Canada men's national ice hockey team

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Canada
Shirt badge/Association crest
Nickname(s) Team Canada (Équipe du Canada)
Association Hockey Canada
General Manager Rob Blake
Head coach Mike Babcock
Assistants Lindy Ruff
Claude Julien
Ken Hitchcock
Captain Sidney Crosby
Most games Brad Schlegel (304)
Most points Cliff Ronning (156)
IIHF code CAN
IIHF ranking 3 Increase2
Highest IIHF ranking 1 (first in 2003)
Lowest IIHF ranking 5 (first in 2012)
Team colours               
Canada national hockey team jerseys - 2014 Winter Olympics.png
First international
 Canada 8–1 Switzerland  
(Les Avants, Switzerland; January 10, 1910)
Biggest win
 Canada 47–0 Denmark 
(Stockholm, Sweden; February 12, 1949)
Biggest defeat
 Soviet Union 11–1 Canada 
(Vienna, Austria; April 24, 1977)
IIHF World Championships
Appearances 67 (first in 1920)
Best result Gold medal with cup.svg Gold: 18 – 1930, 1931, 1934, 1935, 1937, 1938, 1939, 1950, 1951, 1955, 1958, 1959, 1961, 1994, 1997, 2003, 2004, 2007,
Olympics
Appearances 21 (first in 1920)
Medals

Gold medal.svg Gold: 9 – 1920, 1924, 1928, 1932, 1948, 1952, 2002, 2010, 2014
Silver medal.svg Silver: 4 – 1936, 1960, 1992, 1994

Bronze medal.svg Bronze: 2 – 1956, 1968
International record (W–L–T)
912–423–131
Medal record
Olympic Games
Gold 1920 Antwerp Team
Gold 1924 Chamonix Team
Gold 1928 St. Moritz Team
Gold 1932 Lake Placid Team
Gold 1948 St. Moritz Team
Gold 1952 Oslo Team
Gold 2002 Salt Lake City Team
Gold 2010 Vancouver Team
Gold 2014 Sochi Team
Silver 1936 Garmisch-Partenkirchen Team
Silver 1960 Squaw Valley Team
Silver 1992 Albertville Team
Silver 1994 Lillehammer Team
Bronze 1956 Cortina d'Ampezzo Team
Bronze 1968 Grenoble Team
World Championships
Gold 1930 Austria/France/Germany Canada
Gold 1931 Poland Canada
Gold 1934 Italy Canada
Gold 1935 Switzerland Canada
Gold 1937 Great Britain Canada
Gold 1938 Czechoslovakia Canada
Gold 1939 Switzerland Canada
Gold 1950 Great Britain Canada
Gold 1951 France Canada
Gold 1955 West Germany Canada
Gold 1958 Norway Canada
Gold 1959 Czechoslovakia Canada
Gold 1961 Switzerland Canada
Gold 1994 Italy Canada
Gold 1997 Finland Canada
Gold 2003 Finland Canada
Gold 2004 Czech Republic Canada
Gold 2007 Russia Canada
Silver 1933 Czechoslovakia Canada
Silver 1949 Sweden Canada
Silver 1954 Sweden Canada
Silver 1962 United States Canada
Silver 1985 Czechoslovakia Canada
Silver 1989 Sweden Canada
Silver 1991 Finland Canada
Silver 1996 Austria Canada
Silver 2005 Austria Canada
Silver 2008 Canada Canada
Silver 2009 Switzerland Canada
Bronze 1966 Yugoslavia Canada
Bronze 1967 Austria Canada
Bronze 1978 Czechoslovakia Canada
Bronze 1982 Finland Canada
Bronze 1983 West Germany Canada
Bronze 1986 Soviet Union Canada
Bronze 1995 Sweden Canada
Winter Universiade
Gold 1981 Jaca Team
Gold 1991 Sapporo Team
Gold 2007 Turin Team
Gold 2013 Trentino Team
Silver 1972 Lake Placid Team
Silver 2001 Zakopane Team
Silver 2009 Harbin Team
Bronze 1968 Innsbruck Team
Bronze 1987 Štrbské Pleso Team
Bronze 1997 Muju-Jeonju Team
Bronze 1999 Poprad-Tatry Team
Bronze 2003 Tarvisio Team
Bronze 2011 Erzurum Team

The Canadian National Men's Ice Hockey Team is the ice hockey team representing Canada internationally. The team is overseen by Hockey Canada, a member of the International Ice Hockey Federation. From 1920 until 1963, Canada's international representation was by senior amateur club teams. Canada's national men's team was founded in 1963 by Father David Bauer as a part of the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association, playing out of the University of British Columbia.[1] The nickname "Team Canada" was christened for the 1972 Summit Series and has been frequently used to refer to the Canadian national team ever since.

