|Pronunciation||/ /, genitive / /|
|Symbolism||the greater dog|
|Right ascension||06h 12.5m to 07h 27.5m|
|Declination||−11.03° to −33.25°|
|Area||380 sq. deg. (43rd)|
|Stars with planets||7|
|Stars brighter than 3.00m||5|
|Stars within 10.00 pc (32.62 ly)||1|
|Brightest star||Sirius (α CMa) (−1.46m)|
|Nearest star||Sirius (α CMa)
(8.60 ly, 2.64 pc)
|Visible at latitudes between +60° and −90°.
Best visible at 21:00 (9 p.m.) during the month of February.
Canis Major / / is a constellation in the southern celestial hemisphere. In the second century, it was included in Ptolemy's 48 constellations, and is counted among the 88 modern constellations. Its name is Latin for "greater dog" in contrast to Canis Minor, the "lesser dog"; both figures are commonly represented as following the constellation of Orion the hunter.
Canis Major contains Sirius, the brightest star in the night sky, known as the 'dog star'. It is bright because of its proximity to our Solar System. In contrast, the other bright stars of the constellation are distant luminous stars. At magnitude 1.5, Epsilon Canis Majoris (Adhara) is the second brightest star of the constellation and one of the brightest sources of ultraviolet radiation in the night sky. Next in brightness are the yellow-white supergiant Delta (Wezen) at 1.8, the blue-white giant Beta (Mirzam) at 2.0, blue-white supergiants Eta (Aludra) at 2.4 and Omicron1 at 3.0, and white spectroscopic binary Zeta (Furud), also at 3.0. The red supergiant VY Canis Majoris is one of the largest stars known.
History and mythology
In ancient Mesopotamia, Sirius was seen as an arrow, KAK.SI.DI, aiming towards Orion, while the southern stars of Canis Major and a part of Puppis were viewed as a bow, BAN in the Three Stars Each tablets, dating to around 1100 BC. In the later MUL.APIN, the arrow, Sirius, was also linked with the warrior Ninurta, and the bow with Ishtar, daughter of Enlil. Ninurta was linked to the later deity Marduk, who was said to have slain the ocean goddess Tiamat with a great bow, and was worshipped as the principal deity in Babylon. The bow and arrow depiction was replaced by that of a dog in Ancient Greece.
In Greek Mythology, Canis Major represented the dog Laelaps, a gift from Zeus to Europa; or sometimes the hound of Procris, Diana's nymph; or the one given by Aurora to Cephalus, so famed for its speed that Zeus elevated it to the sky. It was also considered to represent one of Orion's hunting dogs, pursuing Lepus the Hare or helping Orion fight Taurus the Bull; and is referred to in this way by Aratos, Homer and Hesiod. The ancient Greeks refer only to one dog, but by Roman times, Canis Minor appears as Orion's second dog. Alternate names include Canis Sequens and Canis Alter.
In medieval Arab astronomy, the constellation became Al Kalb al Akbar, the Greater Dog, transcribed as Alcheleb Alachbar by 17th century writer Edmund Chilmead. Islamic scholar Abū Rayḥān al-Bīrūnī referred to Orion called it Al Kalb al Jabbār, "the Dog of the Giant". Canis Syrius was the name used in the 1521 Alfonsine Tables.
In non-western astronomy
In Chinese astronomy, the modern constellation of Canis Major lies in The Vermillion Bird of the South (南方朱雀, Nán Fāng Zhū Què), where the stars were classified in several separate asterisms of stars. The Military Market (Jūnshì 軍市) was a circular pattern of stars containing Nu3, Beta, Xi1 and Xi2, and some stars from Lepus. The Wild Cockerel (Yějī 野雞) was at the centre of the Military Market and its stars were uncertain. Schlegel reported that the stars Omicron and Pi Canis Majoris might have been them, while Beta or Nu2 have also been proposed. Sirius was Tiānláng (天狼), the Celestial Wolf, denoting invasion and plunder. Southeast of the Wolf was the asterism Húshǐ (弧矢), the celestial Bow and Arrow, which was interpreted as containing Delta, Epsilon, Eta and Kappa Canis Majoris and Delta Velorum, or that the arrow was Omicron2 and Eta and aiming at Sirius (the Wolf) and the bow comprised Kappa, Epsilon, Sigma, Delta and 164 Canis Majoris, and Pi and Omicron Puppis.
