UTC-2)
Postal Code 12460-000
Area code(s) +55 12
HDI (2000) 0.820 – high
Website Campos do Jordão, São Paulo

Coordinates: 22°44′22″S 45°35′29″W / 22.73944°S 45.59139°W / -22.73944; -45.59139 Campos do Jordão (Brazilian Portuguese: [ˈkɐ̃pus du ʒoɾˈdɐ̃w]) is a municipality in the state of São Paulo in southeastern Brazil. The population in 2003 was 47,903 inhabitants and the area is 290.27 square kilometres (112.07 sq mi). The city is situated 1,639.2 metres (5,378 ft) above sea level and is the highest city in Brazil.[2]

Features[edit]

The Mantiqueira mountains provide unique panoramic views, and the municipality's region still has undeveloped old growth Atlantic Forest habitat. The endemic Brazilian Paraná pine (Araucaria angustifolia) is found here. There are numerous outdoor activities for tourists and winter residents. These include hiking, mountain climbing, treetop cable swings (arborismo), horseback riding, and ATV and motorbike riding. July, of winter season vacations, sees an enormous influx of visitors (more than quadrupling the city's population), due in part to the winter festival of classical music.

Its attractions throughout the year include German and Swiss cuisine restaurants, bars, and a cable car. There are many pousadas (inns) and chalets. Also, in order to cater to the large number of visitors, several bars, lounges, discos and clubs open during the winter months.

A former state governor had a winter residence here, the Boa Vista Palace, which is now a museum in the city.[3]

Demography[edit]

  • Total Population: 44,252
    • Urban: 43,809
    • Rural: 443
    • Male: 21,978
    • Females: 22,274
  • Population Density (inhab./km²): 152.86
  • Infant Mortality (0 to one year old) (per one thousand): 8.52
  • Life Expectancy (years): 75.73
  • Total Fertility Rate (Children per Woman): 2.18
  • Literacy Rate: 92.28%
  • Human Development Index (IHDI): 0.820
    • IHDI-M Income: 0.763
    • IHDI-M Life Expectancy: 0.846
    • IHDI-M Education: 0.851
Race Percentage
Whites 83.9%
Blacks 2.3%
Mixed 12.2%
Asian 0.5%

(Source: IPEADATA)

Economy[edit]

The city's economy is based mainly on tourism; due to its location at high elevation in the Mantiqueira mountains, and traditional European-style architecture. Buildings are mostly vernacular architecture from German, Swiss, or Italian models. Many of the wealthiest residents in the state of São Paulo have winter country houses here.

Despite the high income of many visitors, the HDI (0.820 in 2004) of Campos do Jordão is not very high because the owners of the houses in the best neighbourhoods are not regular inhabitants; these houses are used only during the holidays. The city can be reached from São Paulo mainly by road through the Rodovia Floriano Rodrigues Pinheiro. There is also a picturesque railroad from Pindamonhangaba, used mostly by tourists. At the end of the main road going through Campos do Jordão, there is a state park called Horto Florestal.

A shopping mall in a Swiss-inspired style, common in Campos do Jordão.
Brazilian Paraná pine (Araucaria angustifolia) and local Atlantic Forest habitat, in Campos do Jordão municipality.

Climate[edit]

Campos do Jordão features a subtropical highland climate under the Köppen climate classification abbreviated Cwb. Despite its location within the tropics, due to the high elevation, temperatures here are cooler than one might expect. The resort town features “spring-like” temperatures throughout the year, with mild summers and cool winters. However, by Brazilian standards, the town is downright cold. In summer, maximum temperatures average 24°C/75°F and minimum temperatures average 13°C/55°F. In winter, maximum temperatures average 18°C/64°F and minimum temperatures average 4°C/39°F. Temperatures drop below zero sometimes in winter (lowest ever recorded: -7.3°C/19°F), but snow is very rare. Similar to many other places with this climate, Campos do Jordão sees a noticeable drying trend during its “low-sun” season. The city sees on average 1800 mm of precipitation, most of which falls from September through March.

The city, due to its elevation, is relatively cold for Brazilian standards. The winter is normally the dry season and the colder weather allows for warm fireplaces and winter foods such as fondue, soups and hot chocolate. In spring and summer, one can see Hydrangea macrophylla blossoming all over the town.

Climate data for Campos do Jordão, SP
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 23.0
(73.4)
23.0
(73.4)
23.0
(73.4)
21.0
(69.8)
19.0
(66.2)
18.0
(64.4)
18.0
(64.4)
20.0
(68)
21.0
(69.8)
21.0
(69.8)
22.0
(71.6)
22.0
(71.6)
20.5
(68.9)
Average low °C (°F) 13.0
(55.4)
13.0
(55.4)
12.0
(53.6)
9.0
(48.2)
6.0
(42.8)
4.0
(39.2)
3.0
(37.4)
4.0
(39.2)
7.0
(44.6)
10.0
(50)
11.0
(51.8)
12.0
(53.6)
8.8
(47.8)
Precipitation mm (inches) 320.5
(12.618)
238.1
(9.374)
184.6
(7.268)
71
(2.8)
63.6
(2.504)
39.7
(1.563)
47.2
(1.858)
31.7
(1.248)
89.1
(3.508)
152.8
(6.016)
219.4
(8.638)
311.3
(12.256)
1,769
(69.65)
Source: CIIAGRO[4]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "BR Localidades 2010 v1" [BR Locations 2010 v1] (MDB) (in Portuguese). Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). Retrieved September 10, 2012. 
  2. ^ "IBGE disponibiliza coordenadas e altitudes para 21.304 localidades brasileiras" [IBGE provides coordinates and altitudes to 21,304 Brazilian locations] (in Portuguese). Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). Retrieved September 10, 2012. 
  3. ^ "Palácio Boa Vista" [Boa Vista Palace]. The Artistic-Cultural Collection of the Governmental Palaces of the State of São Paulo. Retrieved September 10, 2012. 
  4. ^ "CIIAGRO on Line" [CIIAGRO Online] (in Portuguese). Integrated Center of Agrometeorological Information (CIIAGRO). Retrieved September 10, 2012. 

External links[edit]