Camulus

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For the character in the science fiction series Stargate SG-1, see Camulus (Stargate).
For the comic book of this name by Jorge Blanco and Pablo Garcia, see Camulus comics by EFX Studio.

In the ancient Celtic pantheon, Camulus or Camulos was a theonym for a god whom the Romans equated with Mars by interpretatio romana.[1] He was an important god of early Britain and Gaul, especially among the Belgae and the Remi,[1] a Gaulish tribe who lived in the area of modern northern France, around Reims.

Camulus is named in combination with Mars in five inscriptions coming from Reims,[2] Arlon,[3] Rindern,[4] Mainz,[5] and Bar Hill, Scotland.[6] The name Camulos appears independently in one votive inscription from Rome.[7]

At Rindern, Germany, Mars Camulos appears on a stone with a corona of oak.[1] Elsewhere he was portrayed with a ram-horned head.[1] Evidence of his popularity can be seen in several place-names notably Camulodunum.[1] Attempts to link him with the nursery character Old King Cole and Fionn's father Cumhall have been rejected by contemporary scholars.[1]

The town Camulodunum (now Colchester) in Essex may have been named after him, and is the possible basis for the legendary city Camelot.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Camulus." A Dictionary of Celtic Mythology. Oxford University Press, 1998, 2004.
  2. ^ ILTG 351. Inscriptions as cited by Bernhard Maier, Dictionary of Celtic Religion and Culture (Boydell & Brewer, 1997, originally published in German 1994), p. 57.
  3. ^ CIL 13.3980.
  4. ^ CIL 13.8701.
  5. ^ CIL 13.11818.
  6. ^ RIV 2166.
  7. ^ CIL 6.3.
  8. ^ Arthur Cotterell (1997). The Encyclopedia of Mythology: Classical, Celtic, Norse. Anness Publishing Ltd.