Spanish: Lobo mexicano
|Captive Mexican wolf at Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico|
|Subspecies:||C. l. baileyi|
|Canis lupus baileyi
(Nelson & Goldman, 1929)
|Mexican wolf range|
The Mexican wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) is a subspecies of the gray wolf native to the Sierra Madre and the surrounding area of western Mexico. Its original range also encompassed the southeastern United States. It is the smallest of North America's gray wolves, and is typically of a dark grizzly color.
Genetic and morphological studies indicate that the Mexican wolf is the most basal and genetically distinct of North American gray wolves, being more closely related to Old World wolves rather than other New World subspecies. Its ancestors were likely the first gray wolves to cross the Bering Land Bridge into North America during the Pleistocene, colonizing most of the continent until pushed southwards by the newly arrived ancestors of Canis lupus nubilus.
The Mexican wolf is the smallest grey wolf subspecies present in North America. Reaching an overall length no greater than 1.2–1.5 metres (3.9–4.9 ft) and a maximum height of about 80 centimetres (31 in), it is around the size of a German Shepherd. Weight ranges from 27–37 kilograms (60–82 lb). In stature, it resembles some European wolves, though its head is usually broader, its neck thicker, its ears longer and its tail shorter.
The Mexican wolf was described by both naturalists Hernández and Fernandez and is named for Vernon Bailey, an American naturalist and specialist in mammalogy who participated in the Biological Survey of Texas during the late 19th century.
Former range and extirpation
Until recent times, the Mexican wolf ranged the Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts from central Mexico to western Texas, southern New Mexico, and central Arizona. (Recent studies completed by genetics experts show evidence of Mexican wolves ranging as far north as Colorado). By the turn of the 20th century, reduction of natural prey like deer and elk caused many wolves to begin attacking domestic livestock, which led to intensive efforts by government agencies and individuals to eradicate the Mexican wolf. Hunters also hunted down the wolf because it killed deer. Trappers and private trappers have also helped in the eradication of the Mexican wolf. These efforts were very successful, and by the 1950s, the Mexican wolf had been eliminated from the wild. In 1976, the Mexican wolf was declared an endangered subspecies and has remained so ever since. Today, an estimated 340 Mexican wolves survive in 49 facilities in the United States and Mexico.
Reintroduction to the Southwest
In 1997, controversy arose when a mostly captive pack at Carlsbad Caverns National Park designated for release was found by Roy McBride, who had captured many wolves for the recovery program in the 1970s, to be largely composed of wolf-dog hybrids. Though staff initially argued that the animals' odd appearance was due to captivity and diet, it was later decided to euthanize them.
In March 1998, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) began reintroducing Mexican wolves into the Blue Range area of Arizona. The overall objective of this program was to reestablish 100 Mexican wolves in the Apache and Gila National Forests of Arizona and New Mexico by 2008.
On March 30, 1998, government biologists released 11 grey wolves – 3 adult males, 3 adult females, 3 female pups and yearlings and 2 male pups — from 3 chain-link acclimation pens within the 18,130 square kilometres (7,000 sq mi), federally designated Blue Range Wolf Recovery Area in east-central Arizona.
A population count completed by the Interagency Field Team (IFT) in the winter of 2006–2007 estimated 60 wolves living in the recovery area in several packs. The population goal for 2006 was 100 wolves. In early 2011 there were only two breeding pairs and the population count was 50, up from 42 in the early 2010 count. As of February 2012, the number of breeding pairs rose to six, with a total population count of 58, including 32 wolves in six packs on the Arizona side of the recovery area and 26 wolves in six packs on the New Mexico side. There were 18 pups born in 2011 that survived through Dec. 31, 2011. Nine wolves died in 2011; two were shot illegally. The most recent count at the end of 2012 counted 75 wolves. However, only 3 breeding pairs were counted out of the 13 confirmed packs. There were 20 pups that had survived until the end of the year.
In February 2010, three captive Mexican wolves living in the Wildlife Science Center in Forest Lake, Minnesota, escaped from their pen after it was pried open by unknown individuals. Two of the wolves came back on their own the next day; the third wolf, the alpha of the pack, had to be chased down in suburban areas until captured.
Captive breeding programs
There are 47 Mexican wolf breeding facilities in United States and Mexico with the largest in the world being the Endangered Wolf Center near St.Louis, Missouri, which was founded in 1971 by naturalist Marlin Perkins. Learn more about the Endangered Wolf Center at http://www.endangeredwolfcenter.org. Another captive breeding center that was founded in 1977 is the California Wolf Center located in Julian, California. The Center is the third largest breeding and host facility for Mexican grey wolves in the United States.
