Cannon Street station

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For other stations with the same name, see Cannon Street station (disambiguation).
Cannon Street National Rail London Underground
London Cannon Street
Cannon Street station new building.JPG
Main entrance
Cannon Street is located in Central London
Cannon Street
Cannon Street
Location of Cannon Street in Central London
Location Cannon Street
Local authority City of London
Grid reference TQ326808
Managed by Network Rail
Station code CST
DfT category A
Number of platforms 7
Accessible Yes
Fare zone 1
OSI Bank London Underground Docklands Light Railway, Mansion House London Underground [1]
National Rail annual entry and exit
2007–08 Increase 22.177 million[2]
2008–09 Decrease 21.646 million[2]
2009–10 Decrease 20.229 million[2]
2010–11 Increase 20.528 million[2]
2011–12 Decrease 20.223 million[2]
— interchange 0.440 million[2]
2012–13 Decrease 20.020 million[2]
— interchange Decrease 0.437 million[2]
Railway companies
Original company South Eastern Railway
Pre-grouping South Eastern and Chatham Railway
Post-grouping Southern Railway
Key dates
1 September 1866 Opened
5 June 1926 Closed
28 June 1926 Reopened
5 August 1974 Closed
9 September 1974 Reopened
Other information
Lists of stations
External links
Portal icon London Transport portal
Portal icon UK Railways portalCoordinates: 51°30′37″N 0°05′27″W / 51.5104°N 0.0907°W / 51.5104; -0.0907

Cannon Street,[3] also known as London Cannon Street,[4] is a central London railway terminus and connected London Underground station located on Cannon Street in the City of London. It was built on the site of the medieval Steelyard, the trading base in England of the Hanseatic League, and it opened in 1866.

It is situated within fare zone 1 and is one of 19 stations in the United Kingdom managed by Network Rail.[5] Mainline train services out of Cannon Street are operated by Southeastern, serving destinations in southeast London and Kent; the Underground station is on the Circle and District lines between Monument and Mansion House.

Location[edit]

Cannon Street is a terminal station approached across the River Thames by the Cannon Street Railway Bridge. Its approach by rail is by a triangular connection to both London Bridge and Charing Cross. There were originally eight platforms; a refurbishment in the late 1990s removed the original platform 1. It has entrances on Cannon Street itself and Dowgate Hill. It is also located near the London Stone (north from station), which was once used as the place from which all distances in Roman Britain were measured.[6]

History[edit]

Original structure[edit]

Front of original station building, c. 1910

Opened by the South Eastern Railway on 1 September 1866, the original station building was designed by Sir John Hawkshaw and J. W. Barry and was characterised by its two Wren-style towers, 23 ft (7.0 m) square and 135 ft (41 m) high, which faced on to the River Thames. The towers supported a 700 ft (210 m) long iron train shed crowned by a high single arch, almost semicircular, of glass and iron. To this was joined in 1867 an Italianate style hotel and forecourt designed by E. M. Barry which provided much of the station's passenger facilities as well as an impressive architectural frontispiece to the street. This arrangement was very similar to that put in place at Charing Cross. The station is carried on a brick viaduct over Upper Thames Street. Below this viaduct there are remains of a number of Roman buildings, which form a scheduled ancient monument. Barry's five-storey City Terminus Hotel underwent two changes of name: first to Cannon Street Hotel, and later, as an office block, to Southern House.

War years[edit]

Original station viewed from the railway bridge, c. 1910

From 5–28 June 1926 the Southern Railway carried out various works, including the rebuilding of the platforms, relaying of the tracks and installation of a new system of electrical signalling – the four-aspect colour light scheme. The station was also renovated and the glass roof cleaned. The number of platforms was reduced from nine to eight, with five set aside for the new electric trains. The signal box spanning the width of the railway bridge was removed.[7]

The station, which had been subject to structural neglect prior to the Second World War, suffered extensive bomb damage and was hit by several incendiary devices which damaged the roof. A high explosive also hit platform 8.[8] The original glass roof had been removed before the war in an attempt to save it; the factory in which the roof was stored was itself badly bombed, destroying the roof.

Redevelopment[edit]

The station's prime location coupled with the property boom of the 1950s and the need for British Rail to seek alternative revenue streams made war-damaged Cannon Street a prime target for property developers.

