Cannabaceae

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Cannabaceae
Cannabis 01 bgiu.jpg
Cannabis sativa
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Rosales
Family: Cannabaceae
Martynov[1][2]
Genera

See text

Cannabaceae is a small family of flowering plants. As now circumscribed, the family includes about 170 species grouped in about 11 genera, including Cannabis (hemp), Humulus (hops) and Celtis (hackberries). Celtis is by far the largest genus, containing about 100 species.[1]

Other than a shared evolutionary origin (see Phylogeny below), members of the family have few common characteristics; some are trees (e.g. Celtis), others are herbaceous plants (e.g. Cannabis).

Description[edit]

Members of this family can be trees (e.g. Celtis), erect herbs (e.g. Cannabis), or twining herbs (e.g. Humulus).

Leaves are often more or less palmately lobed or palmately compound and always bear stipules. Cystoliths are always present and some members of this family possess laticifers.

Cannabaceae are often dioecious (distinct male and female plants). The flowers are actinomorphic (radially symmetrical) and not showy, as these plants are pollinated by the wind. As an adaptation to this kind of pollination, the calyx is short and there is no corolla. Flowers are grouped to form cymes. In the dioecious plants the masculine inflorescences are long and look like panicles, while the feminine are shorter and bear less flowers. The pistil is made of two connate carpels, the usually superior ovary is unilocular; there is no fixed number of stamens.

The fruit can be an achene, drupe or a small nut.

Phylogeny[edit]

Classification systems developed prior to the 1990s, such as those of Cronquist (1981) and Dahlgren (1989), typically recognized the order Urticales, which included the families Cannabaceae, Cecropiaceae, Celtidaceae, Moraceae, Ulmaceae and Urticaceae, as then circumscribed. Molecular data from 1990s onwards showed that these families were actually embedded within the order Rosales, so that from the first classification by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group in 1998, they were placed in an expanded Rosales, forming a group which has been called "urticalean rosids".[2]

A molecular phylogenetic study in 2002 produced the consensus tree shown below. This showed that the family Celtidaceae was paraphyletic if the Cannabaceae, as then circumscribed, were removed. Accordingly a single larger family was required, combining the two existing families. Under the rules of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, the oldest family name must be used: this is Cannabaceae.[2]

urticalean rosids

Ulmaceae



Cannabaceae s.l.

 Aphananthe 




 Lozanella 




 Parasponia 




 Pteroceltis 




 Cannabis 



 Humulus 









Urticaceae sensu lato



Moraceae





Celtidaceae
Cannabaceae s.s.

List of genera[edit]

Hops (Humulus lupulus) with nearly mature fruits

The following genera are listed by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website, as of October 2011:[3]

Uses[edit]

Carbon dating has revealed that these plants may have been used for ritual/medicinal purposes in Xinjiang, China as early as 494 B.C.[4]

Hop (Humulus lupulus) is cultivated for its flowers which contain aromatic substances used in the production of beer. Its young shoots are used as vegetable. Different subspecies of hemp (Cannabis sativa) are cultivated for the production of fiber, as a source of cheap oil, for the nutritious seeds, or to produce recreational, sacramental, or medical cannabis.

Both hops and cannabis contain antimicrobial substances. This is why hops extract is used in natural deodorants.[5][not in citation given] Cannabinoids in cannabis are effective at killing MRSA, a drug-resistant bacteria.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Stevens, P.F. (2001 onwards), Angiosperm Phylogeny Website : Cannabaceae  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  2. ^ a b c Sytsma, Kenneth J.; Morawetz, Jeffery; Pires, J. Chris; Nepokroeff, Molly; Conti, Elena; Zjhra, Michelle; Hall, Jocelyn C. & Chase, Mark W. (2002), Urticalean rosids: circumscription, rosid ancestry, and phylogenetics based on rbcL, trnL-F, and ndhF sequences, American Journal of Botany 89 (9): 1531–1546, doi:10.3732/ajb.89.9.1531, PMID 21665755 
  3. ^ Stevens, P.F. (2001 onwards), Angiosperm Phylogeny Website : Cannabaceae Genera  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  4. ^ Jiang, Hong-En; Xiao Li, You-Xing Zhao, David K. Ferguson, Francis Hueber, Subir Bera, Yu-Fei Wang, Liang-Cheng Zhao, Chang-Jiang Liu, Cheng-Sin Li (December 2006). "A new insight into Cannabis sativa (Cannabaceae) utilization from 2500-year-old Yanghai Tombs, Xinjiang, China". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 108 (3): 414–422. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2006.05.034. Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  5. ^ "Hops [CO2] Extract". Toms of Maine. Retrieved 2009-06-06. 
  6. ^ Appendino, Giovanni; Simon Gibbons, Anna Giana, Alberto Pagani, Gianpaolo Grassi, Michael Stavri, Eileen Smith and M. Mukhlesur Rahman (6 August 2008). "Antibacterial cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: a structure−activity study" (PDF). Journal of Natural Products 71 (8): 1427–1430. doi:10.1021/np8002673. PMID 18681481. 

External links[edit]