Canadian Pacific 2816
|Canadian Pacific 2816|
The Canadian Pacific 2816 Empress at a stop in Sturtevant, Wisconsin, September 1, 2007.
|Type and origin|
|Builder||Montreal Locomotive Works|
|Build date||December 1930|
|Gauge||4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm)|
|Driver diameter||75 in (1.9 m)|
|Length||91 ft 1 in (27.76 m)|
|Weight on drivers||194,000 lb (88 t)|
|Locomotive weight||360,000 lb (160 t)|
|Locomotive and tender
|658,000 lb (298 t)|
|Fuel type||Coal (Converted to burn oil during restoration)|
|Fuel capacity||17 short tons (15 t)|
|Water capacity||12,000 imp gal (55,000 l; 14,000 US gal)|
|Boiler pressure||275 psi (1.90 MPa)|
|Cylinder size||22 in × 30 in (559 mm × 762 mm)|
|Power output||4,700 hp (3,500 kW)|
|Tractive effort||45,300 lbf (202 kN)|
|Operator(s)||Canadian Pacific Railway|
|Last run||May 26, 1960|
Canadian Pacific 2816, named the Empress, is a 4-6-4 H1b Hudson used by the Canadian Pacific Railway in occasional excursion service. The 2816 is the only non-streamlined H1 Hudson remaining (the other four remaining are the semi-streamlined Royal Hudsons).
Locomotive 2816 was one of ten H1b-class (the "H" meant the 4-6-4 wheel configuration, the "1" was the design number and the "b" meant it was the second production run) 4-6-4 Hudson built by the Montreal Locomotive Works in 1930. It was first assigned to the line between Winnipeg and Fort William, Ontario. Later, it was transferred to service between Windsor, Ontario, and Quebec City, and finally it ran a commuter train between Montreal and Rigaud, Quebec. It made its last run on May 26, 1960, after more than 2 million miles (3.2×106 km) in active service. In 1963, the locomotive was sold to Monadnock, Steamtown & Northern Amusements Corp. Inc. (AKA: Steamtown, USA), which evolved into the Steamtown National Historic Site in 1986.
Restoration and second career
When Steamtown USA moved from Bellows Falls, Vermont, to Scranton, Pennsylvania, in the 1980s, engine 2816 made the trip with other engines. When the National Park Service took over from the Steamtown Foundation, 2816 also passed to the NPS, now Steamtown National Historic Site, and the NPS decided to divest itself of foreign locomotives. In 1998 Canadian Pacific purchased 2816 after hearing of its availability from the crews who were running the Royal Hudson 2860, who had been looking for parts for 2860 and were offered the entire locomotive. It was moved in train from Scranton to Montreal via Binghamton and Albany, New York, before being shipped cross country to the BC Rail steam shops in Vancouver for restoration. The locomotive was completely stripped down and rebuilt, "the most thorough rebuild undertaken on a steam locomotive in North America since the end of their era" according to CPR News. The restoration team was able to use over 800 technical drawings of CPR Hlb class locomotives from the Canada Science and Technology Museum to completely restore 2816 to its 1950s appearance and to its original specifications. The locomotive was converted to burn oil and equipped with modern amenities such as a radio and a diesel control unit. The restoration took over two years and cost over $2,000,000, making it one of the most costly locomotive restorations in Canada. In September 2001 the locomotive made its first trial run from the BC Rail steam shops to its new home of Calgary. It then rejoined the Canadian Pacific fleet as a special excursion locomotive and for public relations. Among other uses, 2816 is used to raise money for school lunch programs and the Children's Wish Foundation. Since its restoration, 2816 has travelled all across Canada and the United States. The 2816 is one of the most well-known locomotives in North America, along with Milwaukee Road 261, Southern Pacific 4449, Union Pacific 844, Union Pacific 3985, Santa Fe 3751, Pere Marquette 1225, Nickel Plate 765, and Royal Hudson 2860. It was used in Rocky Mountain Express, a 2011 IMAX film which follows the locomotive on a journey from Vancouver to Montreal while telling the CPR's history. With E. Hunter Harrison's appointment as CEO of Canadian Pacific in 2012, he is unsure of what to do with the locomotive, so it seems unlikely that 2816 will run anytime soon for the foreseeable future.
Preservation and other remaining H1 Hudsons
2816 is the last H1b and is one of five Canadian Pacific Hudsons preserved out of the original 65 built between 1929 and 1940. The 2816 is the last of the non-streamlined H1a and H1b classes built in 1929 and 1930 numbered 2800–2819. The other four remaining sister engines to 2816 are the famed, semi-streamlined Royal Hudsons numbered 2820–2864. The remaining Royal Hudsons are numbers 2839 (H1c), 2850 and 2858 (both H1d) and the well-known 2860 (H1e). Currently, 2816 and 2860 are the only operating 4-6-4 Hudsons in North America.
At the end of the 2008 season, Canadian Pacific put the steam program on hold (with exception of previously promised engagements) due to financial issues caused by the poor economy. 2816 did not operate at all in 2009, although the steam program was able to take advantage of this down time to do some extensive maintenance work on 2816 and her passenger car fleet. 2816 returned to operation on June 6, 2010.