Canada has been one of the leading national ice hockey teams in international play, winners of the 1972 Summit Series against the Soviet Union, four of five Canada Cups dating back to 1976, nine Olympic gold medals (the most of any participating hockey nation), including three of the last four; Salt Lake City 2002, Vancouver 2010, and Sochi 2014. They are eighteen-time IIHF World Champions and winner of the 2004 World Cup of Hockey.

History[edit]

From 1920 until 1963, the senior amateur club teams representing Canada, were usually the most recent Allan Cup champions. The last amateur club team from Canada to win a gold medal at the World Championship was the Trail Smoke Eaters in 1961. Following the 1963 World Championships, Father David Bauer founded the national team as a permanent institution. The new permanent national team first competed at the 1964 Winter Olympics.

Before the Soviet Union began international competition in 1954, Canada dominated international hockey, winning six out of seven golds at the Olympics and 10 world championship gold medals. Canada then went 50 years without winning the Winter Olympic Gold medal and from 1962 to 1993, didn't win any World Championships. This was in part because Canada's best professional players were unable to attend these events as they had commitments with their National Hockey League teams.

Canada withdrew from official IIHF events in 1970 and the National Team programme was suspended after they were refused permission to use semi-professional players at the world championship. Canada returned to the IIHF in 1977 after a series of negotiations between IIHF President Dr. Sabetzki and top officials of professional ice hockey in Canada and the United States. As a result, professionals are allowed to compete at the World Championship and the tournament is scheduled later in the year to ensure more players are available from among the NHL teams eliminated from the Stanley Cup playoffs. In return, a competition for the "Canada Cup" was to be played every four years on North American territory with the participation of Canada, the United States, and the four strongest European national teams, including professionals.[citation needed]

In 1983, Hockey Canada began the "Program of Excellence", whose purpose was to prepare a team for the Winter Olympics every four years. This new National Team played a full season together all over the world against both national and club teams, and often attracted top NHL prospects. In 1986, the International Olympic Committee voted to allow professional athletes to compete in Olympic Games, starting in 1988.[2] Veteran pros with NHL experience and, in a few cases, current NHLers who were holding out in contract disputes joined the team. This program was discontinued in 1998, when the NHL began shutting down to allow its players to compete.

After not winning a gold medal for 33 years, Canada won the 1994 World Championship in Italy. Since that time, they have won in 1997, 2003, 2004, and 2007. Canada captured its first Olympic gold medal in 50 years at Salt Lake City 2002. At Vancouver 2010, Canada won the gold medal with a 3–2 win against the United States in the final. Sidney Crosby's overtime goal secured Canada the final gold medal awarded at the Games.[3] At the 2012 World Championship in Finland and Sweden, Ryan Murray became the first draft eligible prospect to represent Canada at the Ice Hockey World Championship.

Canada successfully defended gold at Sochi 2014, becoming the first men's team to do so since the Soviet Union in 1988 and the first to finish the tournament undefeated since 1984. Their relentless offensive pressure and stifling defence has earned the 2014 squad praise as perhaps the best, most complete Team Canada ever assembled.[4] Drew Doughty and Shea Weber led the team in scoring, while Jonathan Toews scored the gold medal-winning goal in the first period of a 3–0 win over Sweden in the final. The architect behind the 2010 and 2014 teams, Steve Yzerman, immediately stepped down as general manager following the win.[5]

On March 26, 2014, former San Jose Shark captain Rob Blake was selected to replace Yzerman, and lead Canada at the 2014 Men's World Ice Hockey Championships.[6]

List of teams representing Canada from 1920 to 1963[edit]

