# Canfield (solitaire)

Alternative name(s) A Patience game Demon Chameleon, Rainbow, Selective Canfield, Storehouse, Superior Canfield Demon Single 52-card See also Glossary of solitaire

Canfield is a solitaire (patience) card game with a very low probability of winning. According to legend, it is originally a casino game, named after the casino owner who is said to have invented it. In England, it is known as Demon.

## The story behind the game

Richard A. Canfield, noted gambler, owned the Canfield Casino in Saratoga Springs, New York during the 1890s. Gamblers at his casino would play the game by "buying" a deck of cards for \$50. The gambler would then play the game and earn \$5 for every card he managed to place into the foundations; if one was fortunate enough to place all 52 cards into the foundations, the player would win \$500. Although players make a loss (about an average of five to six cards), the game proved to be popular, and Canfield became rich. The disadvantage of this new game was the need to hire a croupier for every gambler playing the game.

Though the above story appears very widely, some critics[who?] of the story say that it cannot be correct because Canfield would have been bankrupt if this story were true, if simple mathematics is applied.[original research?] Nonetheless, the story stuck to explain the game's origins, although it has not yet been researched thoroughly.

Canfield himself called the game Klondike, but the name Canfield stuck and became synonymous with solitaire itself. Sometimes, Canfield and Klondike are even interchangeable to refer to each other's games.

## Method of play

To play the game, one must first deal thirteen cards faced up and then turned down. These cards would be the reserve, the top card of which is available for play. Then a card is placed on first of the four foundations to the right of the reserve. This card is the first card of its foundation and all other cards of the same rank must also start the other three foundations. (This initial "automatic" foundation card may have contributed to the popularity of the game: "Oh! Look! You've won \$5.00 already!")

Below the foundations are four piles, each starting with a card each. This will be the tableau and the top cards of each pile are available for play. Cards on the tableau are built down by alternating colors, while the foundations are built up by suit, wrapping from King to Ace if necessary. Any gaps on the tableau are filled from the reserve; in case the reserve is used up, cards from the waste pile are used. Cards on the reserve can also be distributed to the foundations or to the tableau. Cards on the tableau are also moved one unit, provided that the entire column has to be moved.

When no more plays are possible on the tableau and no more cards can be placed to the foundations, especially from the reserve, one can deal cards from the stock (the undealt cards) three at a time into the waste pile and use these cards to build to the foundations or to the tableau. One can make unlimited redeals as long as there are moves.

The game is won when all cards are placed in the foundations. But as Canfield knew very well, winning this game is unlikely, as one can manage to place an average of five to six cards.