Both the Maori people and the people of the Tuamotus recognized the figure of Canis Major as a distinct entity, though it was sometimes absorbed into other constellations. Te Huinga-o-Rehua, also called Te Putahi-nui-o-Rehua and Te Kahui-Takurua, ("The Assembly of Rehua" or "The Assembly of Sirius") was a Maori constellation that included both Canis Minor and Canis Major, along with some surrounding stars. Related was Taumata-o-Rehua, also called Pukawanui, the Mirror of Rehua, formed from an undefined group of stars in Canis Major. They called Sirius Rehua and Takarua, corresponding to two of the names for the constellation, though Rehua was a name applied to other stars in various Maori groups and other Polynesian cosmologies. The Tuamotu people called Canis Major Muihanga-hetika-o-Takurua, "the abiding assemblage of Takurua".
The Tharumba people of the Shoalhaven River saw three stars of Canis Major as Wunbula (Bat) and his two wives Murrumbool (Mrs Brown Snake) and Moodtha (Mrs Black Snake); bored of following their husband around, the women try to bury him while he is hunting a wombat down its hole. He spears them and all three are placed in the sky as the constellation Munowra. To the Boorong people of Victoria, Sigma Canis Majoris was Unurgunite, and its flanking stars Delta and Epsilon his two wives. The moon, Mityan "native cat" sought to lure the further wife (Epsilon) away, but Unurgunite beat him up and he has been wandering the sky ever since.
Canis Major is a constellation in the southern hemisphere's summer (or northern hemisphere's winter) sky, bordered by Monoceros (which lies between it and Canis Minor) to the north, Puppis to the east and southeast, Columba to the southwest, and Lepus to the west. The three-letter abbreviation for the constellation, as adopted by the International Astronomical Union in 1922, is 'CMa'. The official constellation boundaries, as set by Eugène Delporte in 1930, are defined by a polygon of 4 sides. In the equatorial coordinate system, the right ascension coordinates of these borders lie between 06h 12.5m and 07h 27.5m, while the declination coordinates are between -11.03° and −33.25°. Covering 380 square degrees or 0.921% of the sky, it ranks 43rd of the 88 constellations in size.
The German cartographer Johann Bayer used the Greek letters Alpha through Omicron to label the most prominent stars in the constellation, including three adjacent stars as Nu and two further pairs as Xi and Omicron, while subsequent observers designated further stars in the southern parts of the constellation that were hard to discern from Central Europe. Bayer's countryman Johann Elert Bode later added Sigma, Tau and Omega, while the French astronomer Nicolas Louis de Lacaille added lettered stars a to k but none are in use today. John Flamsteed numbered thirty one stars, with 3 Canis Majoris being placed by Lacaille into Columba as Delta Columbae (Flamsteed had not recognised Columba as a distinct constellation). He also labelled two stars—his 10 and 13 Canis Majoris—as Kappa1 and Kappa2 respectively, but subsequent cartographers such as Francis Baily and John Bevis dropped the fainter former star, leaving Kappa2 as the sole Kappa. Flamsteed's listing of Nu1, Nu2, Nu3, Xi1, Xi2, Omicron1 and Omicron2 have all remained in use.
Canis Major is a prominent constellation because of its many bright stars. These include Sirius (Alpha Canis Majoris), the brightest star in the night sky, as well as three other stars above magnitude 2.0. Furthermore, two other stars are thought to have previously outshone all others in the night sky—Adhara (Epsilon Canis Majoris) shone at -3.99 around 4.7 million years ago, and Mirzam (Beta Canis Majoris) peaked at -3.65 around 4.42 million years ago, and another—NR Canis Majoris—will be brightest at magnitude −0.88 in about 2.87 million years' time.