Event Team Hometown
1920 Summer Olympics Winnipeg Falcons Winnipeg, Manitoba
1924 Winter Olympics Toronto Granites Toronto, Ontario
1928 Winter Olympics University of Toronto Toronto, Ontario
1930 World Championships Toronto CCMs Toronto, Ontario
1931 World Championships University of Manitoba Winnipeg, Manitoba
1932 Winter Olympics Winnipeg Hockey Club Winnipeg, Manitoba
1933 World Championships Toronto National Sea Fleas Toronto, Ontario
1934 World Championships Saskatoon Quakers Saskatoon, Saskatchewan
1935 World Championships Winnipeg Monarchs Winnipeg, Manitoba
1936 Winter Olympics Port Arthur Bearcats Port Arthur, Ontario
1937 World Championships Kimberley Dynamiters Kimberley, British Columbia
1938 World Championships Sudbury Wolves Sudbury, Ontario
1939 World Championships Trail Smoke Eaters Trail, British Columbia
World Championships not held from 1940–1946 during World War II.
1947 World Championships Did not participate
1948 Winter Olympics Ottawa RCAF Flyers RCAF Station Trenton, Ontario
1949 World Championships Sudbury Wolves Sudbury, Ontario
1950 World Championships Edmonton Mercurys Edmonton, Alberta
1951 World Championships Lethbridge Maple Leafs Lethbridge, Alberta
1952 Winter Olympics Edmonton Mercurys Edmonton, Alberta
1953 World Championships Did not participate
1954 World Championships East York Lyndhursts East York, Ontario
1955 World Championships Penticton Vees Penticton, British Columbia
1956 Winter Olympics Kitchener-Waterloo Dutchmen KitchenerWaterloo, Ontario
1957 World Championships Did not participate
1958 World Championships Whitby Dunlops Whitby, Ontario
1959 World Championships Belleville McFarlands Belleville, Ontario
1960 Winter Olympics Kitchener-Waterloo Dutchmen KitchenerWaterloo, Ontario
1961 World Championships Trail Smoke Eaters Trail, British Columbia
1962 World Championships Galt Terriers Galt, Ontario
1963 World Championships Trail Smoke Eaters Trail, British Columbia

Players[edit]

2014 Winter Olympics roster[edit]

Roster for the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia, from February 8–23, 2014.[7][8]

# Position Player DOB Team Birthplace
1 G Roberto Luongo Apr 4, 1979 Canada Vancouver Canucks Montreal, QC
31 G Carey Price Aug 16, 1987 Canada Montreal Canadiens Anahim Lake, BC
41 G Mike Smith Mar 22, 1982 United States Phoenix Coyotes Kingston, ON
19 D Jay Bouwmeester Sep 27, 1983 United States St. Louis Blues Edmonton, AB
8 D Drew Doughty Dec 8, 1989 United States Los Angeles Kings London, ON
5 D Dan Hamhuis Dec 13, 1982 Canada Vancouver Canucks Smithers, BC
2 D Duncan Keith Jul 16, 1983 United States Chicago Blackhawks Winnipeg, MB
27 D Alex Pietrangelo Jan 18, 1990 United States St. Louis Blues King City, ON
44 D Marc-Édouard Vlasic Mar 30, 1987 United States San Jose Sharks Montreal, QC
6 D Shea Weber (A) Aug 14, 1985 United States Nashville Predators Sicamous, BC
76 D P.K. Subban May 13, 1989 Canada Montreal Canadiens Toronto, ON
22 F Jamie Benn Jul 18, 1989 United States Dallas Stars Victoria, BC
37 F Patrice Bergeron Jul 24, 1985 United States Boston Bruins L'Ancienne-Lorette, QC
77 F Jeff Carter Jan 1, 1985 United States Los Angeles Kings London, ON
87 F Sidney Crosby (C) Aug 7, 1987 United States Pittsburgh Penguins Cole Harbour, NS
9 F Matt Duchene Jan 16, 1991 United States Colorado Avalanche Haliburton, ON
15 F Ryan Getzlaf May 10, 1985 United States Anaheim Ducks Regina, SK
14 F Chris Kunitz Dec 26, 1979 United States Pittsburgh Penguins Regina, SK
12 F Patrick Marleau Sep 15, 1979 United States San Jose Sharks Aneroid, SK
61 F Rick Nash Jun 16, 1984 United States New York Rangers Brampton, ON
24 F Corey Perry May 16, 1985 United States Anaheim Ducks Peterborough, ON
10 F Patrick Sharp Dec 12, 1981 United States Chicago Blackhawks Winnipeg, MB
26 F Martin St. Louis Jun 18, 1975 United States Tampa Bay Lightning Laval, QC
20 F John Tavares Sep 20, 1990 United States New York Islanders Oakville, ON
16 F Jonathan Toews (A) Apr 29, 1988 United States Chicago Blackhawks Winnipeg, MB