Various plans were mooted for the reconstruction of the station, from the installation of a new ticket hall and concourse under Southern House in 1955 as part of British Rail's Modernisation Plan, to the construction of a car park[9] and even a helipad.[10] In 1962 the British Transport Commission entered into an agreement with Town & Country Properties for the construction of a multi-storey office building above the station with 154,000 sq ft (14,300 m2) of floor space. The cost of the development was £2.35 million and it was scheduled for completion by June 1965.[11]

Poulson's office block in 2007 prior to redevelopment

In preparation for redevelopment the remains of the once magnificent train shed roof had been demolished in 1958, and Barry's hotel (which had been used as offices since 1931) soon followed in 1960.[12] The architect selected to design the new building was John Poulson who was good friends with Graham Tunbridge, a British Rail surveyor whom he had met during the war. Poulson took advantage of this friendship to win contracts for the redevelopment of various British Rail termini. He paid Tunbridge a weekly income of £25 and received in return building contracts, including the rebuilding of Waterloo and East Croydon stations. At his trial in 1974 he admitted that shortly before receiving the Cannon Street building contract, he had given Tunbridge a cheque for £200 and a suit worth £80.[13] Poulson was later found guilty of corruption charges and was given a seven-year concurrent sentence; Tunbridge received a 15-month suspended sentence and £4,000 fine for his role in the affair.[14]

All that now remains of the original station architecture are the twin 120 ft (37 m) red-brick towers at the country-end and parts of the low flanking walls.

Modern era[edit]

In 1974 the station closed for five weeks from 2 August-9 September to enable alterations to be made to the track and the approaches to London Bridge to be resignalled. Traffic was diverted to London Bridge, Charing Cross and Blackfriars.[15] On 4 March 1976 an IRA bomb of about 10 lb (4.5 kg) exploded on an empty commuter train leaving Cannon Street, injuring eight people on another train travelling alongside. Had the bomb exploded 13 minutes earlier it would have caused widespread carnage as the train had been carrying hundreds of commuters on a service from Sevenoaks.[16]

On 15 February 1984 it was reported in The Times that Cannon Street would close. At the time, the station had been closed for weekends and evenings, and the publication of British Rail's new timetable for 1984-1985 revealed that it would lose all its direct off-peak services to the south-east. Services from Sevenoaks, Orpington, Hayes, Dartford, Sidcup, Bexleyheath, Woolwich, Lewisham and Greenwich would instead terminate at London Bridge except during peak hours.[17] This was denied by British Rail which pointed out that it had invested £10 million in redecking the railway bridge, and that passengers travelling from the south-east during off-peak hours would most likely be visiting the West End and not the City.[18]

In 1986 the station's twin towers, which had been Grade II listed in 1972, were restored in a £242,000 project. The works revealed that the east tower still contained a large water tank which was used during the days of steam to replenish locomotives and to power the station hydraulic systems. The brickwork was repaired, cleaned and repointed, and the weathervanes gilded to complement the dome of nearby St Paul's Cathedral. This work was one of the Railway Heritage Trust's first projects and coincided with an exhibition held in the station in August of the same year to mark its 150th anniversary.[19]

The 1980s also saw another property boom and British Rail again began looking into further commercial uses of the Cannon Street landspace. The air rights over the platforms to the rear of Poulson's office were sold to Speyhawk which appointed Bovis Construction to build a free-standing structure comprising two office blocks on a 6,000 tonne steel deck constructed over the station's eight platforms and above Cannon Sports Centre, a sports club which opened beneath Cannon Street's arches in 1981. The works involved complex piling operations whereby 450 tripod piles were bored to depths of 30 metres below the station in order to support the steel deck.

The larger office block, the "Atrium building", provides 190,000 sq ft (18,000 m2) of office space on six floors and is linked to the smaller building, the "River building", via a glazed link raised through a central glazed atrium. The River building, which has two storeys, is built on the steel deck and contained within the two station flank walls, which were rebuilt, providing 95,000 sq ft (8,800 m2) of office space. This building would project slightly beyond the restored twin towers which form the riverside boundary to the development.[20] The Atrium building was later let to Liffe. The River building has a roof garden which was designed, constructed and still maintained by CC Cousins Ltd a facilities solutions provider based in Rochester, Kent. Covering about an acre, the project cost about £500,000 and was laid in order to comply with planning restrictions which required the building to be low and flat in order to maintain the sight lines from St Pauls to Tower Bridge.[21]

Planning permission was granted in March 2007 to replace the Poulson building, with a new air rights building designed by Foggo Associates.[22] Hines, the US developer, led a £360 million project involving the demolition of Poulson's office block, replacing it with a mixed-use development containing more than 400,000 sq ft (37,000 m2) of office space alongside 17,000 sq ft (1,600 m2) of station retail space. The redevelopment was part of a larger regeneration programme undertaken by Network Rail to modernise and "unlock the commercial potential" of the main London termini; both Euston and London Bridge were also redeveloped. Network Rail's director of commercial property said that the finished station would be "less congested and more accessible for passengers."[23] Cannon Street won the award for "Large Station of the Year" at the 2013 National Rail Awards.