Hybridizations with coyotes
In an evolutionary biology research conducted by a team of researchers in the Uppsala University, analysis of controlled-region haplotypes of the mitochondrial DNA and sex chromosomes from Mexican grey wolves detected the presence of coyote markers in some of the wolves. However, these markers were not detected in any of the captive Mexican grey wolves.  This study suggests that when the subspecies was depleted in the wild from persecutions, some of the male wolves from the remnant populations began seeking potential mates in the female coyotes with the female coywolf hybrid offsprings later backcrossing to other male wolves while the male hybrids may have backcrossed with the female coyotes. Analysis on the haplotypes from coyotes in Texas also detected the presence of male wolf introgression such as Y-chromosomes from the grey wolves in some of the male coyotes. In an extremely rare case, the study found that one coyote out of seventy individuals from Texas was discovered to carry a mtDNA haplotype derived from a female Mexican grey wolf implicating that a male coyote had also managed to breed with a female Mexican grey wolf in the wild. The Mexican grey wolves may be the only grey wolf subspecies in the southern states besides the domestic and feral dogs to have hybridized with coyotes.
In tests performed on a sample from a taxidermied carcass of what was initially labelled as a chupacabra, mtDNA analysis conducted by Texas State University professor Michael Forstner showed that it was a coyote. Subsequent analysis by a veterinary genetics laboratory team at the University of California, Davis concluded that, based on the sex chromosomes, the male animal was a coyote–wolf hybrid sired by a male Mexican wolf. It has been suggested that the hybrid animal was afflicted with sarcoptic mange, which would explain its hairless and blueish appearance.
A captive, resting Mexican wolf at the Minnesota Zoo
A captive Mexican wolf running in its zoo enclosure at the National Zoo in Washington D.C.
At the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum
- California Wolf Center
- Ex-situ conservation
- Endangered Species
- Wild Canid Survival and Research Center
- USFWS Wolf Recovery in North America(2007)
- Mech, L. David (1981), The Wolf: The Ecology and Behaviour of an Endangered Species, University of Minnesota Press, p. 350, ISBN 0-8166-1026-6
- Chambers SM, Fain SR, Fazio B, Amaral M (2012). "An account of the taxonomy of North American wolves from morphological and genetic analyses". North American Fauna 77: 1–67. Retrieved 2013-07-02.
- The Natural History of Dogs: Canidæ Or Genus Canis of Authors. Including Also the Genera Hyæna and Proteles by Charles Hamilton Smith, contributor William Home Lizars, Samuel Highley, W. Curry, Junr. & Co, Published by W.H. Lizars, ... S. Highley, ... London; and W. Curry, jun. and Co. Dublin., 1839
- Schmidly, David J. (2002). Texas Natural History: A Century of Change. Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press. ISBN 0896724697.
- USFWS Species Survival Plan Captive Facilities
- "Letter from Roy McBride to David Parsons". Retrieved 18 November 2013.
- Jason Manning: "The Wolf in Texas". The Wild World of Wolves on wildworldofwolves.tripod.com
- Shaun McKinnon (2012-02-03). "Grey wolf numbers up, still below goal". Arizona Republic. Retrieved 2012-02-11.
- Dunbar, Elizabeth (18 February 2010). "Missing Mexican wolf found in New Brighton". MPR News. Retrieved 15 November 2010.
- Carbery, Kevin (17 April 2008). "Wolves welcome in Jefferson County". St Louis Today – Suburban Journal. Retrieved 15 November 2010.
- "Lost Lobos: Local Wolf Experts Voice Dismay Over Killing of 3 Rare Mexican Wolves". East County Magazine. 2010-07-21. Retrieved 2010-07-30.
|Wikispecies has information related to: Mexican wolf|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mexican wolf.|
- Mexicanwolves.org - completely dedicated to lobos, with essays, photos, video, interactive maps, and ways to get involved in Mexican wolf reintroduction.
- The Living Desert - a zoo and nature preserve that coordinates Mexican wolf reintroduction efforts
- California Wolf Center - a wildlife education center dedicated to the restoration of North American Ecosystems. The Wolf Center is a major participant in Mexican Wolf Recovery Efforts single purpose private fund dedicated to assisting with livestock conflicts involving the Mexican wolf recovery program.
- Field Trip Earth - Field Trip Earth is a conservation education website operated by the North Carolina Zoological Society.