Canceled Space Shuttle missions

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Cancelled Space Shuttle missions)
Jump to: navigation, search

During the Space Shuttle program, several missions were canceled. Many were canceled as a result of the Challenger and the Columbia disasters. Many early missions were canceled due to delays in the development of the shuttle. Others were canceled because of changes in payload and missions requirements.

Contents

Canceled due to the late development of the shuttle[edit]

In 1972, NASA's planners had projected for 570 shuttle missions between 1980 and 1991.[1] Later, this estimate was lowered to 487 launches between 1980 and 1992.[2] The details of the first 23 projected missions, listed in the third edition of Manned Spaceflight (Reginald Turnill, 1978) and the first edition of the STS Flight Assignment Baseline, an internal NASA document published in October 1977,[3] are presented below.

STS-1A (Columbia)[edit]

Originally scheduled as the first orbital test (OFT-1) for launch in June 1979. The crew was to consist of a commander and pilot, and the test flight was to last 2 days and 5 hours. No crew was named at the initial announcement of the mission, but John Young and Robert Crippen were officially announced as the STS-1 crew in March 1978, when the shuttle was still originally scheduled for a 1979 launch.[4]

STS-2A (Columbia)[edit]

Originally scheduled as the second orbital flight test (OFT-2) for launch in July 1979. The 5-day mission was to see the crew of Fred Haise and Jack Lousma take the Teleoperator Retrieval System to the Skylab space station in order to boost it into a higher orbit.[5] Vance D. Brand and C. Gordon Fullerton were their backups.[6] By April 1979, when it was understood that the Shuttle could not be launched in time to rendezvous with Skylab, STS-2 was rescheduled for a 6 March 1980 launch, carrying the OSTA-1 payload and the RMS for the first time.[7] This re-manifested STS-2 finally launched on 12 November 1981, with Joe Engle and Richard Truly in place of Haise and Lousma, respectively.

STS-3 (Columbia)[edit]

Originally scheduled as the third orbital flight test (OFT-3) for launch in September 1979. The 7-day mission was to see the two-man crew (commander and pilot) test shuttle maneuvering and remote manipulator systems.

STS-4 (Columbia)[edit]

Originally scheduled as the fourth orbital flight test (OFT-4) for launch in December 1979. The crew was to consist of a commander and pilot, and the mission was to last seven days.

STS-5 (Columbia)[edit]

Originally scheduled as the fifth orbital flight test (OFT-5) for launch in February 1980. The crew was to consist of commander Ken Mattingly, pilot Henry Hartsfield and one or two mission specialists.[8] The mission was to last 7 days. First landing at Kennedy Space Center.

STS-6 (Columbia)[edit]

Originally scheduled as the sixth orbital flight test (OFT-6) for launch in March 1980. The crew of four were to conduct first test of operational payloads and conduct the first EVA from the shuttle. The mission was to last seven days.

STS-7 (Columbia)[edit]

Originally scheduled for launch on 30 May 1980. First operational flight. The crew of three were to place the LDEF satellite into orbit and the mission was to last five days. The LDEF was eventually released in 1984 from Challenger during STS-41-C. By 1979, when it became clear that the original launch schedule could not be kept to, STS-7 was re-manifested with the TDRS-A satellite and scheduled to launch on 27 February 1981 with a crew of four and a duration of two days. This rescheduled STS-7 would also have the first landing at Kennedy Space Center.[9]

STS-8 (Columbia)[edit]

Originally scheduled for launch on 1 July 1980. The crew of three were to place the satellites TDRS-A and SBS-A into orbit during the 2-day mission. TDRS-A was sent into orbit on Challenger's maiden flight, STS-6, in April 1983.

STS-9 (Columbia)[edit]

Originally scheduled for launch on 1 August 1980. The crew of three were to place the satellites GOES 4 and Anik-C1 into orbit during the 3-day mission. GOES 4 was launched atop a Delta 3914 a month after its originally scheduled launch on the shuttle. After this mission, Columbia would be returned to the Rockwell plant at Palmdale for removal of the ejection seats and test instrumentation and would receive higher capacity fuel cells, all in preparation for the first Spacelab mission.

