Canadian Museum for Human Rights
|Canadian Museum for Human Rights|
|Location||Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, at the historic Forks|
The Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR) is a national museum under construction in Winnipeg, Manitoba. It is located at The Forks where the Assiniboine and Red River meet. The purpose of the museum is to increase understanding and awareness of human rights, promote respect for others, and encourage reflection, dialogue, and action. It is set to open on September 20, 2014.
Established in 2008, the Canadian Museum for Human Rights is the first new national museum created in Canada since 1967, and it is the first new national museum ever to be located outside the National Capital Region.
The Canadian Museum of Human Rights was the dream of Canwest founder Izzy Asper as a place where students from across Canada could come to learn about human rights. He also saw it as an opportunity to revitalize downtown Winnipeg and increase tourism to the city. Asper launched the CMHR as a private initiative on 17 April 2003, the 21st anniversary of signing of Charter of Rights and Freedoms. After Izzy’s death in 2003, his daughter Gail Asper became the main proponent of the project.
On 20 April 2007, Prime Minister Stephen Harper announced the Government of Canada's intention to make the CMHR into a national museum. On 13 March 2008, Bill C-42, An Act amending the Museums Act and making consequential amendments to other Acts, received Royal Assent in Parliament, with support from all political parties, creating the Canadian Museum for Human Rights as a national museum. By the middle of 2008, a government-funded opinion research project had been completed by the TNS/The Antima Group. The ensuing report—based primarily on focus group participants—listed the following: which topics (not in order of preference) might be covered by the CMHR; key milestones in human rights achievements, both in Canada and throughout the world; current debates about human rights; and events where Canada showed a betrayal or a commitment towards human rights.
19 December 2008 marked the groundbreaking ceremony at the site of the CMHR, and official construction on the site began in April 2009. Construction was initially expected to be completed in 2012. The base building is substantially complete since the end of 2012 and the Museum's inauguration will take place in 2014. Furthermore, the Chairperson of the Board resigned before his term was up, and a new interim chair was appointed.
Funding for the capital costs of the CMHR is coming from three jurisdictions of government, the federal Crown, the provincial Crown, and the City of Winnipeg, as well as private donations. The total budget for the building of the exterior of the CMHR and its contents was $310 million as of February 2011.
To date, the Government of Canada has allocated $100 million, the Government of Manitoba has donated $40 million, and the City of Winnipeg has donated $20 million. The Friends of the Canadian Museum for Human Rights, led by Gail Asper, have raised more than $130 million in private donations from across Canada toward a final goal of $150 million. These private sector pledges include $4.5 million from provincial crown corporations in Manitoba and $5 million from the government of Ontario. The Canadian Museum for Human Rights has requested an additional $35 million in capital funding from the federal government to cover shortfalls. In April 2011, the CMHR received an additional $3.6 million from the City of Winnipeg, which was actually taken from a federal grant to the city in lieu of taxes for the museum.
Once the CMHR is open, the operating budget will be provided by the government of Canada, as the CMHR is a national museum. The estimated operating costs to the federal government are $22 million annually. In December 2011, the CMHR announced that due to rising costs for the interior exhibits of the museum, the total construction cost had increased by an additional $41 million to a new total of $351 million. In July 2012, the federal and provincial governments agreed to further increase the capital funding to the CMHR by up to $70 million, through a combination of a federal loan and a provincial loan guarantee. This newest funding was essential for the completion of the interior exhibits, so that the museum could officially open in 2014, already two years behind schedule.
In 2003, the Friends of the Canadian Museum for Human Rights launched an international architectural competition for the design of the CMHR. 62 submissions from 21 countries worldwide were submitted. The judging panel chose the design submitted by Antoine Predock, an architect from Albuquerque, New Mexico.
His vision for the CMHR is a journey, beginning with a descent into the earth where visitors enter the CMHR through the "roots" of the museum. Visitors are led through the Great Hall, then a series of vast spaces and ramps, before culminating in the Tower of Hope, a tall spire protruding from the CMHR that provides visitors with a view of downtown Winnipeg. He has been quoted as saying: “I’m often asked what my favorite, my most important building is,” he said. “I’m going on record right now,” he proclaimed. 'This is it.'”