Future[edit]

Due to the Thameslink Programme removing the Spa Road Junction that enables access to Charing Cross from stations on the Greenwich Line and additionally New Cross and St Johns, these services will need to run to Cannon Street at all times.

From January 2015, the station will open from 0500 to 0100 Monday to Saturday and will open all day on Sundays.[24]

National Rail[edit]

Cannon Street station viewed from London Bridge.

The station connects the south side of the City to south and south-east London via London Bridge station. Some services run directly into Cannon Street from Kent and East Sussex, but only during rush hours. Occasionally during the weekends when track maintenance is in progress, the station serves as an intermediate station between London Bridge and Charing Cross. Either trains reverse at the station or rail passengers change trains here. The station is closed on Sundays, except when engineering works close Charing Cross station and services are diverted to Cannon Street instead.

The typical off-peak service from the station is:

London Underground[edit]

Cannon Street London Underground
Cannon Street tube stn entrance 2012.JPG
Entrance from Dowgate Hill
Location Cannon Street
Local authority City of London
Managed by London Underground
Number of platforms 2
Accessible Yes (Westbound only)[25]
Fare zone 1
London Underground annual entry and exit
2010 Increase 3.950 million[26]
2011 Increase 4.05 million[26]
2012 Increase 4.09 million[26]
2013 Increase 4.64 million[26]
Key dates
1884 Opened (MICCR)
1949 Started (Circle line)
Other information
Lists of stations
Portal icon London Transport portal

The London Underground station is a sub-surface station, situated immediately below the mainline station. It is served by the District and Circle lines. Entrances are located on Cannon Street, Dowgate Hill, and on the mainline concourse upstairs at the National Rail station, providing an interconnection for commuters. A station here was part of the unrealised phase two expansion of the Fleet line.

The Underground station is open Mondays to Saturdays only as it is used primarily by commuters who work in the financial services industries of the City. Alternatively, passengers can walk to Mansion House, the next stop along from Cannon Street, or to Bank for the Northern, Central or Waterloo & City lines, and the Docklands Light Railway.

History[edit]

By 1876, the Metropolitan Railway (MR) and District Railway (DR) had constructed the majority of the Inner Circle (now the Circle line), reaching Aldgate and Mansion House respectively. The companies were in dispute over the completion of the route as the DR was struggling financially and the MR was concerned that completion would affect its revenues through increased competition from the DR in the City area. City financiers keen to see the line completed, established the Metropolitan Inner Circle Completion Railway in 1874 to link Mansion House to Aldgate. Forced into action, the MR bought-out the company and it and the DR began construction of the final section of the Inner Circle in 1879.

On 6 October 1884, the final section of the Inner Circle was opened along with Cannon Street station. Initially the station was served by trains from both companies as part of circular Inner Circle service but various operational patterns have been used during the station's life. The Inner Circle service achieved a separate identity as the Circle line in 1949 although its trains were still provided by the District or Metropolitan lines.

The station was reconstructed at the same time as the main line station above.

Accidents and incidents[edit]

  • On 26 December 1867, seven passengers and three train crew members were injured when, "during a very thick fog", a train arriving at Cannon Street from Greenwich collided with another from Waterloo due to a signaller's error.[27]
  • On 27 June 1914, one person was killed and 20 were injured in a collision and subsequent derailment at Cannon Street. A train departing for Hastings was struck side-long by a train arriving from Plumstead and, although the collision occurred at low speed, part of the Plumstead service was derailed and one of its carriages overturned. The driver of the Plumstead service was blamed for a failure to observe, and a misreading of, signals which took his train into the path of the Hastings-bound service. An investigation found the man who died was likely leaning out of the window at the moment his carriage overturned, and he may have avoided serious injury had he been seated.[28]
  • On 16 July 1919, 75 people were injured or left shaken when a train arriving from Dartford hit the buffers at the end of Cannon Street's platform seven. Twelve of the injured required hospital treatment. A Board of Trade report into the incident blamed "an error of judgment" on the driver's part while he was braking on his approach to the platform end.[29]
  • On 11 May 1941, the station was bombed in a Luftwaffe air raid. At least one locomotive was severely damaged.[30]
  • On 20 March 1951, a diesel electric multiple unit and an electric multiple unit were in a side-long collision when the latter misread signals.[31]
  • On 20 March 1961, a side-long collision and partial derailment resulted in injury to 12 people aboard an arriving service whose driver inadvertently passed a red signal and ran into an empty train as it left Cannon Street.[32]
  • On 8 January 1991, two people were killed and hundreds were injured when an electric multiple unit failed to stop on a dead-end platform and collided with the buffers.

