The Canfield Ocean model refers to the Ocean composition theorized by geologist Donald Canfield. In a seminal paper in Nature in 1998, Canfield argued that the Ocean had become partially anoxic and sulfidic, causing mass extinction.
Peter Ward studies the effects of ocean hypoxia(anoxic) and sulfidic oceans and climate change. He found warming of the ocean caused by a rise of carbon dioxide levels to about 1000 parts per million as a trigger for mass extinction.
The term Strangelove ocean is a model name coined by a study published in 1985, which found a decrease in the δ13 C values of planktic skeletons following the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, causing a homogenous ocean in decades or centuries, visible in the boundary sediment layer as a manifestation of the elimination in the surface-to-bottom carbon isotope gradient in ocean waters, the halt of ocean primary production. During a time when carbon fractionation by a photosynthesis-respiration mechanism became ineffective. It was later shown that the burial rate of terrestrial organic carbon (biological pump) was likely unaffected.
Euxinic Ocean conditions, a term describing restricted hydrologic circulation, leading to stagnant or anaerobic conditions, are the likely factor leading to sulfidic Oceans. Euxinic describes anoxic conditions in the presence of H
2S hydrogen sulfide.
- Anoxic event
- Mass extinction
- Ocean stratification
- Permian-Triassic extinction event
- Suess effect
- Canfield, D.E. (1998). [Abstract PDF "A new model for Proterozoic ocean chemistry"]. Nature 396: 450–453. doi:10.1038/24839.
- Buick, R. (2007). "Did the Proterozoic 'Canfield Ocean'cause a laughing gas greenhouse?". Geobiology 5.2: 97–100. doi:10.1111/j.1472-4669.2007.00110.x.
- Raymond B. Huey, Peter D. Ward (2005). "Hypoxia, Global Warming, and Terrestrial Late Permian Extinctions". Science (AAAS) 308 (5720): 398–401. doi:10.1126/science.1108019.
- K. J. Hsü and J. A. McKenzie (1985). "A "Strangelove" ocean in the earliest Tertiary, in The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric CO2: Natural Variations Archean to Present". Geophysical Monograph Series (American Geophysical Union) 32: 487–492. doi:10.1029/GM032p0487. Retrieved 2013-09-16.
- LR Kump (1991). "Interpreting carbon-isotope excursions: Strangelove oceans". Geology (Department of Earth System Science Center) 19: 299–302. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1991)019<0299:ICIESO>2.3.CO;2.
- Timothy W. Lyons, Ariel D. Anbar, Silke Severmann, Clint Scott, and Benjamin C. Gill (January 19, 2009). "Tracking Euxinia in the Ancient Ocean: A Multiproxy Perspective and Proterozoic Case Study". Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 37: 507–53. doi:10.1146/annurev.earth.36.031207.124233. Retrieved April 11, 2014.
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