Camulus

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"Camulos" redirects here. For the populated place in Ventura County, California, see Rancho Camulos.
For the character in the science fiction series Stargate SG-1, see Camulus (Stargate).

In the ancient Celtic pantheon, Camulus or Camulos was a theonym for a god whom the Romans equated with Mars by interpretatio romana.[1] He was an important god of early Britain and Gaul, especially among the Belgae and the Remi,[1] a Gaulish tribe who lived in the area of modern northern France, around Reims.

Camulus is named in combination with Mars in inscriptions coming from Reims,[2] Arlon,[3] Kruishoutem,[4] Rindern,[5] Mainz,[6] Bar Hill Fort near the Antonine Wall,[7] Sarmizegetusa [8] and Southwark, London [9]

At Rindern, Germany, Mars Camulos appears on a stone with a corona of oak.[1] Elsewhere he was portrayed with a ram-horned head.[1] Evidence of his popularity can be seen in several place-names notably Camulodunum.[1] Attempts to link him with the nursery character Old King Cole and Fionn's father Cumhall have been rejected by contemporary scholars.[1]

The town Camulodunum (now Colchester) in Essex may have been named after him, and is the possible basis for the legendary city Camelot.[10] Camulodunum is a latinised form of the Celtic Camulodunon, from the words Camulos and dunum meaning fortification, a reference to the town's extensive Iron Age earthwork defences.[11]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Camulus." A Dictionary of Celtic Mythology. Oxford University Press, 1998, 2004.
  2. ^ ILTG 351; AE 1935, 00064 [In] honor[em d(omus) d(ivinae)] / [3] Martis Cam[uli 3] / [Iucundiniu[s 3] / [Laurenti]um Lavinat[ium
  3. ^ CIL 13 3980 : Marti / Camulo / Lellius / Settus / v(otum) [s(olvit)] l(ibens) m(erito)
  4. ^ AE 1992, 01244 : Deo Marti Camulo / Verecundus Fructi / v(otum) s(olvit) l(ibens) m(erito)
  5. ^ CIL 13 8701 : Marti Camulo / sacrum pro / salute [Neronis] <<Tiberii>> / Claudi Caesaris / [A]ug(usti) Germanici Imp(eratoris) / [c]ives Remi qui / [t]emplum constitu/erunt
  6. ^ CIL 13 11818 : Marti / Camulo / sacrum / [ // Fronto / T[3]oni f(ilius) / d(onum) d(edit)
  7. ^ CIL 7 1103 : Deo Mar(ti) / Camulo / [m]ilites coh(ortis) [I] / Hamioru[m] / [2]CIV[1]SC[2] / [2]IVI[3]
  8. ^ AE 1998, 01100 : Invicto / Mithrae / Marti Camulo / Mercurio / Rosmertae / Q(uintus) Axius Aeli/anus v(ir) e(gregius) / proc(urator) Aug[g](ustorum) / Ioni(us)
  9. ^ AE 2002, 882: Num(inibus) Augg(ustorum) / deo Marti Ca/mulo Tiberini/us Celerianus / c(ivis) Bell(ovacus) / moritix / Londiniensi/um / primus [3] / [3]VA[
  10. ^ Arthur Cotterell (1997). The Encyclopedia of Mythology: Classical, Celtic, Norse. Anness Publishing Ltd. 
  11. ^ Crummy, Philip (1997) City of Victory; the story of Colchester - Britain's first Roman town. Published by Colchester Archaeological Trust (ISBN 1 897719 04 3)