STS-10 (Columbia)[edit]

Originally scheduled for launch on 14 November 1980. The crew of three were to place the satellites TDRS-B and SBS-B into orbit during the 3-day mission. TDRS-B was rescheduled for STS-51-E but became re-manifested on STS-51-L, where it was destroyed along with Challenger on 28 January 1986.

STS-11 (Columbia)[edit]

Originally scheduled for launch on 18 December 1980, carrying the European Spacelab-1 science module. The crew of five were to consist of three NASA astronauts and two European payload specialists. The mission was to last seven days. This first Spacelab mission was later launched as STS-9 in November 1983.

STS-12 (Columbia)[edit]

Originally scheduled for launch on 30 January 1981. The crew of three were to place the satellites TDRS-C and Anik-C2 into orbit during the 2-day mission. An alternate mission was also planned which replaced the TDRS-C with an Intelsat-V satellite, and would last five days instead of two. TDRS-C was eventually made as the replacement for the destroyed TDRS-B and launched from Discovery on STS-26 in September 1988.

STS-13 (Columbia)[edit]

Originally scheduled for launch on 3 March 1981. The crew of three were to place the GOES-E satellite into orbit during the 5-day mission. GOES-E was eventually launched on a Delta 3914 over two months after its originally scheduled launch on the shuttle.

STS-14 (Columbia)[edit]

Originally scheduled for launch on 7 April 1981, carrying four Spacelab instrumentation pallets and a pressurized "igloo" used to support the payloads. The crew of five was to consist of two payload specialists. The mission was to last 12 days.

STS-15 (Columbia)[edit]

Originally scheduled for launch on 13 May 1981. During this mission, the satellites TDRS-D and SBS-C would be placed into orbit. The Anik-C3 satellite could be substituted in place of SBS-C. TDRS-D was launched from Discovery on STS-29 in March 1989, with SBS-C being launched on Columbia's first operational mission, STS-5, in November 1982.

STS-16 (Columbia)[edit]

Originally scheduled for launch on 16 June 1981, carrying the Spacelab-3 science module. A "payload of opportunity" of 9 tons (8.16 mt) also existed, which could accommodate a communications satellite. The crew of five was to consist of two payload specialists.

STS-17 (Enterprise)[edit]

Originally to be the first spaceflight of the shuttle Enterprise, scheduled for launch on 16 July 1981. It was to place an Intelsat V satellite into orbit and retrieve the LDEF. Enterprise never flew in space, and instead its place as the second shuttle in the fleet was taken by Challenger.

STS-18 (Columbia)[edit]

Originally scheduled for launch on 29 July 1981, carrying a Spacelab pallet and pressurized "igloo". A tentative planned payload would be flown for the Department of Defense, which would make it the first such payload flown on the Shuttle.

STS-19 (Columbia)[edit]

Originally scheduled for launch on 2 September 1981. Was to carry a series of five Spacelab pallets.

STS-20 (Enterprise)[edit]

Originally scheduled for launch on 30 September 1981, carrying the Spacelab-4 life-science module and an unpressurized Spacelab pallet.

STS-21 (Columbia)[edit]

Originally scheduled for launch on 14 October 1981. A crew of three was to retrieve the Solar Maximum Mission satellite and bring it back to Earth after a five-day mission. Columbia would have carried an "OMS Kit" which contained additional fuel for the shuttle's Orbital Maneuvering System, necessary to safely reach the SMM's orbit. The SMM, launched in February 1980, was eventually retrieved and repaired in orbit on STS-41-C in 1984, and continued operating until 1989.

STS-22 (Enterprise)[edit]

Originally scheduled for launch on 25 November 1981. Was planned to carry an ESA-operated Spacelab module and additional pallet.

STS-23 (Columbia)[edit]

Originally scheduled for launch on 5 January 1982. Was to launch the Galileo probe (then known as the "Jupiter Orbiter and Probe") to Jupiter using a modified IUS booster. Galileo was eventually delivered to orbit by Atlantis during STS-34, launched 18 October 1989, after lengthy delays.