Competition achievements[edit]

Olympic Games[edit]

All Olympic ice hockey tournaments between 1920 and 1968 also counted as World Championships. They have won a total of 15 Olympic medals.[9]

Games Representative GP W L T GF GA Coach Manager/GM Captain Finish Ref.
1920 Antwerp Winnipeg Falcons 3 3 0 0 21 1 Sigurjonson, GordonGordon Sigurjonson Axford, H. A.H. A. Axford Fredrickson, FrankFrank Fredrickson  Gold [10]
1924 Chamonix Toronto Granites 5 5 0 0 110 3 Rankin, FrankFrank Rankin Hewitt, WilliamWilliam Hewitt Munro, DuncDunc Munro  Gold [11]
1928 St. Moritz University of Toronto Grads 3 3 0 0 38 0 Smythe, ConnConn Smythe Hewitt, WilliamWilliam Hewitt Porter, JohnJohn Porter  Gold [12]
1932 Lake Placid Winnipeg Hockey Club 6 5 0 1 32 4 Hughes, JackJack Hughes Marsh, LouLou Marsh Cockburn, WilliamWilliam Cockburn  Gold [13]
1936 Garmisch-
Partenkirchen
Port Arthur Bearcats 8 7 1 0 54 7 Pudas, AlAl Pudas Cochrane, MalcolmMalcolm Cochrane Murray, HermanHerman Murray  Silver [14]
1948 St. Moritz Ottawa RCAF Flyers 8 7 0 1 69 5 Boucher, FrankFrank Boucher Watson, SandySandy Watson Mara, GeorgeGeorge Mara  Gold [15]
1952 Oslo Edmonton Mercurys 8 7 0 1 71 14 Holmes, LouLou Holmes Christianson, JimJim Christianson Dawe, BillyBilly Dawe  Gold [16]
1956 Cortina d'Ampezzo Kitchener-Waterloo Dutchmen 8 6 2 0 53 12 Bauer, BobbyBobby Bauer Goman, ErnieErnie Goman McKenzie, JackJack McKenzie  Bronze [17]
1960 Squaw Valley Kitchener-Waterloo Dutchmen 7 6 1 0 55 15 Bauer, BobbyBobby Bauer Goman, ErnieErnie Goman Sinden, HarryHarry Sinden  Silver [18]
1964 Innsbruck 7 5 2 0 32 17 Bauer, DavidDavid Bauer Hindmarch, BobBob Hindmarch Akervall, HankHank Akervall 4th [19]
1968 Grenoble 7 5 2 0 28 15 McLeod, JackieJackie McLeod Bauer, DavidDavid Bauer Johnston, MarshallMarshall Johnston  Bronze [20]
1980 Lake Placid 6 3 3 0 29 18 Davis, LorneLorne Davis
Drake, ClareClare Drake
Watt, TomTom Watt
Noonan, RickRick Noonan Gregg, RandyRandy Gregg 6th [21]
1984 Sarajevo 7 4 3 0 24 16 King, DaveDave King King, DaveDave King Tippett, DaveDave Tippett 4th [22]
1988 Calgary 8 9 2 1 31 21 King, DaveDave King King, DaveDave King Yawney, TrentTrent Yawney 4th [23]
1992 Albertville 8 6 2 0 37 17 King, DaveDave King King, DaveDave King Schlegel, BradBrad Schlegel  Silver [24]
1994 Lillehammer 8 5 2 1 27 19 Renney, TomTom Renney Kingston, GeorgeGeorge Kingston Joseph, FabianFabian Joseph  Silver [25]
1998 Nagano 6 4 2 0 19 8 Crawford, MarcMarc Crawford Clarke, BobbyBobby Clarke Lindros, EricEric Lindros[26] 4th [27]
2002 Salt Lake City 6 4 1 1 22 14 Quinn, PatPat Quinn Gretzky, WayneWayne Gretzky Lemieux, MarioMario Lemieux  Gold
2006 Turin 6 3 3 0 15 11 Quinn, PatPat Quinn Gretzky, WayneWayne Gretzky Sakic, JoeJoe Sakic 7th
2010 Vancouver 7 6 1 32 14 Babcock, MikeMike Babcock Yzerman, SteveSteve Yzerman Niedermayer, ScottScott Niedermayer  Gold [28]
2014 Sochi 6 6 0 17 3 Babcock, MikeMike Babcock Yzerman, SteveSteve Yzerman Crosby, SidneySidney Crosby  Gold

