Candareen

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Candareen
Chinese name
Chinese
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese phân
Hán-Nôm
Korean name
Hangul
Hanja
Mongolian name
Mongolian пүн
Japanese name
Kanji
Hiragana ふん
Buryat name
Buryat пүн

A candareen (/kændəˈrin/;[1] Chinese: ; pinyin: fēn; Cantonese Yale: fàn;[2] Singapore English usage: hoon[3]) is a traditional measurement of weight in East Asia. It is equal to 10 cash and is 1/10 of a mace. It is approximately 378 milligrams. A troy candareen is approximately 374 milligrams.

In Hong Kong, one candareen is 0.3779936375 gramme[2] and, in the Weights and Measures Ordinance, it is 2150 oz. avoir. In Singapore, one candareen is 0.377994 grams.[3]

The name candareen comes from the Malay kandūri.[1] An earlier English form of the name was condrin.[1] The candareen was also formerly used to describe a unit of currency in imperial China equal to 10 li (釐) and is 1/10 of a mace. The Mandarin Chinese word fēn is currently used to denote 1/100th of a Chinese renminbi yuan but the term candareen for currency is now obsolete.

Postal denomination[edit]

The "Large Dragons", China's first postage stamps, 1878

On 1 May 1878 the Imperial Maritime Customs was opened to the public and China's first postage stamps, the "Large Dragons" (Chinese: 大龍郵票; pinyin: dài lóng yóupiào), were issued to handle payment. The stamps were inscribed "CHINA" in both Latin and Chinese characters, and denominated in candareens.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Candareen". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005.  Accessed from OED Online.
  2. ^ a b "Weights and Measures Ordinance". Laws of Hong Kong. 
  3. ^ a b "Weights and Measures Act (CHAPTER 349) Third Schedule". Singapore Statutes. 
  4. ^ Institute of Chinese Studies, University of Heidelberg, Germany: Shelfmark: HE6185.C55 T33 1989|title: 大龍郵票與清代郵史 / 中國郵票博物館 編 Ta-lung yu-p'iao yü Ch'ing-tai yu-shih / Chung-kuo yu-p'iao po-wu-kuan pien |Published: 香港 : 商務印書館 Hsiang-kang : Shang-wu yin-shu-kuan, 1989 |Description: 212 p.: col. ill.|ISBN 7-80047-120-8|Language: chi.; eng.|Corp. body: 中國郵票博物館 Chung-kuo yu-p'iao po-wu-kuan|Parallel Title: A picture album of The Large Dragon Stamps and the postal history of the Qing Dynasty|Subjects: Postage-stamps - China - History

See also[edit]