Canceled between the first flight of the shuttle (1981) and the Challenger disaster (1986)[edit]

STS-10 (Challenger)[edit]

Planned Launch Date: November 1983

Originally to be the first classified mission for the Department of Defense; canceled due to concerns with the payload's Inertial Upper Stage booster.[10] The entire crew, which had been assigned in October 1982, flew on STS-51-C in January 1985.

Crew:

STS-12 (Discovery)[edit]

Planned Launch Date: March 1984

Originally to be the maiden flight of the shuttle Discovery. Its original mission was to deploy a TDRS satellite, which was canceled due to concerns with the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) that was to be used in the mission. The crew (along with payload specialist Charles D. Walker) eventually flew on STS-41-D in August 1984.

Crew:

STS-41-E (Challenger)[edit]

Planned Launch Date: July 1984

A mission to deploy a DOD satellite, was canceled due to problems with the IUS upper stage that was to be used in the mission.

Crew:

STS-41-F (Discovery)[edit]

STS-41-F was a planned Space Shuttle mission that was to have been flown by the Space Shuttle Discovery, however it was canceled after STS-41-D was delayed[11] due to its RSLS abort. Most of STS-41-F's payloads were added to the STS-41-D mission and eventually launched in August 1984.[11] STS-41-F was scheduled to launch at 13:35 UTC on 29 August 1984, and land on Runway 17 at Edwards Air Force Base at 11:32 UTC on 4 September.[citation needed] It would have had a crew of five astronauts.

Crew:

STS-51-E (Challenger)[edit]

Planned Launch Date: March 1985

Mission objective was to deploy the TDRS-B communication satellite, canceled due to IUS failure. Most of the crew would be reassigned to STS-51-D which flew in April 1985 (except for Patrick Baudry, who was reassigned to STS-51-G which flew in June 1985).

Crew:

STS-51-D (Discovery)[edit]

Planned Launch Date: March 1985

Mission objectives were to deploy a Syncom communication satellite and retrieval of the Long Duration Exposure Facility. Most of the crew would fly on STS-51-G in June, with Walker remaining on the remanifested STS-51-D flight and Jarvis eventually bumped to STS-51-L, in which he was killed during the Challenger disaster.

Crew:

STS-51-H (Atlantis)[edit]

Planned Launch Date: November 1985

Originally EOM-1 Spacelab mission, canceled in December 1984 due to planned combining with EOM-2 mission. Later re-manifested as STS-61-K which was then canceled due to the Challenger disaster.[12]

Crew:

Canceled due to the Challenger disaster[edit]

STS-61-E (Columbia)[edit]

STS-61-E mission insignia

Planned Launch Date: 6 March 1986

ASTRO-1 mission, would have been used to examine Halley's Comet in conjunction with the unmanned probes of the Halley Armada.[12] The Astro-1 mission, and most of the assigned crew, would eventually fly on STS-35 in 1990.

Crew:

STS-61-F (Challenger)[edit]

Planned Launch Date: 15 May 1986

Primary mission intended to deploy the Ulysses solar polar orbiter with a Centaur-G upper stage. Most of the crew would fly on the first post-Challenger shuttle mission, STS-26. Ulysses itself would eventually be launched by Discovery on STS-41 with an IUS.

Crew:

STS-61-G (Atlantis)[edit]

Planned Launch Date: 20 May 1986

Primary mission would have been the deployment of the Galileo probe with a Centaur-G upper stage. Most of the crew would later fly on STS-30 in 1989. Galileo would eventually be launched by Atlantis on STS-34 with an IUS.[13][14]

Crew:

STS-61-H (Columbia)[edit]

Planned Launch Date: 24 June 1986

Mission objective was to deploy three satellites. The crew would have included the first British and the first Indonesian astronaut. Most of this crew would fly, sans payload specialists, as STS-29; James Bagian replaced Fisher, who was on leave.[12]

Crew:

Backup Payload Specialists:

STS-62-A (Discovery)[edit]

Planned Launch Date: 1 July 1986

DOD mission, was to have been the first shuttle mission flown from Space Launch Complex 6 at Vandenberg Air Force Base, and would have been the first mission to enter polar orbit. Astronauts Guy Gardner, Mullane, and Ross would fly together on STS-27, commanded by Robert L. Gibson, and with William Shepherd rounding out the crew, with no payload specialists.[15][16]

Crew:

STS-61-M (Challenger)[edit]

Planned Launch Date: 22 July 1986.