At magnitude −1.44, Sirius is one of the closest stars to Earth at a distance of 8.6 light-years. Its name comes from the Greek word for "scorching" or "searing". It is a variable star, with a variation of approximately 0.1 magnitude; this variability was discovered by the Hipparcos satellite. Sirius is also a binary star; its companion is called Sirius B, which has a magnitude of 8.4. The two orbit each other every 50 years. Their closest approach last occurred in 1993 and they will be at their greatest separation between 2020 and 2025. Sirius was the basis for the ancient Egyptian calendar. The star is marked the Great Dog's mouth on Bayer's star atlas.
Flanking Sirius are Beta and Gamma Canis Majoris. Also called Mirzam or Murzim, Beta is a blue-white Beta Cephei variable star of magnitude 2.0, which varies by a few hundredths of a magnitude over a period of six hours. Mirzam is 500 light-years from Earth, and its traditional name means "the announcer", referring to its position as the "announcer" of Sirius, as it rises a few minutes before Sirius does. Gamma, also known as Muliphein, is a fainter star of magnitude 4.12, in reality a blue-white bright giant of spectral type B8IIe located 441 light years from earth. Iota Canis Majoris, lying between Sirius and Gamma, is another star that has been classified Beta Cephei variable, varying from magnitude 4.36 to 4.40 over a period of 1.92 hours. However it is a remote blue-white supergiant of spectral type B3Ib, around 46,000 times as luminous as the sun and, at 2500 light-years distant, 300 times further away than Sirius.
Epsilon, Omicron2, Delta and Eta Canis Majoris were called Al Adzari "the virgins" in medieval Arabic tradition. Marking the dog's right thigh on Bayer's atlas is Epsilon Canis Majoris, also known as Adhara. At magnitude 1.5, it is the second-brightest star in Canis Major and the 23rd-brightest star in the sky. It is a blue-white supergiant of spectral type B2Iab, around 404 light-years from Earth. This star is one of the brightest known extreme ultraviolet sources in the sky. It is a binary star; the secondary is of magnitude 7.4. Its traditional name means "the virgins". Nearby is Delta Canis Majoris, also called Wezen. It is a yellow-white supergiant star of spectral type F8Iab and magnitude 1.84, around 1605 light-years from Earth. With a traditional name meaning "the weight", Wezen is 17 times as massive and 50,000 times as luminous as the Sun. If located in the centre of the Solar System, it would extend out to Earth as its diameter is 200 times that of the Sun. Only around 10 million years old, Wezen has stopped fusing hydrogen in its core. Its outer envelope is beginning to expand and cool, and in the next 100,000 years it will become a red supergiant as its core fuses heavier and heavier elements. Once it has a core of iron, it will collapse and explode as a supernova. Nestled between Adhara and Wezen lies Sigma Canis Majoris, known as Unurgunite to the Boorong and Wotjobaluk people, a red supergiant of spectral type K7Ib that varies irregularly between magnitudes 3.43 and 3.51.
Eta Canis Majoris, also called Aludra, is a blue-white supergiant of spectral type B5Ia. Aludra has a luminosity 176,000 times and a diameter around 80 times that of the Sun. Aludra is classified as an Alpha Cygni type variable star and its brightness varies from magnitude +2.38 to +2.48 over a period of 4.7 days. located 1,120 light years away. To the west of Adhara lies 3.0-magnitude Zeta Canis Majoris or Furud, around 362 light-years distant from Earth. It is a spectroscopic binary, whose components orbit each other every 1.85 years, the combined spectrum indicating a main star of spectral type B2.5V.