Summit Series[edit]

Canada Cup[edit]

  • 1976 – Champions
  • 1981 – Runners-up
  • 1984 – Champions
  • 1987 – Champions
  • 1991 – Champions

World Cup of Hockey[edit]

  • 1996 – Runners-up
  • 2004 – Champions

World Championships[edit]

All Olympic ice hockey tournaments between 1920 and 1968 also counted as World Championships.[9] The 1920 Olympics were the first world championship. IIHF World Championships were not held during the Winter Olympic years of 1980, 1984 or 1988.[9]

Year Location Result
1920 Antwerp, Belgium Gold
1924 Chamonix, France Gold
1928 St. Moritz, Switzerland Gold
1930 Chamonix, France; Berlin, Germany; Vienna, Austria Gold
1931 Krynica, Poland Gold
1932 Lake Placid, USA Gold
1933 Prague, Czechoslovakia Silver
1934 Milan, Italy Gold
1935 Davos, Switzerland Gold
1936 Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany Silver
1937 London, Great Britain Gold
1938 Prague, Czechoslovakia Gold
1939 Zürich / Basel, Switzerland Gold
World Championships not held from 1940–1946 during World War II.
1947 Did not participate
1948 St. Moritz, Switzerland Gold
1949 Stockholm, Sweden Silver
1950 London, Great Britain Gold
1951 Paris, France Gold
1952 Oslo, Norway Gold
1953 Did not participate
1954 Stockholm, Sweden Silver
1955 Krefeld / Dortmund / Cologne, West Germany Gold
1956 Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy Bronze
1957 Did not participate
1958 Oslo, Norway Gold
1959 Prague / Bratislava, Czechoslovakia Gold
1960 Squaw Valley, USA Silver
1961 Geneva / Lausanne, Switzerland Gold
1962 Colorado Springs / Denver, USA Silver
1963 Stockholm, Sweden 4th place
1964 Innsbruck, Austria 4th place
1965 Tampere, Finland 4th place
1966 Ljubljana, Yugoslavia Bronze
1967 Vienna, Austria Bronze
1968 Grenoble, France Bronze
1969 Stockholm, Sweden 4th place
Canada did not participate in IIHF events from 1970–1976.
1977 Vienna, Austria 4th place
1978 Prague, Czechoslovakia Bronze
1979 Moscow, Soviet Union 4th place
1981 Gothenburg / Stockholm, Sweden 4th place
1982 Helsinki / Tampere, Finland Bronze
1983 Düsseldorf / Dortmund / Munich, West Germany Bronze
1985 Prague, Czechoslovakia Silver
1986 Moscow, Soviet Union Bronze
1987 Vienna, Austria 4th place
1989 Stockholm / Södertälje, Sweden Silver
1990 Bern / Fribourg, Switzerland 4th place
1991 Turku / Helsinki / Tampere, Finland Silver
1992 Prague / Bratislava, Czechoslovakia 8th place
1993 Dortmund / Munich, Germany 4th place
1994 Bolzano / Canazei / Milano, Italy Gold
1995 Stockholm / Gävle, Sweden Bronze
1996 Vienna, Austria Silver
1997 Helsinki / Turku / Tampere, Finland Gold
1998 Zürich / Basel, Switzerland 6th place
1999 Oslo / Lillehammer / Hamar, Norway 4th place
2000 Saint Petersburg, Russia 4th place
2001 Cologne / Hanover / Nuremberg, Germany 5th place
2002 Gothenburg / Karlstad / Jönköping, Sweden 6th place
2003 Helsinki / Tampere / Turku, Finland Gold
2004 Prague / Ostrava, Czech Republic Gold
2005 Innsbruck / Vienna, Austria Silver
2006 Riga, Latvia 4th place
2007 Moscow / Mytishchi, Russia Gold
2008 Quebec City / Halifax, Canada Silver
2009 Bern / Kloten, Switzerland Silver
2010 Cologne / Mannheim 7th place
2011 Bratislava / Košice, Slovakia 5th place
2012 Helsinki, Finland / Stockholm, Sweden 5th place
2013 Stockholm, Sweden / Helsinki, Finland 5th place

Spengler Cup[edit]

In the Spengler Cup, Team Canada competes against European club teams such as HC Davos who host the tournament every year in Vaillant Arena. Canada was initially represented by the standing national team at this event, but subsequently is usually made up of Canadians playing in European leagues or the AHL.