Payload was to have been the TDRS-4 satellite.

Crew:

STS-61-J (Atlantis)[edit]

Planned Launch Date: 18 August 1986

Mission was intended to deploy the Hubble Space Telescope into orbit. The Hubble Space Telescope, and most of the previously assigned crew (except Young, who was replaced by Loren Shriver), would eventually fly on STS-31 in 1990.[14][17]

Crew:

STS-61-N (Discovery)[edit]

Planned Launch Date: 4 September 1986

DOD mission, which would be flown in 1989 as STS-28 with most of the named crew except McCulley (who was replaced by Richard N. Richards) and Casserino.[16][18]

Crew:

STS-61-I (Challenger)[edit]

Planned Launch Date: 27 September 1986

Primary mission objective would have been deployment of the Intelsat-4 satellite and the retrieval of the Long Duration Exposure Facility. Smith perished in the Challenger disaster shortly after being named to this crew. Dunbar would later be assigned to STS-32, which retrieved the LDEF in 1990.

Crew:

STS-62-B (Discovery)[edit]

DOD mission, planned for 29 September 1986. The only crewmember assigned to the mission before it was canceled was Payload Specialist Katherine Eileen Sparks Roberts.[16][19]

STS-61-K (Columbia)[edit]

Planned for 1 October 1986.[12]

Crew:

STS-61-L (Atlantis)[edit]

Planned for 1 November 1986. Would have launched the first American journalist in space. The only crewmember assigned to the mission before it was canceled was Payload Specialist John Konrad.[14][20]

STS-71-B (Challenger)[edit]

DOD mission, planned for December 1986. Would have carried Military Spaceflight Engineer Charles Edward Jones, who later died on Flight 11 when it was crashed into the World Trade Center during the September 11, 2001 attacks.

STS-71-A (Columbia)[edit]

Astro-2 mission, planned for 1 January 1987. The only crewmember assigned to the mission before it was canceled was Payload Specialist Kenneth Hugh Nordsieck.[12]

STS-71-C (Atlantis)[edit]

Planned for 1 January 1987. Was to launch a British Skynet satellite. The only crewmember assigned to the mission before it was canceled was British Payload Specialist Peter Longhurst.[14][21]

STS-71-D (Columbia)[edit]

Planned for 1 February 1987. The only crewmember assigned to the mission before it was canceled was Payload Specialist Robert Jackson Wood.[12]

STS-71-E (Challenger)[edit]

First Spacelab Life Science mission (SLS-1), planned for March 1987. The only crewmembers assigned to the mission before it was canceled were Payload Specialists Drew Gaffney and Robert Ward Phillips.

STS-71-F (Atlantis)[edit]

Planned for 1 March 1987. The only crewmember assigned to the mission before it was canceled was Canadian Payload Specialist Steven MacLean.[14][22]

STS-71-G (Challenger)[edit]

Planned for April 1987. Was to launch a Navstar GPS satellite.[23]

STS-71-J (Challenger)[edit]

Planned for June 1987. Was to deploy a second LDEF with new experiments.[24]

STS-71-M (Columbia)[edit]

ASTRO-3 mission, planned for 1 August 1987. The only crew member assigned to the mission before it was canceled was Payload Specialist Kenneth Hugh Nordsieck.[12]

STS-81-A (Challenger)[edit]

Planned for October 1987. Was to launch a Navstar GPS satellite.[23]

STS-81-D (Challenger)[edit]

Planned for December 1987. Was to launch a Navstar GPS satellite.[23]

STS-81-G (Challenger)[edit]

Spacelab-J science mission, planned for February 1988. The only crewmembers assigned to the mission before it was canceled were the Japanese Payload Specialists Mamoru Mohri and Chiaki Mukai. Spacelab-J was eventually flown on STS-47 in 1992, using Challenger's replacement, Endeavour.