Between these stars and Sirius lie Omicron1, Omicron2, and Pi Canis Majoris. Omicron2 is a massive supergiant star about 21 times as massive as the Sun. Only 7 million years old, it has exhausted the supply of hydrogen at its core and is now undergoing nuclear fusion of helium to generate energy. It as an Alpha Cygni variable that undergoes periodic non-radial pulsations, which cause its brightness to cycle from magnitude +2.93 to +3.08 over a 24.44-day interval. Omicron1 is an orange K-type supergiant of spectral type K2.5Iab that is an irregular variable star, varying between apparent magnitudes 3.78 and 3.99. Around 18 times as massive as the Sun, it shines with 65,000 times its luminosity.
North of Sirius lie Theta and Mu Canis Majoris, Theta being the most northerly star with a Bayer designation in the constellation. Around 8 billion years old, it is an orange giant of spectral type K4III that is around as massive as the Sun but has expanded to 30 times the Sun's diameter. Mu is a multiple star system located around 1244 light-years distant, its components discernible as a 5.3-magnitude yellow-hued and 7.1-magnitude bluish star in a small telescope. The brighter star is a giant of spectral type K2III, while the companion is a main sequence star of spectral type B9.5V. Nu Canis Majoris is a yellow-hued giant star of magnitude 5.7, 278 light-years away; it is at the threshold of naked-eye visibility. It has a companion of magnitude 8.1.
At the southern limits of the constellation lie Kappa and Lambda Canis Majoris. Although of similar spectra and nearby each other as viewed from Earth, they are unrelated. Kappa is a Gamma Cassiopeiae variable of spectral type B2Vne, which has become 50% brighter between 1963 and 1978, from magnitude 3.96 or so to 3.52. It is around 659 light-years distant. Lambda is a blue-white B-type main sequence dwarf with an apparent magnitude of 4.48 located around 423 light years from Earth.
Canis Major is also home to several variable stars. VY Canis Majoris is one of the largest stars known, a remote red supergiant of apparent magnitude 7.95, located around 3800 light-years away from Earth. Estimates of its size, mass and luminosity have varied, with figures of 600 to 3000 times the radius, and 60,000 to 500,000 times the luminosity of the Sun. It was observed in 2011 using interferometry with the Very Large Telescope, yielding a radius of 1420 ± 120 solar radii, surface temperature of around 3490 K (and hence spectral type M4Ia) and a luminosity 270,000 times that of the Sun. Its current mass has been revised at 9–25 solar masses, having shed material from an initial 15–35 solar masses.W Canis Majoris is a type of red giant known as a carbon star—a semiregular variable, it ranges between between magnitudes 6.27 and 7.09 over a period of 160 days. A cool star, it has a surface temperature of around 2900 K and a radius 234 times that of the Sun, its distance estimated at 443 or 445 parsecs (1444–1450) light-years from Earth. EZ Canis Majoris is a Wolf-Rayet star of spectral type WN4 that varies between magnitudes 6.71 and 6.95 over a period of 3.766 days; the cause of its variability is unknown but thought to be related to its stellar wind and rotation.
Tau Canis Majoris is an eclipsing binary. UW Canis Majoris is a Beta Lyrae variable star 3000 light-years from Earth. It is an eclipsing binary that ranges in magnitude from a minimum of 5.3 to a maximum of 4.8. It has a period of 4.4 days; its components are two massive hot blue stars. R Canis Majoris is another eclipsing binary that varies from magnitude 5.7 to 6.34 over 1.13 days, with a third star orbiting these two every 93 years. The shortness of the orbital period and the low ratio between the two main components make this an unusual Algol-type system.