Antoine Predock’s inspiration for the CMHR came from the natural scenery and open spaces in Canada like trees, ice, and northern lights, First Nations peoples in Canada, and the rootedness of human rights action. He describes the CMHR in the following way:
“The Canadian Museum for Human Rights is rooted in humanity, making visible in the architecture the fundamental commonality of humankind-a symbolic apparition of ice, clouds and stone set in a field of sweet grass. Carved into the earth and dissolving into the sky on the Winnipeg horizon, the abstract ephemeral wings of a white dove embrace a mythic stone mountain of 450 million year old Tyndall limestone in the creation of a unifying and timeless landmark for all nations and cultures of the world.”
The base building has been substantially complete since the end of 2012. Throughout the foundation work of the CMHR, medicine bags created by elders at Thunderbird House, in Winnipeg, were inserted into the holes made for piles and caissons to show respect for Mother Earth. On 3 July 2010, Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada, unveiled the building's cornerstone. The stone bears the Queen's royal cypher and has embedded in it a piece of stone from the ruins of St. Mary's Priory, at Runnymede, England, where it is believed the Magna Carta was approved in 1215 by King John. The CMHR website has two webcams available for the public to watch the construction as it progresses.
The CMHR is working with exhibit designer Ralph Appelbaum Associates (RAA) from New York to develop the inaugural exhibits of the museum. RAA has indicated that the galleries throughout the CMHR will deal with various themes including the Canadian human rights journey, Aboriginal concepts of human rights, the Holocaust, and current human rights issues. The CMHR has a team of researchers working with RAA to develop the inaugural exhibits.
As part of the content development process, the CMHR did a cross-country tour called "Help Write the Story of the Canadian Museum for Human Rights". From May 2009 to February 2010, the CMHR visited 19 cities and talked to thousands of people about their human rights experiences and what they want to see in the museum. This consultation process was led by Lord Cultural Resources based in Toronto. On 5 March 2013 a story produced by CBC TV (Manitoba) produced a document "Gallery Profiles" (dated 12 September 2012) that confirms some the CMHR's contents. The Museum's largest gallery will be dedicated to Canadian content while taking a thematic approach throughout all of its galleries.
Several agreements have been reached between the CMHR, and various educational institutions and government agencies, to enhance the quality and depth of information provided by the museum, as well as to broaden the educational opportunities for the museum. This is a tentative and evolving list of those organizations that have partnered with the museum:
- University of Manitoba
- University of Winnipeg
- National Museum – "Memorial in Commemoration of Famines' Victims in Ukraine" (Kiev, Ukraine)
- Canadian Association of Statutory Human Rights Agencies
- Ambassador of the Kingdom of the Netherlands to Canada (Netherlands Embassy)
- Library and Archives Canada
- The Manitoba Museum 
- Manitoba Education (the Province of Manitoba)
Aboriginal sacred site
The proposed museum has come under criticism, including criticism that the site selected is one of the richest sites in Manitoba for aboriginal artifacts. Retired Manitoba archeologist, Leigh Syms stated that the excavation done prior to construction did not go far enough. A spokesperson for the museum pointed out that the museum had consulted with native leaders prior to excavation. In addition, the museum is continuing to evaluate the site through construction. The area where the museum is being built has been an area of increased development over the past few years, including a skate park, a hotel, and a parkade. All of which are south of what is believed to be a part of the Aboriginal Graveyard.
The CMHR has responded to the criticisms put forward by Leigh Syms, arguing that they have followed all necessary guidelines prior to and during the archaeological digs and excavations and have consulted and continue to consult Aboriginal Elders and others within the Aboriginal community about the project as it moves forward.
There have been suggestions that the Canadian Museum for Human Rights, and much of the Forks in general, is located on an Aboriginal burial ground. An impact assessment and management plan prepared for the Forks Renewal Corporation prior to the beginning of construction of the Forks Market in 1988 outlines the concerns about burial grounds expressed by the archaeologists. Several archaeological digs in the area done between 1989–1991 as well as the archaeological digs completed by the Canadian Museum for Human Rights in 2008 and 2009 did not find any human remains. These digs show that while the site was used for a variety of land uses, it has never been a burial ground.
The Forks is located in the flood plain of the Red and Assiniboine rivers. Before the flood way was built in 1968, the location of the Forks was prone to flooding when accumulated winter snow rapidly melted in the spring. One of the largest of these floods, in 1826, destroyed the original Fort Garry. The Red River rose three metres (nine feet) in one day. It created a lake that remained for months and washed away nearly every building in the settlement. Due to recurring flooding, the Forks site was used as a transitional camp.