STS-81-M (Atlantis)[edit]

Second Spacelab Life Science mission (SLS-2), planned for 1 July 1988. The only crewmember assigned to the mission before it was canceled was Payload Specialist Millie Hughes-Fulford, who would fly on STS-40.[14][25]

STS-82-B (Discovery)[edit]

Planned for 1988. Among other tasks, the mission included the deployment of the Cosmic Background Explorer observatory, later launched on a Delta rocket in 1989.

Canceled between 1988 and the Columbia disaster (2003)[edit]

STS-144 (Columbia)[edit]

A mission to retrieve the Hubble Space Telescope and return it to Earth, for possible display in the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C..[citation needed] NASA later flew the STS-125 mission to the telescope, carrying a target assembly to allow for a safe de-orbit and atmospheric breakup over the Pacific Ocean.

Canceled due to the Columbia disaster[edit]

STS-114 (Atlantis)[edit]

Originally to be launched on 1 March 2003 to the International Space Station. It would have carried the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello and carried out a station crew rotation.[14][26]

Crew:

STS-115 (Endeavour)[edit]

Originally to be launched on 23 May 2003 to the International Space Station to conduct the 10-day assembly mission ISS-12A.[27][28]

Crew:

STS-116 (Atlantis)[edit]

Originally to be launched on 24 July 2003 to the International Space Station to conduct assembly mission ISS-12A.1, delivering the third port truss segment (ITS P5), logistics and supplies. It would also have carried out a station crew rotation.[14][29]

Crew:

STS-117 (Endeavour)[edit]

Originally to be launched on 2 October 2003 to the International Space Station to conduct assembly mission ISS-13A, delivering the second starboard truss segment (ITS S3/S4), a solar array set, and batteries.[30]

Crew:

STS-118 (Columbia)[edit]

Originally to be launched on 13 November 2003 to the International Space Station to conduct assembly mission ISS-13A.1, delivering the third starboard truss segment (ITS S5) and station supplies. It would have been Columbia's first ISS visit.[12][31]

Crew:

STS-119 (Atlantis)[edit]

Originally to be launched on 15 January 2004 to the International Space Station to conduct assembly mission ISS-15A and carry-out a station crew rotation.

Crew:

STS-120 (Endeavour)[edit]

Originally to be launched on 19 February 2004 to the International Space Station to conduct assembly mission ISS-10A, delivering the second of three station connecting modules, Harmony. With this mission, the ISS US Orbital Segment would have been completed.

Crew:

STS-121 (Discovery)[edit]

Originally to be launched on 1 July 2004 to the International Space Station to conduct assembly mission ISS-9A.1, delivering the Science Power Platform with four solar arrays to the station, and to have carried out a station crew rotation. No crew had been named at the time of cancelation.[16][32]

STS-122 (Columbia)[edit]

Originally to be launched on 15 April 2004 to conduct the fourth Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission. No crew had been named at the time of cancellation.[12][33]

STS-123 (Atlantis)[edit]

Originally to be launched on 1 October 2004 to the International Space Station to conduct resupply mission ISS-UF4. No crew had been named at the time of cancellation.[14][34]

STS-124 (Endeavour)[edit]

Originally to be launched on 1 December 2004 to the International Space Station to conduct assembly mission ISS-1J/A, delivering the Japanese JEM ELM PS module and SPP to the station. No crew had been named at the time of cancellation.[28][35]

STS-125 (Discovery)[edit]

Originally to be launched on 1 February 2005 to the International Space Station to conduct assembly mission ISS-1J, delivering the Japanese Kibo Experiment Module and JEM RMS to the station. No crew had been named at the time of cancellation.[16][36]

STS-126 (Endeavour)[edit]

Originally to be launched on 1 April 2005 to the International Space Station to conduct resupply mission ISS-UF3. No crew had been named at the time of cancellation.[28][37]

STS-127 (Discovery)[edit]

Originally to be launched on 1 June 2005 to the International Space Station to conduct assembly mission ISS-1E, delivering the European Columbus module. No crew had been named at the time of cancellation.[16][38]

STS-128 (Columbia)[edit]

Originally to be launched on 1 August 2005 to conduct the fifth Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission. No crew had been named at the time of cancellation.[12][39]

STS-129 (Discovery)[edit]