Seven star systems have been found to have planets. Nu2 Canis Majoris is an ageing orange giant of spectral type K1III of apparent magnitude 3.91 located around 64 light-years distant. Around 1.5 times as massive and 11 times as luminous as the Sun, it is orbited by a planet around 2.6 times as massive as Jupiter over a period of 763 days. HD 47536 is likewise an ageing orange giant found to have a planetary system—echoing the fate of our own Solar System in a few billion years as the Sun ages and becomes a giant. Conversely, HD 45364 is a star 107 light years distant that is a little smaller and cooler than the Sun, of spectral type G8V, which has two planets discovered in 2008. With orbital periods of 228 and 342 days, the planets have a 3:2 orbital resonance, which helps stabilise the system. HD 47186 is another sunlike star with two planets; the inner—HD 47186 b—takes four days to complete an orbit and has been classified as a Hot Neptune, while the outer—HD 47186 c—has an eccentric 3.7-year period orbit and has a similar mass to Saturn. HD 43197 is a sunlike star around 183 light-years distant that has a Jupiter-size planet with an eccentric orbit.
There are not many bright deep-sky objects in Canis Major. Its only Messier object is M41 (NGC 2287), an open cluster with a combined visual magnitude of 4.5, around 2300 light-years from Earth. Located 4 degrees south of Sirius, it contains contrasting blue, yellow and orange stars and covers an area the size of the full Moon—in reality around 25 light-years in diameter. Its most luminous stars have already evolved into giant stars. The brightest is a 6.3-magnitude star of spectral type K3. Located in the field is 12 Canis Majoris, though this star is only 670 light-years distant. Canis Major also features another noteworthy open cluster, NGC 2362, a small, compact grouping, 5200 light-years from Earth. It contains about 60 stars, the brightest of which Tau Canis Majoris is the brightest member. Lying 2 degrees southwest of NGC 2362 is NGC 2354 a fainter open cluster of magnitude 6.5, with around 15 member stars visible with binoculars.
NGC 2359 (Thor's Helmet or the Duck Nebula) is a relatively bright emission nebula in Canis Major, with an approximate magnitude of 10, which is 10,000 light-years from Earth. The nebula is shaped by HD 56925, an unstable Wolf-Rayet star embedded within it.
The band of the Milky Way goes through Canis Major and therefore background galaxies are hidden behind interstellar dust clouds. In 2003, Canis Major Dwarf, the closest satellite galaxy to Earth, was found within the constellation. However, there remains debate over whether the overdensity of stars in the region represents a disrupted dwarf galaxy or in fact a variation in the thin and thick disk and spiral arm populations of the Milky Way. Investigation of the area yielded only ten RR Lyrae variables—consistent with the Milky Way's halo and thick disk populations rather than a separate dwarf spheroidal galaxy.
NGC 2207 and IC 2163 are a pair of face-on interacting spiral galaxies located 125 million light-years from Earth. About 40 million years ago, the two galaxies had a close encounter and are now moving farther apart; nevertheless, the smaller IC 2163 will eventually be incorporated into NGC 2207. As the interaction continues, gas and dust will be perturbed, sparking extensive star formation in both galaxies. In January 2003, a type 1b supernova—SN 2003H—was discovered halfway between the two galaxies.
- "Canis Major, Constellation Boundary". The Constellations (International Astronomical Union). Retrieved 15 November 2012.
- Rogers, John H. (1998). "Origins of the Ancient Constellations: I. The Mesopotamian traditions". Journal of the British Astronomical Association 108 (1): 9–28. Bibcode:1998JBAA..108....9R.
- Wagman 2003, p. 71.
- Rogers, John H. (1998). "Origins of the Ancient Constellations: II. The Mediterranean traditions". Journal of the British Astronomical Association 108 (2): 79–89. Bibcode:1998JBAA..108...79R.
- Allen, Richard Hinckley (1963) . Star Names: Their Lore and Meaning. Dover. p. 117. ISBN 0-486-21079-0.
- Ridpath & Tirion 2001, pp. 98–99.
- Allen, Richard Hinckley (1963) . Star Names: Their Lore and Meaning. New York, New York: Dover. p. 118. ISBN 0-486-21079-0.
- AEEA 2006.
- Schlegel, p. 428.
- Schlegel, p. 430.
- Ridpath, Ian. "Canis Major – the Greater Dog". Star Tales. self-published. Retrieved 1 March 2014.
