Canadians of convenience
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|Immigration to Canada
History of immigration to Canada
Economic impact of immigration
Canadian immigration and refugee law
Immigration Act, 1976
Immigration and Refugee Protection Act
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|Canadian nationality law|
|History of nationality law
Citizenship Act 1946
Oath of Citizenship
|Citizenship and Immigration Canada
"Canadians of convenience"
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Population by year
The term "Canadians of convenience" was popularized by Canadian politician Garth Turner in 2006 in conjunction with the evacuation of Canadian citizens from Lebanon during the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict. It refers to people with multiple citizenship who immigrated to Canada, met the residency requirement to obtain citizenship, obtained Canadian citizenship, and moved back to their original home country while maintaining their Canadian citizenship, with those who support the term claiming they do so as a safety net.
Statistics and analyses are unavailable on the distinction between evacuees who were long-term residents of Lebanon and those who were not and on how many of the long-term residents had returned to Lebanon immediately after acquiring their Canadian citizenship.
Coining of the term
Although the term was used by others (such as Peter Worthington of the Toronto Sun) earlier during the conflict in Lebanon, it was made most prominent by posts by Garth Turner, a then Conservative MP for Halton, on his blog, and the subsequent reactions. Turner questioned the fairness of paying CAD$75,000 for each evacuee, saying, among other things, "that’s a hell of a lot of money to donate to people who do not live here, don’t pay taxes here, and may never come here again in their lives." The actual cost was about $6,300 for each evacuee ($94 million for 15,000 people).
The National Post has asserted, that of the 15,000 evacuated, about 7,000 may have returned to Lebanon within a month of being evacuated.
Support of the term
Turner was criticized by some for suggesting that there are two classes of Canadian citizens. Other editorials supported the use of the phrase Canadians of convenience and said many immigrants meet their minimum residence requirement to gain Canadian citizenship (which, since 1977, can essentially never be revoked), leave the country, and only call upon their Canadian citizenship again when in need of the publicly funded Medicare or emergency evacuation from a war zone.
The official policy of the government of Canada is that a dual-citizen is the responsibility of the foreign government when living in the foreign country; however, in practice Canada generally does not distinguish between dual-citizen and single-citizen Canadians, as was the case during the 2006 evacuation from Lebanon. Prime Minister Stephen Harper said he plans to review current practice.
Canada permits multiple citizenship. For citizens of countries like India, China or Singapore which do not allow multiple citizenship, those who become Canadian citizens often lose their original citizenship if the original country learns of the Canadian citizenship, and the Canadian citizens generally are required to renounce their Canadian citizenship for naturalisation in that country.
Amendments to Citizenship Act
Resentment of Canadian citizens evacuated from Lebanon during the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict spurred Bill C-37, to amend the Citizenship Act. A new law came into effect on April 17, 2009. One of the changes instituted by the Government of Canada, is the "first generation limitation". Jason Kenney Minister for Citizenship, Immigration and Multiculturalism said the following in the House of Commons of Canada on June 10, 2010: "[...] That’s why we must protect the values of Canadian citizenship and must take steps against those who would cheapen it [...] We will strengthen the new limitation on the ability to acquire citizenship for the second generation born abroad."
The new law would only confer Canadian citizenship to those who were born to a Canadian parent who, him/herself, was either born in Canada or became a Canadian citizen by immigrating to Canada as a permanent resident and subsequently being granted citizenship (also called naturalization). Under the old rules, it was possible for Canadian citizens to pass on their citizenship to endless generations born outside Canada. To restrict the scope of those eligible for Canadian citizenship for the future, the new law limits—with a few exceptions— citizenship by descent to one generation born outside Canada.
Criticism of new citizenship rules
2011 revocation of Canadian citizenship
On July 19, 2011, Canadian Government announced through Immigration Minister Jason Kenney its intention to revoke the citizenship of 1,800 people it believes obtained their status through "fraudulent" means, and residing abroad. The decision to revoke citizenship is rare, and a large-scale crackdown such as this one is unprecedented. Fewer than 70 citizenships have ever been revoked since the Citizenship Act was passed in 1947. The move will most likely affect individuals from the Middle East and Persian Gulf countries, as well as China.
- Immigration to Canada
- Free rider problem
- Multiple citizenship
- Economic impact of immigration to Canada
- Oath of Citizenship (Canada)
- Garth Turner (2006-08-07). "Letter from Egypt". Retrieved 2009-08-14.
- "$94M for Lebanon rescue, but Canadian evacuee grateful". CBC.ca. 2006-11-04. Retrieved 2009-08-14.
- "Dual citizenship faces review". National Post. 2006-09-21. Retrieved 2009-08-14.
- "I'm a lumberjack, and you're not". The Economist. 2006-08-03. Retrieved 2006-09-06.
- "O Canada, do we stand on guard for thee?". Macleans. 2006-08-07. Retrieved 2006-09-06.
- "Speaking notes for The Honourable Jason Kenney, P.C., M.P. Minister of Citizenship, Immigration and Multiculturalism to announce legislation regarding citizenship". Government of Canada. June 10, 2010. Retrieved December 30, 2013.
- "Government of Canada". Retrieved December 30, 2013.[dead link]
- "New Canadian Citizenship Rules Impact Children of Expats". 27 January 2009. Retrieved 30 December 2013.[dead link]
- "Restrictive Canadian citizenship rules take effect". Google. AFP. April 17, 2009. Retrieved December 30, 2013.
- "Ottawa targets 1,800 in citizenship crackdown". CBC News. 2011-07-20.
- "Here's your torch", The Turner Report, 29 July 2006, URL accessed 6 September 2006
- The Passport Package: Rethinking the Citizenship Benefits of Non-Resident Canadians, C.D. Howe Institute, Backgrounder, No. 99, December 2006, URL accessed 6 December 2006