- Not to be confused with Canosa in southern Italy.
|Comune di Canossa|
View of the Rock of Canossa with the ruins of the castle visible at the top
|Province||Reggio Emilia (RE)|
|Frazioni||Albareto, Borzano Chiesa, Borzano di Sopra, Borzano di Sotto, Braglie, Casalino, Cavandola, Ceredolo de' Coppi, Ceredolo dei Coppi Nuovo, Cerezzola, Ciano d'Enza, Compiano, Crognolo, Currada, Dirotte, Fornace, Gazzolo, Iagarone, Massalica, Monchio delle Olle, Pietranera, Roncaglio, Roncovetro, Rossena, Selva, Selvapiana, Solara, Trinità, Vedriano, Verlano, Votigno|
|• Mayor||Enzo Musi|
|• Total||53 km2 (20 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||689 m (2,260 ft)|
|Lowest elevation||112 m (367 ft)|
|Population (31 May 2007)|
|• Density||68/km2 (180/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
Canossa (Province of Reggio Emilia) is a comune and castle town in Emilia-Romagna, famous as the site where Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV did penance in 1077, standing three days bare-headed in the snow, in order to reverse his excommunication by Pope Gregory VII. The Walk to Canossa is sometimes used as a symbol of the changing relationship between the medieval Church and State.
When Adelaide of Italy, the respective daughter, daughter-in-law, and widow of the last three kings of Italy, was hard pressed by a local noble – Berengar of Ivrea, who declared himself king of Italy, abducted Adelaide, and tried to legitimize his reign by forcing Adelaide to marry his son Adalbert – it was to Canossa that she escaped. From the rocca of Canossa she issued a call for German intervention. Canossa was inherited by Matilda of Tuscany, the principal Italian supporter of Pope Gregory VII, in 1052. Matilda died in 1115 in Mantuan territory.
Matilda invited the Pope Gregory VII to take refuge in Canossa castle in 1076/77 during the dispute with Henry IV, the Holy Roman Emperor. In the end their joint fears proved groundless when Henry appeared in the guise of a penitent and begged for "forgiveness" and reinstatement in the church. After three days of waiting at the castle gates, Henry was admitted and forgiven.
The fortress was destroyed by invaders from Reggio in 1256. The church of San Apollonio, within the walls and contemporary with the castle, was also destroyed. Only the christening font remains, preserved in the national museum "Naborre Campanini" next to the remains of the wall.
Perched spectacularly on top of the white cliffs of the Apennines, the castle is an abandoned ruin today. Because of its historical importance each year more than 30,000 tourists come here, especially from Germany.
- This event is described in greater detail in the article Walk to Canossa.