Over 50 separate projects involving excavation have been undertaken at the Forks since 1950, enabling researchers to provide an accurate reflection of the various uses of the Forks over the past 6000 years. Despite the above stated concerns, none of these projects indicate that the Forks site was ever used as a burial ground.
Proposed museum content
Starting in December 2010, controversy has erupted over the plans for two permanent gallery spaces: for the Jewish suffering during the Holocaust and for the injustices experienced by the Aboriginal peoples in Canada. Organizations like the Ukrainian Canadian Congress (UCC), Canadians for Genocide Education, the German-Canadian Congress, the Ukrainian Canadian Civil Liberties Association (UCCLA) and thousands of other Canadians have been protesting this elevation of the suffering of one or two communities above all others (while any other experiences and issues will be addressed thematically in the remaining galleries). Other advocacy groups have also chimed in to protest about the over-emphasis on the Holocaust, with regard to atrocities.
Angela Cassie, the museum’s director of communications, responded to recent criticism by pointing out that there was a misconception about there being only two permanent zones. “There will in fact be 12 permanent zones and the Holodomor will have a permanent display in the ‘Mass Atrocity’ zone, immediately adjacent to the Holocaust zone," Cassie said. "This zone will feature detailed information on the Holodomor and many other mass atrocities that have taken place worldwide and will provide educational opportunities for visitors to learn more about these events.” According to the Canadian Jewish Congress CEO Bernie Farber, the events of the Holocaust require a special focus, because they redefined the limits of "human depravity" and challenged the foundation of our civilization. The victims of this Holocaust have still not recovered from the slaughter they endured. “The Holocaust was also the foundation for our modern human rights legislation, and it makes perfect sense that the Holocaust should have a permanent place in the museum. It also makes sense that the plight of Canada’s First Nations should also have a prominent place in the museum. What makes no sense is pitting one group of Canadians against another,” said Farber. As for the Holocaust zone, Cassie has stated that this gallery is anticipated to include the sufferings of “the Roma, persons with physical and mental disabilities, gay men, lesbians … among other communities." In a "reply to the editor" of the National Post, Stuart Murray, president and CEO of the museum, gave his statement on the inclusivity of the museum's planned galleries, following the various protests appearing in the media since December 2010. A month later, Murray's travel expenses at the cost of taxpayers, purportedly for meetings related to museum business, have also been under scutiny.
Inclusion of the Holodomor and other atrocities
Lubomyr Luciuk, speaking for the UCCLA, suggested that the museum's 12 thematic galleries could cover larger issues such as Canadian internment operations, including unwarranted detention of the following: Ukrainians and others during World War I; Germans, Italians and Japanese during World War II; and some Québécois in the 1970 October Crisis. Another topic, genocides, could be treated as a whole, whether the atrocities occurred in Europe, Africa or Asia, and could include the politically motivated crimes of communism as well as fascism. In December 2010, the UCCLA also started a postcard campaign to try to persuade Heritage Minister James Moore to convene a new advisory committee, with the objective of reevaluating the proposed content of the CMHR. Following the postcard campaign, Luciuk stated that "as a publicly funded institution, the Canadian Museum for Human Rights should not elevate the suffering of any community above all others." One of the earlier postcards distributed by the UCCLA borrowed the image of a pig, representing Joseph Stalin in George Orwell's allegorical novel "Animal Farm", to portray those in favor of a separate gallery devoted to the Holocaust. This imagery was clearly ill-received by some members of the Canadian Jewish community, given its implications that creating a separate gallery to educate about the Holocaust was equivalent to Stalinist operatives trying to dominate the farms of Ukraine. Local historian Catherine Chatterley criticized the postcard campaign, stating that it demonstrated "the clear need for this museum, its permanent Holocaust gallery, and for the Canadian Institute for the Study of Antisemitism."
Shortly after the postcard campaign, Member of Parliament James Bezan released a statement imploring the CMHR Board of Trustees to apportion to the "Holodomor genocide...a unique, autonomous and prominent place in the CMHR" and requested that the "CMHR Board [of Trustees] contain respected members of the Ukrainian community with knowledge of the Holodomor and other human rights violations." A petition outlining the grievances of the UCC has been prepared for submission to parliament, entitled "Petition for equity and fairness at the Canadian Museum for Human Rights."