Results Years
Winner 1984, 1986, 1987, 1992, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 2002, 2003, 2007, 2012
Runners-up 1985, 1988, 1990, 2000, 2001, 2005, 2006, 2008, 2010

Coaches[edit]

List of coaches of the Canada men's national ice hockey team.

Olympics

  1. Gordon Sigurjonson, 1920
  2. Frank Rankin, 1924
  3. Conn Smythe, 1928
  4. Jack Hughes, 1932
  5. Al Pudas, 1936
  6. Sgt. Frank Boucher, 1948
  7. Louis Holmes, 1952
  8. Bobby Bauer, 1956, 1960
  9. Father David Bauer, 1964
  10. Jackie McLeod, 1968
  11. Lorne Davis, Clare Drake, Tom Watt (co-coaches), 1980
  12. Dave King, 1984, 1988, 1992
  13. Tom Renney, 1994
  14. Marc Crawford, 1998
  15. Pat Quinn, 2002, 2006
  16. Mike Babcock, 2010, 2014

Summit Series, Canada Cup, World Cup

  1. Harry Sinden, 1972 Summit Series
  2. Bill Harris, 1974 Summit Series
  3. Scotty Bowman, 1976, 1981 Canada Cups
  4. Glen Sather, 1984 Canada Cup
  5. Mike Keenan, 1987 and 1991 Canada Cups
  6. Glen Sather, 1996 World Cup
  7. Pat Quinn, 2004 World Cup

World Championships

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Hockey Canada
  2. ^ Monsebraaten, Laurie (October 15, 1986). "Players in NHL are now eligible in the Olympics". Toronto Star. 
  3. ^ "Canada win thrilling final gold of Winter Olympics". BBC Sport. February 28, 2010. Retrieved March 1, 2010. 
  4. ^ "Sochi hockey squad one of the greatest Canada has ever iced". Toronto Sun. 23 February 2014. Retrieved 24 February 2014. 
  5. ^ "Steve Yzerman steps down as GM after Team Canada wins gold". Sports Illustrated. 23 February 2014. Retrieved 24 February 2014. 
  6. ^ http://www.hockeycanada.ca/en-ca/news/Rob-Blake-named-general-manager-of-Canadas-National-Mens-Team-for-2014-IIHF-Ice-Hockey-World-Championship
  7. ^ "2014 Olympic Winter Games (Men) in which Canada won a Gold Medal against Sweden.". Hockey Canada. Retrieved January 8, 2014. 
  8. ^ Eric Duhatschek. "Canadian men's Olympic hockey team unveiled". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved January 7, 2014. 
  9. ^ a b c Hockey Canada-IIHF World Men's championship
  10. ^ Podnieks 1997, pp. 1–10
  11. ^ Podnieks 1997, pp. 11–22
  12. ^ Podnieks 1997, pp. 23–32
  13. ^ Podnieks 1997, pp. 33–40
  14. ^ Podnieks 1997, pp. 41–52
  15. ^ Podnieks 1997, pp. 53–66
  16. ^ Podnieks 1997, pp. 67–78
  17. ^ Podnieks 1997, pp. 79–88
  18. ^ Podnieks 1997, pp. 89–100
  19. ^ Podnieks 1997, pp. 101–112
  20. ^ Podnieks 1997, pp. 113–124
  21. ^ Podnieks 1997, pp. 137–146
  22. ^ Podnieks 1997, pp. 147–158
  23. ^ Podnieks 1997, pp. 159–172
  24. ^ Podnieks 1997, pp. 173–182
  25. ^ Podnieks 1997, pp. 183–194
  26. ^ Lapointe, Joe (February 1, 1998). "NAGANO '98; Wearing C, for Canada". The New York Times. Retrieved March 30, 2009. 
  27. ^ Wallechinsky 2002, p. 31
  28. ^ Elliott, Helene (February 28, 2010). "Canada defeats U.S., 3–2, to win gold medal in men's hockey". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 1, 2010. 

References[edit]

External links[edit]