- Schlegel, p. 431.
- Schlegel, p. 434.
- Makemson 1941, p. 212.
- Makemson 1941, p. 215.
- Makemson 1941, p. 258.
- Makemson 1941, p. 247.
- Makemson 1941, p. 249.
- Makemson 1941, p. 254.
- Makemson 1941, p. 236.
- Ridley, William (1875). Kámilarói, and other Australian languages (2nd ed.). Sydney, New South Wales: T. Richards, government printer. pp. 144–45.
- Hamacher, Duane W.; Frew, David J. (2010). "An Aboriginal Australian Record of the Great Eruption of Eta Carinae". Journal of Astronomical History & Heritage 13 (3): 220–34.
- Smyth, Robert Brough (1878). The aborigines of Victoria: with notes relating to the habits of the natives of other parts of Australia and Tasmania. Melbourne, Victoria: J. Ferres, government printer. pp. 433–34.
- Russell, Henry Norris (1922). "The New International Symbols for the Constellations". Popular Astronomy 30: 469–71. Bibcode:1922PA.....30..469R.
- Bagnall, Philip M. (2012). The Star Atlas Companion: What You Need to Know about the Constellations. New York, New York: Springer. pp. 99–106. ISBN 1-4614-0830-X.
- Wagman 2003, p. 73.
- Wagman 2003, p. 74.
- Wagman 2003, p. 368.
- Wagman 2003, pp. 73-74.
- Tomkin, Jocelyn (April 1998). "Once and Future Celestial Kings". Sky and Telescope 95 (4): 59–63. Bibcode:1998S&T....95d..59T.
- Wagman 2003, p. 504.
- Kaler, James B. (4 May 2007). "Mirzam". Stars. University of Illinois. Retrieved 2 January 2012.
- "Gamma Canis Majoris - Star in Cluster". SIMBAD Astronomical Database. Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 16 February 2014.
- Watson, Christopher (4 January 2010). "Iota Canis Majoris". AAVSO Website. American Association of Variable Star Observers. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
- Kaler, James B. (26 February 2010). "Iota Canis Majoris". Stars. University of Illinois. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
- Knobel, Edward B. (1895). "Al Achsasi Al Mouakket, on a Catalogue of Stars in the Calendarium of". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 55: 429–38. Bibcode:1895MNRAS..55..429K.
- "Epsilon Canis Majoris - Double Star". SIMBAD Astronomical Database. Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 16 February 2014.
- Wilkinson, E.; Green, J. C.; McLean, R.; Welsh, B. (1996). "Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrum of ɛ Canis Majoris Between 600-920 Å". Bull. American Astron. Soc. 28 (2): 915. Bibcode:1996BAAS...28..915W.
- "Delta Canis Majoris - Variable Star". SIMBAD Astronomical Database. Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 16 February 2014.
- Kaler, James B. "Wezen". Stars website. University of Illinois. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
- Watson, Christopher (4 January 2010). "Sigma Canis Majoris". AAVSO Website. American Association of Variable Star Observers. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
- Jerzykiewicz, M.; Molenda-Zakowicz, J. (2000). "Empirical Luminosities and Radii of Early-Type Stars after Hipparcos". Acta Astronomica 50: 369–80. Bibcode:2000AcA....50..369J.
- Watson, Christopher (3 May 2013). "Eta Canis Majoris". AAVSO Website. American Association of Variable Star Observers. Retrieved 5 February 2014.
- "Zeta Canis Majoris - Cepheid Variable". SIMBAD Astronomical Database. Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
- Kaler, James B. (2 February 2007). "Furud". Stars website. University of Illinois. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
- Tetzlaff, N.; Neuhäuser, R.; Hohle, M. M. (January 2011). "A Catalogue of Young Runaway Hipparcos Stars within 3 kpc from the Sun". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 410 (1): 190–200. arXiv:1007.4883. Bibcode:2011MNRAS.410..190T. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.17434.x.