Originally to be launched on 1 October 2005 to the International Space Station to conduct assembly mission ISS-2J/A, delivering the Japanese hardware JEM EF and the Cupola. No crew had been named at the time of cancellation.[16][40]

STS-130 (Endeavour)[edit]

Originally to be launched on 1 February 2006 to the International Space Station to conduct resupply mission ISS-UF5. No crew had been named at the time of cancellation.[28][41]

STS-131 (Atlantis)[edit]

Originally to be launched on 1 April 2006 to the International Space Station to conduct assembly mission ISS-14A, delivering 4 SPP arrays and the MMOD. No crew had been named at the time of cancellation.[14][42]

STS-132 (Discovery)[edit]

Originally to be launched on 1 June 2006 to the International Space Station to conduct resupply mission ISS-UF6. No crew had been named at the time of cancellation.[16][43]

STS-133 (Endeavour)[edit]

Originally to be launched on 1 August 2006 to the International Space Station to conduct assembly mission ISS-20A, delivering Tranquility. No crew had been named at the time of cancellation.[28][44]

STS-134 (Atlantis)[edit]

Originally to be launched on 1 October 2006 to the International Space Station to conduct assembly mission ISS-16A, delivering the Habitation Module. No crew had been named at the time of cancellation.[14][45]

STS-135 (Endeavour)[edit]

Originally to be launched on 1 February 2007 to the International Space Station to conduct assembly mission ISS-17A, delivering the Multipurpose Laboratory Module (Nauka), Destiny lab racks, and a CBA to the station. No crew had been named at the time of cancellation.[28][46]

STS-136 (Discovery)[edit]

Originally to be launched on 1 April 2007 to the International Space Station to conduct assembly mission ISS-18A, delivering the first US Crew Return Vehicle (CRV). No crew had been named at the time of cancellation.[16][47]

STS-137 (Atlantis)[edit]

Originally to be launched on 1 July 2007 to the International Space Station to conduct assembly mission ISS-19A, delivering an MPLM and other station hardware. No crew had been named at the time of cancellation.[14][48]

STS-138 (Discovery)[edit]

Originally to be launched on 1 October 2007 to the International Space Station to conduct resupply mission ISS-UF7. The Centrifuge Accommodations Module would also have been delivered to the station. No crew had been named at the time of cancellation.[16][49]

Other canceled missions[edit]

STS-1 (Columbia)[edit]