The UCC also revealed that the tendering process undertaken by the Canadian Museum for Human Rights has no intention of including permanent or prominent displays of the Holodomor or of Canada’s First National Internment Operations, providing further evidence that the Museum will proceed on the basis of the discredited Content Advisory Committee Report. It should be noted here that many historians and authors have considered the possibiliity that the Holodomor was not a selective genocide against the Ukrainian populace specifically—it was a consequence of collectivization rather than of ethnic prejudices (see Holodomor genocide question). Even Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn made a point of addressing this issue. He admitted that the famine was caused by the corrupt ideals of the Communist regime, under which all suffered equally. According to him, it was not an assault by the Russian people against the people of Ukraine, and that the wish to view it as such is only a recent development. The current Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych has also weighed in on the issue. He has stated that the tragedy that struck Ukrainians and other Soviet peoples between 1930–1933 should not be viewed as an act of genocide against one nation, although he has described it as a "targeted crime" by the Stalinist regime against its own people. Agreeing with other historians, he said that "the Holodomor was in Ukraine, Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. It was the result of Stalin's totalitarian regime. But it would be wrong and unfair to recognize the Holodomor as an act of genocide against one nation." Raphael Lemkin, who coined the term "genocide" and was instrumental in bringing about the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide in 1948, did view the Holodomor as an act of genocide.
The recent award-winning documentary Genocide Revealed (2011), by Canadian director Yurij Luhovy, presents convincing evidence for the view that Stalin and his cohorts in the Communist regime (not necessarily the Russian people as a whole) deliberately targeted Ukrainians in the mass starvation of 1932–1933. Stalin's regime proceeded to eliminate the intelligentsia of Ukraine, to forcibly deport Ukrainian Kulaks who opposed its collectivization policies, and to orchestrate a deliberate mass starvation by hunger of Ukrainians, wherever they were found throughout the Soviet Empire. This documentary is well-timed to provide support for the view that the Holodomor was indeed an act of genocide. The government in Canada, under Stephen Harper, passed a bill in 2008 recognizing the Holodomor as an act of genocide and recognizing the internment of Ukrainian-Canadians and others during the First World War. In July 2012, Stuart Murray signed a memorandum of understanding with Victor Didenko, the CEO of the Memorial in Commemoration of Famines' Victims in Ukraine, for future collaboration regarding education about the Holodomor. During the signing ceremony in Ukraine, Murray stated: "By raising awareness of the Holodomor, the genocide-famine created by the Soviet Union in Ukraine in 1932-33, we hope to remind people [about] the importance of breaking the silence on human rights issues."
Response of the CMHR to complaints of favouritism
Several people have expressed dismay at the quarrel over the square footage allotted to any given atrocity or human rights violation. While many Ukrainians believe the aggrandizing of the Holocaust has marginalized the Holodomor and dishonoured its victims, it has been argued that there should be less haggling over which wronged group gets the most space in a museum, and more concern over the prevention of human rights abuses in the future. Also, as the museum's own Cassie explains, the purpose of the museum is not to be a memorial for the suffering of different groups, but to be a learning experience for visitors of all ages. It will be a "museum of ideas,' not just a museum of past events. For example, the zone dedicated to the indigenous experience in Canada is "part of a broader context of introduction to human rights," Cassie said, and will form the basis for a zone exploring the wider Canadian experience of human rights, including internment of Canadians of Ukrainian and other origins during the world wars. The zone earmarked for the Holocaust sets the stage for a key zone exploring the revolutionary 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, that was drafted in direct response to the Nazi atrocities.
To address the concerns by Canadian citizens, about how various human rights issues would be covered in the museum, Cassie further provided a more detailed explanation of the actual process for public consultation and corrected any misconceptions that may have been perpetrated by the media, particularly in relation to gallery content. From this statement, it is clear that the Holocaust will be in its own gallery, the Holodomor will be given a permanent place in the 'Mass Atrocity' zone, the Canadian internment operations will be featured, and the human rights abuses towards aboriginals will have a place in the 'Indigenous Rights' gallery. Cassie also explained that the Content Advisory Committee's mandate had expired in March 2010, and that its submitted recommendations only constituted part of the consultation process. The first round of public consultations that had begun in May 2009, was completed in February 2010.
Concerns over how the Holodomor, as well as other Ukrainian and Ukrainian Canadian issues, would be treated at the CMHR proved to be valid, as described by the president of the Ukrainian Canadian Congress, Paul Grod, in a 2013 speech in Winnipeg. Among other points, Mr Grod lamented how the CMHR intends to place only a minor exhibit about the Holodomor in a secondary gallery, located adjacent to the public toilets.
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