- Lefèvre, L.; Marchenko, S. V.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Acker, A. (November 2009). "A systematic study of variability among OB-stars based on HIPPARCOS photometry". Astronomy and Astrophysics 507 (2): 1141–1201. Bibcode:2009A&A...507.1141L. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/200912304.
- Watson, Christopher (4 January 2010). "Omicron1 Canis Majoris". AAVSO Website. American Association of Variable Star Observers. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
- Kaler, James B. "Omicron1 Canis Majoris". Stars. University of Illinois. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
- Kaler, James B. (8 March 2013). "Theta Canis Majoris". Stars website. University of Illinois. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- da Silva, L.; Girardi, L.; Pasquini, L.; Setiawan, J.; von der Lühe, O.; de Medeiros, J. R.; Hatzes, A.; Döllinger, M. P. et al. (November 2006). "Basic Physical Parameters of a Selected Sample of Evolved Stars". Astronomy and Astrophysics 458 (2): 609–23. arXiv:astro-ph/0608160. Bibcode:2006A&A...458..609D. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20065105.
- "18 Canis Majoris". SIMBAD Astronomical Database. Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- Consolmagno, Guy (2011). Turn Left at Orion: Hundreds of Night Sky Objects to See in a Home Telescope – and How to Find Them. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. p. 81. ISBN 1-139-50373-1.
- "HD 51251 -- Star in double system". SIMBAD Astronomical Database. Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- Watson, Christopher (4 January 2010). "Kappa Canis Majoris". AAVSO Website. American Association of Variable Star Observers. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
- "Kappa Canis Majoris - Be Star". SIMBAD Astronomical Database. Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
- "Lambda Canis Majoris - Star". SIMBAD Astronomical Database. Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
- "VY Canis Majoris - Red Supergiant". SIMBAD Astronomical Database. Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- Wittkowski, M.; Hauschildt, P.H.; Arroyo-Torres, B.; Marcaide, J.M. (2012). "Fundamental Properties and Atmospheric Structure of the Red Supergiant VY CMa based on VLTI/AMBER spectro-interferometry". Astronomy & Astrophysics 540: L12. arXiv:astro-ph/1203.5194. Bibcode:2012A&A...540L..12W. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201219126.
- Otero, Sebastian Alberto (7 November 2011). "W Canis Majoris". AAVSO Website. American Association of Variable Star Observers. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
- van Belle, Gerard T.; Paladini, Claudia; Aringer, Bernhard; Hron, Josef; Ciardi, David (2013). "The PTI Carbon Star Angular Size Survey: Effective Temperatures and Non-sphericity". The Astrophysical Journal 775 (1): article id. 45, 19 pp.
- The IUE Mega Campaign: Wind Structure and Variability of HD 50896 (WN5) Astrophysical Journal Letters 452 #1, pp. L57 (October 1995) Bibcode: 1995ApJ...452L..57S
- Watson, Christopher (4 January 2010). "R Canis Majoris". AAVSO Website. American Association of Variable Star Observers. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- Budding, E.; Butland, R. (2011). "Observations and Analysis of the System R Canis Majoris". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 418 (3): 1764–73. Bibcode:2011MNRAS.418.1764B.
- "7 Canis Majoris - Variable Star". SIMBAD Astronomical Database. Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 26 February 2014.
- Wittenmyer; Endl, Michael; Wang, Liang; Johnson, John Asher; Tinney, C.G.; O'Toole, S.J. (2011). "The Pan-Pacific Planet Search. I. A Giant Planet Orbiting 7 CMa". The Astrophysical Journal 743 (2): 184–91. arXiv:1111.1007. Bibcode:2011ApJ...743..184W. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/743/2/184.