Originally intended to be a sub-orbital test of the Space Shuttle system, using the RTLS flight profile devised for emergency abort scenarios.[50] The mission was canceled when astronauts refused to fly it, having deemed the plan to be too dangerous. STS-1 commander John W. Young recalled that "I said no. I said let's not practice Russian roulette, because you may have a loaded gun there. So we didn't."[50]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Turnill, p.73
  2. ^ Turnill, inner cover
  3. ^ "What Shuttle Should Have Been: The October 1977 Flight Manifest". Wired. Retrieved 2012-11-05. 
  4. ^ "STS-1 - First Space Shuttle Mission Press Kit". Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. 1981. p. 46. Retrieved November 6, 2012. 
  5. ^ "STS-2A". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 2010-03-31. 
  6. ^ Lewis, Richard S. (1978-05-11). "Skylab brings NASA down to Earth". New Scientist. p. 350. Retrieved February 18, 2012. 
  7. ^ "STS-2 Conceptual Flight Profile". NASA Mission Planning and Analysis Division. 1979. Retrieved November 6, 2012. 
  8. ^ Evans, Ben (2005). Space Shuttle Columbia: Her Missions and Crews. Praxis Publishing. p. 48. ISBN 0-387-21517-4. 
  9. ^ "STS-7 Flight Feasibility Assessment". NASA Flight Planning Branch. 1979. Retrieved 5 November 2012. 
  10. ^ Evans, Ben (2007). Space Shuttle Challenger: Ten Journeys Into the Unknown. Praxis Publishing. p. 95. ISBN 0-387-46355-0. 
  11. ^ a b NASA (3 August 2000). "Space Shuttle Mission Summaries". NASA. Retrieved 23 November 2008. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Columbia". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 2010-03-31. 
  13. ^ "STS-61-G". Encyclopedia Astronautica. 2007-11-17. Retrieved 2010-03-31. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Atlantis". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 2010-03-31. 
  15. ^ "STS-62-A". Encyclopedia Astronautica. 2007-11-17. Retrieved 2010-03-31. 
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Discovery". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 2010-03-31. 
  17. ^ "STS-61-J". Encyclopedia Astronautica. 2007-11-17. Retrieved 2010-03-31. 
  18. ^ "STS-61-N". Encyclopedia Astronautica. 2007-11-17. Retrieved 2010-03-31. 
  19. ^ "STS-62-B". Encyclopedia Astronautica. 2007-11-17. Retrieved 2010-03-31. 
  20. ^ "STS-61-L". Encyclopedia Astronautica. 2007-11-17. Retrieved 2010-03-31. 
  21. ^ "STS-71-C". Encyclopedia Astronautica. 2007-11-17. Retrieved 2010-03-31. 
  22. ^ "STS-71-F". Encyclopedia Astronautica. 2007-11-17. Retrieved 2010-03-31. 
  23. ^ a b c Evans, Ben (2007). Space Shuttle Challenger: Ten Journeys Into the Unknown. Praxis Publishing. p. 268. ISBN 0-387-46355-0. 
  24. ^ Evans, Ben (2007). Space Shuttle Challenger: Ten Journeys Into the Unknown. Praxis Publishing. p. 269. ISBN 0-387-46355-0. 
  25. ^ "STS-81-M". Encyclopedia Astronautica. 2007-11-17. Retrieved 2010-03-31. 
  26. ^ "STS-114". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 2013-08-30. 
  27. ^ "STS-115". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 2013-08-30. 
  28. ^ a b c d e f "Endeavour". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 2010-03-31. 
  29. ^ "STS-116". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 2013-08-30. 
  30. ^ "STS-117". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 2013-08-30. 
  31. ^ "STS-118". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 2013-08-30. 
  32. ^ "STS-121A". Encyclopedia Astronautica. 2007-11-17. Retrieved 2010-03-31. 
  33. ^ "STS-122A". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 2010-03-31. [dead link]
  34. ^ "STS-123A". Encyclopedia Astronautica. 2007-11-17. Retrieved 2010-03-31. 
  35. ^ "STS-124A". Encyclopedia Astronautica. 2007-11-17. Retrieved 2010-03-31. [dead link]
  36. ^ "STS-125A". Encyclopedia Astronautica. 2007-11-17. Retrieved 2010-03-31. [dead link]
  37. ^ "STS-126A". Encyclopedia Astronautica. 2007-11-17. Retrieved 2010-03-31. 
  38. ^ "STS-127A". Encyclopedia Astronautica. 2007-11-17. Retrieved 2010-03-31. [dead link]
  39. ^ "STS-128A". Encyclopedia Astronautica. 2007-11-17. Retrieved 2010-03-31. 
  40. ^ "STS-129A". Encyclopedia Astronautica. 2007-11-17. Retrieved 2010-03-31. [dead link]
  41. ^ "STS-130A". Encyclopedia Astronautica. 2007-11-17. Retrieved 2010-03-31. 
  42. ^ "STS-131A". Encyclopedia Astronautica. 2007-11-17. Retrieved 2010-03-31. 
  43. ^ "STS-132A". Encyclopedia Astronautica. 2007-11-17. Retrieved 2010-03-31. 
  44. ^ "STS-133A". Encyclopedia Astronautica. 2007-11-17. Retrieved 2010-03-31. 
  45. ^ "STS-134A". Encyclopedia Astronautica. 2007-11-17. Retrieved 2010-03-31. 
  46. ^ "STS-135A". Encyclopedia Astronautica. 2007-11-17. Retrieved 2010-03-31. 
  47. ^ "STS-136A". Encyclopedia Astronautica. 2007-11-17. Retrieved 2010-03-31. 
  48. ^ "STS-137A". Encyclopedia Astronautica. 2007-11-17. Retrieved 2010-03-31. 
  49. ^ "STS-138A". Encyclopedia Astronautica. 2007-11-17. Retrieved 2010-03-31. 
  50. ^ a b Coledan, Stefano (December 2000). "Astronauts in Danger". Popular Mechanics.