Candidatus Carsonella ruddii

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Candidatus Carsonella ruddii
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Gamma Proteobacteria
Order: unclassified
Genus: Candidatus Carsonella
Species: Ca. C. ruddii
Binomial name
Candidatus Carsonella ruddii
Thao et al. 2000

Candidatus Carsonella ruddii is an obligate endosymbiotic Gamma Proteobacterium;[1] it has one of the smallest genomes of any characterised bacteria.[2] Nasuia deltocephalinicola is now considered to have the known smallest genome in bacteria (112kb).[3]

The species is an endosymbiont that is present in all species of phloem sap-feeding insects known as psyllids.[4][5] The endosymbionts occurs in a specialised structure known as the bacteriome.

In 2006 the genome of Ca. C. ruddii strain Pv (Carsonella-Pv) of the hackberry petiole gall psyllid, Pachypsylla venusta, was sequenced at RIKEN in Japan and the University of Arizona. It was shown that the genome consists of a circular chromosome of 159,662 base pairs and that it has a high coding density (97%) with many overlapping genes and reduced gene length. The number of predicted genes was 182, also the lowest on record (NCBI-Genome). In comparison, Mycoplasma genitalium, which has the smallest genome of any free-living organism, has a genome of 521 genes. Numerous genes considered essential for life seem to be missing, suggesting that the species may have achieved organelle-like status.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Spaulding, A. W. and C. D. von Dohlen. 1998. Phylogenetic Characterization and Molecular Evolution of Bacterial Endosymbionts in Psyllids (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha). Molecular Biology and Evolution 15(11):1506-1513
  2. ^ a b Nakabachi A, Yamashita A, Toh H, Ishikawa H, Dunbar H, Moran N, Hattori M (2006). "The 160-kilobase genome of the bacterial endosymbiont Carsonella.". Science 314 (5797): 267. doi:10.1126/science.1134196. PMID 17038615. 
  3. ^ Bennett, G. M.; Moran, N. A. (5 August 2013). "Small, Smaller, Smallest: The Origins and Evolution of Ancient Dual Symbioses in a Phloem-Feeding Insect". Genome Biology and Evolution 5 (9): 1675–1688. doi:10.1093/gbe/evt118. 
  4. ^ Thao, M.L. 2000. Cospeciation of Psyllids and Their Primary Prokaryotic Endosymbionts. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66:2898-2905
  5. ^ Thao, M.L. 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of vertically transmitted psyllid endosymbionts (Candidatus Carsonella ruddii) based on atpAGD and rpoC: comparisons with 16S-23S rDNA-derived phylogeny. Current Microbiology 42:419-21 PMID 11381334

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