- "Distant World in Peril Discovered from La Silla: Giant Exoplanet Orbits Giant Star". ESO for the Public (Press release). Garching, Germany: European Southern Observatory. 22 January 2003. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- Correia, A. C. M.; Udry, S.; Mayor, M.; Benz, W.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Bouchy, F.; Laskar, J.; Lovis, C.; Mordasini, C.; Pepe, F.; Queloz, D. (2009). "The HARPS Search for Southern Extra-solar Planets XVI. HD 45364, a Pair of Planets in a 3:2 Mean Motion Resonance". Astronomy and Astrophysics 496 (2): 521–26. arXiv:0902.0597. Bibcode:2009A&A...496..521C. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:200810774.
- Bouchy, F.; Mayor, M.; Lovis, C.; Udry, S.; Benz, W.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Delfosse, X.; Mordasini, C. et al. (2009). "The HARPS Search for Southern Extra-solar Planets. XVII. Super-Earth and Neptune-mass Planets in Multiple Planet Systems HD 47186 and HD 181433". Astronomy and Astrophysics 496 (2): 527–31. arXiv:0812.1608. Bibcode:2009A&A...496..527B. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:200810669.
- Naef, D.; Mayor, M.; Curto, G. Lo; Bouchy, F.; Lovis, C.; Moutou, C.; Benz, W.; Pepe, F. et al. (2010). "The HARPS Search for Southern Extrasolar Planets XXIII. 8 Planetary Companions to Low-activity Solar-type Stars". Astronomy and Astrophysics 523. A15. arXiv:1008.4600. Bibcode:2010A&A...523A..15N. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/200913616.
- Kambic, Bojan (2009). Viewing the Constellations with Binoculars: 250+ Wonderful Sky Objects to See and Explore. New York, New York: Springer. pp. 230–32. ISBN 0387853553.
- De Laet, Rony (2011). The Casual Sky Observer's Guide: Stargazing with Binoculars and Small Telescopes (in delaet11). New York, New York: Springer. pp. 95–97. ISBN 1461405955.
- Levy, David H. (2005). Deep Sky Objects. Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books. p. 108. ISBN 978-1-59102-361-6.
- Mateu, Cecilia; Vivas, A. Katherina; Zinn, Robert; Miller, Lissa R.; Abad, Carlos (2009). "No Excess of RR Lyrae Stars in the Canis Major Overdensity". The Astronomical Journal 37 (5): 4412–23. Bibcode:2009AJ....137.4412M.
- "Stars fleeing a cosmic crash". ESA/Hubble Picture of the Week. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
- Wilkins & Dunn 2006.
- Bishop, David. "Bright Supernovae - 2003". Rochester University. Retrieved 7 March 2014.
- van den Bergh, Sidney; Li, Weidong; Filippenko, Alexei V. (2003). "Classifications of the Host Galaxies of Supernovae, Set II". The Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 115 (813): 1280–88. arXiv:astro-ph/0308195. Bibcode:2003PASP..115.1280V. doi:10.1086/379106.
- Schlegel, Gustaaf (1967) . Uranographie Chinoise (in French). Taipei, Republic of China: Ch'eng Wen Publishing Company.
- Makemson, Maud Worcester (1941), The Morning Star Rises: An Account of Polynesian Astronomy, Yale University Press
- Ridpath, Ian; Tirion, Wil (2001). Stars and Planets Guide. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-08913-3.
- Ridpath, Ian; Tirion, Wil (2007). Stars and Planets Guide. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-13556-4.
- Wagman, Morton (2003). Lost Stars: Lost, Missing and Troublesome Stars from the Catalogues of Johannes Bayer, Nicholas Louis de Lacaille, John Flamsteed, and Sundry Others. Blacksburg, Virginia: The McDonald & Woodward Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-939923-78-6.
- Wilkins, Jamie; Dunn, Robert (2006). 300 Astronomical Objects: A Visual Reference to the Universe. Buffalo, New York: Firefly Books. ISBN 978-1-55407-175-3.
- "AEEA (Activities of Exhibition and Education in Astronomy) 天文教育資訊網 2006 年 7 月 16 日" (in Chinese). 2006. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Canis Major.|