Connections[edit]

London Buses routes 15; 17; 344; 521 and heritage route 15H and night routes N15 and N47 serve the station.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Out of Station Interchanges" (Microsoft Excel). Transport for London. May 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-10-20. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "Station usage estimates". Rail statistics. Office of Rail Regulation.  Please note: Some methodology may vary year on year.
  3. ^ "Stations Run by Network Rail". Network Rail. Retrieved 2009-08-23. 
  4. ^ "Station facilities for London Cannon Street". National Rail Enquiries. Retrieved 29 May 2013. 
  5. ^ "Commercial information". Our Stations. London: Network Rail. April 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2014. 
  6. ^ http://www.walklondon.com/london-attractions/london-stone.htm
  7. ^ "Cannon Street Station Reopened". The Times. 29 June 1926. 
  8. ^ "London Termini Bomb Damage". The Times. 19 November 1943. 
  9. ^ "Rebuilding of Cannon Street Station". The Times. 17 November 1955. 
  10. ^ "First Choice for Helicopter Site". The Times. 3 March 1962. 
  11. ^ "Big New Buildings Over Two London Termini". The Times. 22 March 1962. 
  12. ^ Weinreb, Ben (1983). The London Encyclopaedia. London: Papermac. p. 112. ISBN 0-333-30024-6. 
  13. ^ "John Poulson tells of gifts to rail man". The Times. 15 January 1974. 
  14. ^ "Seven-year concurrent sentence on Mr Poulson". The Times (London). 16 March 1974. [dead link]
  15. ^ "Cannon Street station closing for five weeks". The Times. 29 July 1974. 
  16. ^ "Thirteen minutes saved hundreds on the 7.49 from Sevenoaks". The Times. 5 March 1976. 
  17. ^ "Cannon Street rail station 'close to closure'". The Times. 15 February 1984. 
  18. ^ "Letters to the Editor, David Kirby". The Times. 22 February 1984. 
  19. ^ "Restoration at Cannon Street". The Times. 2 December 1985. 
  20. ^ "Construction Contracts: Building Over Busy Station". Financial Times. 6 March 1989. 
  21. ^ "City garden feels the frost". The Times. 27 November 1991. 
  22. ^ Architects Journal, 21 March 2007
  23. ^ "Cannon Street to lead revamp of stations". The Times. 6 April 2007. 
  24. ^ http://www.southeasternrailway.co.uk/your-journey/timetables/januarytimetable/
  25. ^ "Step free Tube Guide" (PDF). Transport for London. Archived from the original on 26 January 2014. 
  26. ^ a b c d "Multi-year station entry-and-exit figures" (XLS). London Underground station passenger usage data. Transport for London. 2014. Retrieved 27 July 2014. 
  27. ^ http://www.railwaysarchive.co.uk/eventsummary.php?eventID=2888
  28. ^ http://www.railwaysarchive.co.uk/eventsummary.php?eventID=407
  29. ^ http://www.railwaysarchive.co.uk/docsummary.php?docID=2278
  30. ^ Earnshaw, Alan (1993). Trains in Trouble: Vol. 8. Penryn: Atlantic Books. p. 20. ISBN 0-906899-52-4. 
  31. ^ Earnshaw, Alan (1989). Trains in Trouble: Vol. 5. Penryn: Atlantic Books. pp. 40–41. ISBN 0-906899-35-4. 
  32. ^ http://www.railwaysarchive.co.uk/eventsummary.php?eventID=410

External links[edit]

Preceding station National Rail National Rail Following station
London Bridge   Southeastern
South Eastern Main Line
  Terminus
Waterloo East
Limited Service
Preceding station   Underground no-text.svg London Underground   Following station
towards Edgware Road (via Victoria)
Circle line
towards Hammersmith (via Tower Hill)
District line
towards Upminster
  Abandoned plans  
Preceding station   Underground no-text.svg London Underground   Following station
Ludgate Circus
towards Stanmore
  Jubilee line
Phase 2
(Never completed)
  Fenchurch Street
Terminus